|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 4, NUMBERS 2-3
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 4, pp. 69-83
1544-273X/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Climate Change, Marine Tourism, and Sustainability in the Canadian Arctic: Contributions From Systems and Complexity Approaches
Jackie Dawson,1 Patrick T. Maher,2 and D. Scott Slocombe3
1Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Studies,
University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
2Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, Canada
3Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Canada
The climate-sensitive tourism industry, including Arctic marine tourism, is expected to be significantly impacted by climate change. The multifaceted impacts of climate change at multiple scales warrant a theoretical framework that is able to effectively examine complex and integrated relationships. The complex ties between culture, economy, and environment in the Arctic also mean a systems perspective on tourism-related change and sustainability seems highly appropriate. This article outlines some systems approaches to Arctic marine tourism. Key contributions of a systems framework include reconceptualizing Butler's Tourism Area Life Cycle, providing a framework for describing and understanding the tourism-climate change system, including identifying change influences and dynamics at varied spatial and temporal scales, and informing sustainability planning and assessment.
Key words: Systems; Complexity; Climate change; Arctic tourism
Address correspondence to Jackie Dawson, Department of Geography, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1. Tel: 519-888-4567, ext. 36342; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Working Towards Policy Creation for Cruise Ship Tourism in Parks and Protected Areas of Nunavut
Janet R. Marquez and Paul F. J. Eagles
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
This article provides an understanding of the goals and operational procedures of current cruise ship operators in Nunavut and gives insight into the policies necessary to effectively manage cruise ship tourism in Nunavut. The exploratory research found that cruise tourism in Nunavut is perceived as a safe and economically viable industry. However, a number of important issues emerged: 1) the need for policies and guidelines to aid in the management of parks and protected areas in Nunavut; 2) the desire for unity across the Arctic cruise ship tourism industry; 3) the requirement for greater government awareness and assistance; and 4) the need for more research, particularly from local perspectives.
Key words: Cruise ship tourism; Nunavut; Polar region; Cruise ships; Parks; Protected areas
Address correspondence to Paul F. J. Eagles, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1. E-mail: email@example.com
Wildlife Tourist Archetypes: Are All Polar Bear Viewers in Churchill, Manitoba Ecotourists?
Raynald Harvey Lemelin1 and Bryan Smale2
1School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead
University, Thunder Bay, Canada
2Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
Ecotourists have largely been defined in the literature a priori based on their geographic location (e.g., visitors to designated natural areas) and/or exhibited behaviors (e.g., engagement in nature viewing such as bird watching or camping). However, such definitions fail to consider whether these individuals do indeed embrace the psychological makeup that would qualify them as "real" ecotourists based on ecotourist ideal types. This study derives a profile of wildlife tourists based on their psychographic characteristics as suggested by conceptual definitions of ecotourists and wildlife tourism in particular. Essentially, the question underlying the study was to determine if all wildlife tourists do, in fact, share those characteristics typically assumed in the literature to be inherent to ecotourism.
Key words: Wildlife tourism; Archetypes; Ecotourism; Polar bears; Viewer experience
Address correspondence to Raynald Harvey Lemelin, Ph.D., School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1. Tel: 807 343-8745; Fax: 807-346-7836; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Commencement of Regular Arctic Cruise Ship Tourism: Wilhelm Bade and the "Nordische Hochseefischerei Gesellschaft" of 1892/1893
Whaling Research Project, Cologne, Germany
The opening of tourism in northern Norway in the 1870s coincided with the emergence of Tromsø as a port for Arctic research expeditions, as well as with the founding of modern whaling stations along the North Norwegian coast, tourist attractions themselves. One of the first entrepreneurs of tourism to northern Norway was a German by the name of Captain Wilhelm Bade. He was the first to regularly accompany cruise tourists to the Arctic Svalbard archipelago (Spitzbergen). Bade was a survivor of an 8-month drift on an ice floe after the wreck of a German polar expedition ship in 1869/1870. As a result of this experience he propagated an image of a friendly Arctic yielding sustenance to its human inhabitants as well as profit to nonnative entrepreneurs. In 1892, Bade cofounded the "Nordische Hochseefischerei Gesellschaft" (Nordic Sea Fisheries Company) in Mülheim an der Ruhr, a center of the German industrial mining area. Arctic coal mining was one of the business purposes of the company, which had leading German industrialists on board. The other purposes were whaling and Arctic tourism. A tourist steamer went to Spitzbergen in company of a whale catcher. Passengers could board the whaler to witness a whale hunt. Mining efforts by the company failed, as did fishing attempts and whaling. The company went into liquidation after its first season, but Spitzbergen tourism had proved its economic potential, attracting immediate competition, while Bade and Sons continued chartering cruise ships to Spitzbergen until 1908.
