ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 3-13
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Vulnerability of Coastal Resorts to Crises: Probable Scenarios and Recovery Strategies

Ebru A. Gunlu and Gurhan Aktas

TC Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Business, Department of Tourism Management, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca/Izmir, Turkey

This article investigates the importance of crisis management for coastal resorts. Holiday resorts involved in international tourism may be adversely affected by various crises caused by internal or external environmental factors. Despite all the efforts by a resort to control such crisis-causing factors, its growth may be impacted by negative events and their damaging affects on the tourism industry. This is why crisis management has increasingly become crucial for the planning and management of tourist destinations. The theoretical framework of this article includes the consequences of a crisis in coastal resorts, its impacts on their economy, and crisis-response strategies for decision makers. In addition, the article will comment on how problems can arise due to ad hoc solutions and how contingency plans and consistent training schemes can help destinations during difficult times. Finally, the article will emphasize the need for cooperative action during crises and also for aftermath recovery.

Key words: Contingency plans; Coastal resorts; Crisis; Crisis management

Address correspondence to Ebru A. Gunlu, TC Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Business, Department of Tourism Management, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca/Izmir, Turkey. Tel: + 90 232 412 82 39; Fax: +90 232 453 50 62; E-mail: ebru.gunlu@deu.edu.tr




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 15-23
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Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sharks, Wildlife Tourism, and State Regulation

John Dobson

University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Colchester Avenue, Cardiff, UK, CF64 2WG

Research on the development of marine wildlife tourism has tended to focus on the growth and economic importance of the whale-watching industry and its management via self-regulation. However, a number of other species are also utilized as attractions by the marine wildlife tourism industry. There has been increased targeting of a range of, potentially aggressive, shark species as attractions. Areas, such as South Africa [the Great White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias)], Florida and the Caribbean [Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier), Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas), and Caribbean reef sharks (Carcharhinus perezi)] have developed shark-based tourism. This has raised numerous ethical objections, both anthropocentric and biocentric in nature, leading to the intervention by the state in the form of various regulatory frameworks. This article utilizes a case study approach to assess the issues that surround the introduction of state regulation in South Africa and Florida in order to manage the shark-based tourism located there. The article highlights the complex issues facing those tasked with implementing state regulatory frameworks. It concludes that the difficult task of attempting to integrate issues of stakeholder involvement, enforcement, and the balancing of anthropocentric and biocentric concerns results in any framework only being able to be seen as a "best fit" solution for managing shark-based tourism.

Key words: Sharks; Marine wildlife tourism; State regulation

Address correspondence to Mr. John Dobson, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, Colchester Avenue, Cardiff, UK, CF64 2WG. Tel: 00 44 2920 416 317; Fax: 00 44 2920 416 930; E-mail: jdobson@uwic.ac.uk




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 25-34
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Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Advantages, Opportunities, and Policy Guidelines Concerning the Development of Timeshare Combined With Cruises in Greece and Turkey

Theodoros A. Stavrinoudis

University of the Aegean, Department of Business Administration, 8 Michalon str., 821 00, Chios, Greece

The constant differentiation of the tourist demand taking place over the last few years has led tourism supply to a no less constant effort to enhance the product offered. The latter is often expressed through a combined development of individual tourism products. In this context, the collaboration between neighboring tourism destination countries, which aims to offer two or more alternative forms of tourism combined, is considered a noteworthy strategic choice. This article presents the advantages and opportunities offered by such a choice and suggests appropriate policy measures in order to achieve a combined development of timeshare with regards to the cruise industry in Greece and Turkey. It also demonstrates how the two alternative forms of tourism in question induce and stimulate mutual demand and generate benefits through the development of timeshare selling and exchanging programs in cruise ships in both countries. Our study focuses on policy guidelines, because they are necessary for the integrated development of timeshare in cruise ships in Greece and Turkey.

Key words: Tourism; Timeshare; Cruises; Greece; Turkey

Address correspondence to Dr. Theodoros A. Stavrinoudis, Adjunct Lecturer, University of the Aegean, Department of Business Administration, 8 Michalon str., 821 00, Chios, Greece. Tel: +3022710 35013; Fax: +3022710 35099; E-mail: tsta@aegean.gr




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 35-41
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Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Maritime Leisure Degree Development in the Northwest of England

S. Tephen Bonsall

Maritime Programme Coordinator, School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK

The northwest region of England (UK) is home to 6.7 million people, 4 million of whom are found in the Liverpool/Manchester corridor. The area has one of the highest levels of disposable income in the UK but only employs 3% of the 28,000 UK maritime leisure staff. A long coastline and much maritime history indicate that maritime leisure and tourism is ripe for development in the area. Higher education teaching of maritime, leisure, and tourism programs is available; however, there is not a specific Maritime Leisure degree. This article traces the development of such a degree program considering the many issues involved.

