|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 4, pp. 1-14
1544-273X/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Effect of Spinner Dolphin Presence on Level of Swimmer and Vessel Activity in Hawai`Ian Bays
Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207, USA
Questions have been raised about the effects human activity in Hawai`ian bays has on dolphins. Concerns about the effects of this activity have led the National Marine Fisheries Service to begin the process of enacting regulations to reduce the impacts of swimmers and vessels on Hawai`ian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris). One step in evaluating potential effects is to determine if dolphin presence attracts swimmers and vessels into bays. In this study, numbers of vessels and swimmers in Kealake`akua, Honaunau, and Kauhako Bays were measured and related to spinner dolphin presence. In Kauhako Bay, mean number of swimmers per scan sample was significantly higher when dolphins were present, and in Honaunau Bay, mean number of kayaks per scan sample was significantly higher when dolphins were present. In addition to measuring the relationship between dolphin presence and vessel and swimmer presence, it is important to track vessel and swimmer numbers over time and to determine patterns of use in individual bays. This establishes trends in human use of bays and allows management on a more individual bay basis. During this study, Kealake`akua Bay experienced significantly more vessel and swimmer activity than Kauhako Bay. Numbers of one- to three-person kayaks, motorboats <6 m, and zodiacs were highest in Kealake`akua Bay. Numbers of swimmers from shore were higher in Honaunau Bay than in Kauhako Bay. Overall, numbers of vessels and swimmers in the bays were higher than in previous decades, and swimmers comprised the majority human activity in the bays.
Key words: Hawai`i; Vessel; Swimmer; Stenella longirostris; Spinner dolphin
Address correspondence to Sarah Courbis, Portland State University, 2026 SE 54th Ave., Portland, OR 97207, USA. Tel: 503-975-7010; Fax: 503-241-3780; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Characteristics of Recreational Anglers in the Blackwood Estuary, a Popular Tourist Destination in Southwestern Australia
S. P. Prior and L. E. Beckley
School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia
Recreational anglers were interviewed in the Blackwood Estuary, Western Australia, to ascertain demographics, spatial and temporal patterns of use, expenditures, and attitudes to conservation and fisheries management. Although almost half of the angling groups encountered were tourist families staying in caravan parks, most anglers were male, 31-45 years old, with relaxation as the primary motive for fishing. On average, boat-based anglers fished more frequently than shore-based anglers and locals fished more frequently in the Blackwood Estuary than tourists. Expenditures by anglers on bait, tackle, and capital equipment were considerable. Although support for biodiversity conservation measures and fisheries management regulations was high, noncompliance with minimum size limits was common and further education of anglers appears to be necessary. The study has shown that for fisheries management purposes, any creel survey of the Blackwood Estuary should ensure that local anglers and boat-based anglers are adequately surveyed.
Key words: Fishing; Expenditure; Catches; Attitudes; Compliance
Address correspondence to Lynnath Beckley, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, South Street, Murdoch, Western Australia, 6150, Australia. Tel: 8-9360-6392; Fax: 8-9239-8899; E-mail: L.Beckley@murdoch.edu.au
Oceans and Coastal Tourism: Integrating Tourism into Bioeconomic Models
Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK
Models of resource sustainability and exploitation have developed as an important management tool for both scientific debate and policy development. Most models are developed to reflect a single resource such as oil, or a single environment such as a river. Bioeconomic modeling of ocean environments has become a major tool for the evaluation and management of fish stocks and fisheries, but rarely incorporates an interrelationship with other economic activities. This article extends a bioeconomic fisheries model by incorporating the economic and physical interrelationships with coastal and marine tourism. Tourists are classified into three basic types (general, water sports, and recreational fishing) representing different interactions with the marine environment, fishing, and coastal communities; the outcome is an assessment of the impact and economic value of tourism within these communities where there is, or has been, some dependence on fishing for their livelihood. A mixture of ECOSIM and STELLA modeling is used to show that certain types of tourism interact most positively with smaller scale fisheries in such a way as to compensate, at a community level, for their inherently "lower efficiency" and higher cost basis than large-scale fishing. It is also demonstrated that it is possible to incorporate an analysis of common pool resource competition between user groups within this model (tourists' and fisheries' use of marine resources) in such a way as to establish a viable numéraire for a tourism user-pays policy. The research is of particular interest in communities or regions where the decline of fish stocks or other problems with fisheries have resulted in regeneration policies (such as PESCA in the EU) where tourism may be viewed as an alternative or complementary economic activity. The concepts of the model can apply equally to, for example, rural tourism in a land-based bioeconomy.
Key words: Tourism; Fisheries; Coastal management; Bioeconomic models; Sustainability
Address correspondence to Adrian Bull, Department of Tourism and Recreation, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK LN6 7TS. Tel: +44 1522 882000; E-mail: email@example.com
Educational and Conservation Value of Whale Watching
Kasey A. Stamation,1 David B. Croft,1 Peter D. Shaughnessy,2 Kelly A. Waples,3 And Sue V. Briggs4
1School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences,
Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia
2South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia, 5000, Australia
3National Parks and Wildlife Service, NSW Department of Environment and Conservation, Australia
4NSW Department of Conservation and Environment, c/o CSIRO, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, 2601, Australia
Many people support whale watching on the basis that it enhances people's appreciation and awareness of the whales they are viewing and can lead to the protection of the species and of the environment generally. Because whale watching can directly impact on whales' behavior it is important that whale watching is beneficial for people's understanding of whales and for the conservation of whales. This article examines the educational and conservation value of the whale-watching experiences currently offered in New South Wales, Australia. The current education provided lacks structure, there are no clear conservation objectives, and there is limited addition to knowledge and conservation behaviors of whale watchers in the long term. Through improvement of the education provided during whale-watching experiences, it is argued that the whale-watching industry can become a more sustainable form of wildlife tourism and provide conservation benefits for whales and other forms of biodiversity.
Key words: Whale watching; Interpretation; Ecotourism
Address correspondence to Kasey A. Stamation, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Close is Not Close Enough: Drowning and Rescues Outside Flagged Beach Patrol Areas in Australia
Jeff Wilks,1,2 Monica De Nardi,1 and Robert Wodarski3
1Strategic Development Unit, Surf Life Saving Australia
2JTA Tourism, Australia
3Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824-5195, USA
The international lifesaving practice of placing flags on patrolled beaches to mark the safest place to swim under direct supervision is well established. This article confirms the fact that swimmers staying between the patrol flags who find themselves in need of assistance are most likely to be successfully rescued. However, the common belief that swimming in some close proximity to the flags will provide the same benefits if assistance is required is shown by Australian rescue and drowning data to be erroneous. Recognizing that a large proportion of beach users will disregard safety information about swimming between the flags, this article also reports on Surf Life Saving Australia initiatives to provide broad patrol coverage beyond the flags. Tourists are identified as a key ``at risk'' group for water safety information and for practical assistance on the beach.
Key words: Surf lifesaving; Tourism; Beach safety; Australia
Address correspondence to Dr Jeff Wilks, Surf Life Saving Australia, PO Box 3747, South Brisbane, Queensland, 4101, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com