Key words: Arctic tourism; Whaling; Mining
Address correspondence to Klaus Barthelmess, Whaling Research Project, Postfach 62 02 55, 50695 Cologne, Germany. E-mail: email@example.com
Estimating the Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Antarctic Tourism
Bas Amelung and Machiel Lamers
International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Tourism in Antarctica is rapidly growing and diversifying, which raises concerns about its effects on the environment. Research and policy-making efforts have so far focused on the impacts on Antarctica's own ecosystems, whereas global impacts have all but been ignored. This article presents an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions produced by Antarctic tourism. Emissions are shown to be considerable, with aviation and cruises being the main sources. Tourism to the Antarctic ranks among the most energy-intensive segments in the tourism market. It is argued that greenhouse gas emissions should be included in environmental impact assessments. Improving the global environmental performance of Antarctic tourism is difficult, because of its exclusive dependency on long-haul trips.
Key words: Antarctica; Tourism; Environmental impact assessment; Greenhouse gas emissions; Climate change
Address correspondence to Bas Amelung, ICIS, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Tel: 0031 43 3882659; Fax: 0031 43 3884916; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Antarctic Gateway Ports: Opening Tourism to Macquarie Island and the East Antarctic From Hobart
Shona Muir,1 Julia Jabour,1 and Jack Carlsen2
1Institute of Antarctic & Southern Ocean Studies, University
of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
2Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
This article discusses the significance of Antarctic gateway ports, and identifies the key issues and challenges in developing East Antarctic tourism, especially through the port of Hobart. Recent opportunities have emerged through increased ship-borne and pending air-borne capacity from Hobart, and a network of government and private agencies have made Hobart the locus of these services. This presents an opportunity to investigate the needs and expectations of tourists through the gateways with a view to developing products and services to meet those needs and expectations. Findings from a preliminary survey of East Antarctic tourists in the 2005-2006 season are presented and a model for developing tourism to the East Antarctic from Hobart is proposed.
Key words: East Antarctic tourism; Gateway ports; Hobart
Address correspondence to Dr. Julia Jabour, Institute of Antarctic & Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 77, Hobart 7001, Tasmania, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism Growth and Proposed Management Solutions in the Fildes Peninsula Region (King George Island, Antarctica)
Simone Pfeiffer, Christina Buesser, Osama Mustafa, and Hans-Ulrich Peter
Polar & Bird Ecology Group, Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, D-07743 Jena, Germany
Tourism is a rapidly growing industry in the Antarctic, particularly on King George Island where wildlife areas, research stations, or their vicinity are frequently visited. A comprehensive assessment of the environment and human activities in the Fildes Peninsula region was conducted, and spatiotemporal patterns were analyzed. Additionally, opinions on tourism of station members were surveyed. Visitor activity is increasing and diversifying. There is thus some conflict with conservation, research, and logistics, although it is currently local and temporary. Increasing human activity and its possible cumulative effects should be monitored and appropriately managed. On the basis of our findings, sites-specific guidelines and visitor zones (e.g., within an "Antarctic Specially Managed Area") are recommended.
Key words: Visitor; Disturbance; Tourist management; Spatial analysis
Address correspondence to Simone Pfeiffer, Polar & Bird Ecology Group, Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Str. 159, D-07743 Jena, Germany. E-mail: Simone.Pfeiffer@uni-potsdam.de
Stakeholder Perspectives on Regulatory Aspects ff Antarctic Tourism
Daniela Haase,1 Bryan Storey,1 Alison Mcintosh,2 Anna Carr,3 and Neil Gilbert4
1Gateway Antarctica, University of Canterbury, Christchurch,
2Department of Tourism Management, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
3Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
4Antarctica New Zealand
Over the last decade, Antarctic tourism has experienced an exponential growth in tourist numbers and a diversification of tourist activities resulting in questions that challenge the effectiveness and adequacy of the current regulatory regime. Three categories of key Antarctic tourism stakeholders-regulators, organizers, and monitors-were interviewed and provided their perspective on some of the main aspects of Antarctic tourism regulation. The current and anticipated future state of Antarctic tourism, tourism practice and ethos, the success of regulatory mechanisms through the Antarctic Treaty System and International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO), and the cooperation between the stakeholder groups are explored to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the regulatory regime. The study confirms that currently Antarctic tourism can be adequately regulated through existing mechanisms, but that growing numbers of tourists and vessels may require more stringent tools to be adopted. Site-specific guidelines are identified as effective tools for a targeted and flexible regulation of primarily ship-borne tourism.