Key words: Maritime leisure; Northwest UK; Degree program; Skills; Marina; Cruising

Address correspondence to Dr. S. Tephen Bonsall, Maritime Programme Coordinator, School of Engineering, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. Tel: 0044 151 231 2235; Fax; 0044 151 231 2453; E-mail: s.bonsall@livjm.ac.uk




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 43-47
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Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Kayiks of Izmir: An Extinct Design is Reborn

K. Emrah Erginer,1 Serim Paker,2 and Osman Erkurt3

School of Maritime Business and Management, 1Marine Engineering Department and 2Deck Department, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey
3360° Tarih Arastirmalari Dernegi, Izmir, Turkey

Until the 1940s there were a lot of kayiks at the Izmir bay that were traditionally made in Izmir and used by most of the citizens of Izmir. As years passed, the kayiks of Izmir started to disappear slowly from the silhouette of Izmir. During the 1990s not even one specimen of the kayiks of Izmir was to be found. Many cities around the world have buildings, houses, gardens, castles, towers, or other objects that are part of their cultural identities, which helps foreigners/tourists remember that city. The kayik of Izmir was, and will be again, a cultural identity that will help people around the world remember the city of Izmir. Kayiks of Izmir were used for both cargo and passenger transportation for many decades. They moved by sail power or by row power. After the invention of combustion engines and diesel engines kayiks became a less used sea transport vehicle in Izmir. In 2004, the idea of rebuilding these beautiful kayiks emerged and "360 Degrees Research Group" conducted a project. The Municipality of Izmir, Dokuz Eylül University, and the Chamber of Turkish Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Izmir Branch, supported the project and the kayiks are now back at their home in Izmir Bay, again sailing freely at Izmir bay with the help of Izmir citizens.

Key words: Marine tourism; Maritime culture; Experimental archeology; Sail training; Maritime education and training

Address correspondence to K. Emrah Erginer, Research Assistant, Dokuz Eylül University, School of Maritime Business and Management, Marine Engineering Department, Izmir, Turkey. E-mail: emraherginer@yahoo.com




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 49-57
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Could Yacht Tourism Be an Alternative Tourism Potential in North Cyprus?

H. A. Biçak,1 M. Altinay,2 E. Aksugür,3 A. Günyakti,4 and S. Katircioglu5

1Faculty of Business and Economics, 2School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, 3Faculty of Architecture, 4Department of Civil Engineering, and 5Department of Banking and Finance, Eastern Mediterranean University, North Cyprus

Tourism is expanding all over the world despite the disputes and conflicts in a number of regions. In this growth, yacht tourism has a distinct contribution. The recent Master Plan of National Harbours and Shores prepared for North Cyprus emphasizes the potential contribution of yacht tourism to the economic development of North Cyprus. In this respect, besides suggesting areas for building marinas, the plan examines the small fishing ports and makes suggestions in improving their infrastructures. North Cyprus, with its favorable climate, beautiful natural settings and historical places, appears to be an ideal place for yacht tourism. Furthermore, the prospects of a solution for the island after the last year's initiatives of the UN directed attention towards the tourism sector for improving the economic development of North Cyprus. In this study, prospects of yacht tourism, existing marinas, and potential coasts for building marinas and mooring spots in North Cyprus will be analyzed and suggestions will be made so as to not repeat the undesired experiences of other countries while benefiting from good examples.

Key words: Yacht tourism; Marinas; Fishing ports; Sustainable tourism; North Cyprus

Address correspondence to Prof. Hasan Ali Biçak, Dean, Faculty of Business and Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University, Mersin-10, Turkey. Tel: +90 (392) 630 12 81 Fax: +90 (392) 365 10 17; E-mail: hasan.bicak@emu.edu.tr




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 59-66
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Hybrid Model For Small Cruise Ships' Safety Risk Management

Nikitas Nikitakos, Evangellos Mennis, and Agapios Platis

Department of Shipping Trade and Transport, University of the Aegean, Korai 2a, Chios 82100, Greece

Maritime tourism has seriously suffered from various accidents caused by different contributing factors. The consequences of these accidents were either large environmental degradations or human casualties. For this purpose, a specific process known as Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) has been developed and applied to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) rule-making process, in order to help the evaluation of new regulations or to compare proposed changes with existing standards. The application of the FSA facilitates a transparent decision-making process and provides a proactive mean enabling the avoidance of serious accidents by highlighting potential hazards. In this article, we propose to study and improve the FSA process by taking into account these new parameters. This can be performed by reviewing existing modeling methods and/or applying more elaborated models. Master Logic Diagrams are currently used by NASA for the probabilistic risk assessment of the shuttle and Markov models are used for the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants. We intend to discuss and study the applicability of these methods with danger parameters and to produce a new hybrid model.

Key words: Safety; Markov models; Reliability; Maritime tourism

Address correspondence to Nikitas Nikitakos, Ph.D., Department of Shipping Trade and Transport, University of the Aegean, Korai 2a, Chios 82100, Greece. E-mail: nnik@aegean.gr




Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 3, pp. 67-73
1544-273X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Alternative Propulsion Systems For Environment Friendly Daily Excursion Type Leisure Boats

Yalçin Ünsan and Metin Taylan

Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey

Alternative energy systems are spreading rapidly around the world and are the hot topic for R&D studies in developed countries. This study aims at the adaptation of such "solar powered systems," which are economic and the most widespread among the alternative energy systems to leisure boats used in Köycegiz Lake. It further aims at offering an alternative to the conventional systems that cause environmental pollution and establishing the use of such systems in marine transportation. There are about 2,000 boats running daily excursion tours along coastal waters of Turkey. More than half of them operate in the Aegean Sea region. The number of boats in Köycegiz Dalyan itself is reaching to 350. Diesel engines on the boats operating in the region create a great deal of noise, air, and water pollution. In this work, relevant parameters of propulsion systems powered by alternative and direct current and cost analysis have been investigated. Furthermore, alternative propulsion and powering systems were considered for the existing boats. Based on the results of this study, boat types, which may be used in other regions, having different hull forms and solar powered propulsion systems, were also suggested.

Key words: Solar cells; Wind energy; Excursion boats; Alternative energy

Address correspondence to Yalçin Ünsan, Assistant Professor, Dr., Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, 34469 Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: 212 285 6409; Fax: 212 285 6508; E-mail:unsany@itu.edu.tr