Key words: Antarctic tourism; Antarctic Treaty System; IAATO; Interviews; Regulation
Address correspondence to Daniela Haase, Gateway Antarctica, Centre for Antarctic Studies and Research, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand. Tel.: +64 3 364 2987, ext. 4982; Fax: +64 3 364 2197; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Management of Tourism in the Marine Environment of Antarctica: The Iaato Perspective
Denise Landau1 and John Splettstoesser2
1Executive Director, International Association of Antarctica
Tour Operators, Basalt, CO, USA
2Advisor to IAATO, Waconia, MN, USA
Management of tourism in Antarctica has been the combined responsibility of Antarctic Treaty Parties and the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) since 1991 when IAATO was formed. With the growth of tourism during the past 15-20 years, management strategies developed by IAATO included establishing categories of membership that are tailored to accommodate size of vessels and passenger capacity, plus a variety of steps taken to ensure environmental protection. These are mentioned in detail in the following sections. Benefits of Antarctic tourism are many, such as spin-offs that assist science programs through "ships of opportunity" by way of transporting science personnel and gear, as well as in numerous observations of marine wildlife by tour company naturalists.
Key words: Antarctica; Environmental protection; IAATO; Marine wildlife; Tourism
Address correspondence to John Splettstoesser, P.O. Box 515, Waconia, MN 55387, USA. Tel: 952-442-2604; Fax: 952-442-2604; E-mail: email@example.com
Antarctic Whales and Antarctic Tourism
Rob Williams1 and Kim Crosbie2
1Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University
of St Andrews, St Andrews Fife, Scotland
2International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) Basalt, CO, USA
Shipboard visitors to the Antarctic are routinely rewarded with whale sightings. However, careful management and dedicated research are needed to ensure that the growing Antarctic marine tourism industry does not inadvertently harm these populations, which are recovering from heavy exploitation in the early part of the 20th century. Ongoing research by the International Whaling Commission (IWC) aims to monitor whale population recovery, and the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) has developed operational guidelines to minimize and mitigate potential impacts, some specific to marine mammals and marine wildlife watching. Nonetheless, while boat-based tourism has the potential to affect whales, responsible tourism also has a substantial contribution to make to Antarctic whale conservation and research through collaboration.
Key words: Whale watching; IAATO; Research; Tourism
Address correspondence to Rob Williams, Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, St Andrews Fife, Scotland KY16 8LB UK. Tel: +1 250 974 7103; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Underneath the Radar: Emergency Search and Rescue Insurance for East Antarctic Tourism
Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Operators of tourism activities in the Antarctic will soon be legally
required to hold adequate insurance for emergency search and rescue. This
may push some operators underground because they cannot
afford to pay. The intent of the new law is to encourage compliance with tourism best practice and self-sufficiency. In the East Antarctic, maritime search and rescue is problematic due to limitations on the response capability. When Australia and New Zealand implement this law they may make provision for cost recovery, otherwise the insurance requirement is meaningless. However, cost recovery overlaps with obligations they have under the SAR Convention to provide emergency search and rescue as a maritime community service, foregoing cost recovery.
Key words: Antarctica; Tourism; Search and rescue; Insurance
Address correspondence to Dr. Julia Jabour, Institute of Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 77, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism in the South Shetland Islands: Recent Changes in Local Destinations and Activities
Department of Geography, University of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain
Antarctic tourism has been developed in the archipelago since the 1960s, but its growth has been remarkable since the beginning of the 1990s. The South Shetland Islands are the most visited tourist destination in the Antarctic and the Islands were visited by 22,604 tourists in the 2005-2006 season. Three phases of tourist activity can be distinguished: initial development (1965-1985), growth and consolidation (1985-1998), and growth and diversification (1998-2006). Changes have been detected in the tourist activities and frequentation of visitors to different sites. The last phase is characterized by the multiplication of annual trips and the diversification of tourist activities, typically from landings with short walks and visits to scientific stations, to new tourism activities that are more active in nature. Visits are concentrated in seven geographical areas and specialization in specific activities has developed at different sites. This article examines the evolution of maritime tourism, the use, frequency, and development of local tourist sites on the South Shetland Islands.
Key words: Antarctic tourist sites; Ship-based tourism; South Shetland Islands; Maritime Antarctica
Address correspondence to Enrique Serrano, Department of Geography, University of Valladolid, Po Prado de la Magdalena s/n. 47011, Valladolid, Spain. Tel: 00 34 983 42.30.00, ext. 6589; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org