ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 1-14
1544-273X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Understanding Motivations and Expectations of Scuba Divers

Carolin Meisel-Lusby1 and Stuart Cottrell2

1Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA
2Department of Human Dimensions of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

This study examines scuba divers as a vital segment of the marine tourism market. To better understand scuba divers, motivation, expectations, and expectation outcomes were measured. A survey including 28 motivation statements adapted from the recreation experience preference scales was administered to 300 divers diving with different dive operators in the Florida Keys in summer 2002. Eighteen expectation variables with outcome statements were measured in a pre- and posttest format (expectations before the trip and outcomes after the dive trip). Nonparametric tests revealed differences between divers of different levels of development (i.e., beginning, intermediate, advanced, expert, postexpert). Beginners dove for the challenge and excitement while advanced divers dove to be with similar people, use equipment, and see shipwrecks. Findings show differences between Boy Scouts in a youth adventure program and divers (domestic and international) diving with a regular dive shop. Scouts dove for adventure and excitement. Scouts showed the highest scores in postevent expectation variables. Implications for dive operations to improve diver preparations are given.

Key words: Scuba diving; Motivations; Expectations; Level of development; Florida Keys

Address correspondence to Stuart P. Cottrell, Human Dimensions of Natural Resources, Colorado State University, 1480 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Tel: 970-491-7074; E-mail: Cottrell@cnr.colostate.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 15-27
1544-273X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Do Tour Boats Affect Fur Seals at Montague Island, New South Wales?

Peter D. Shaughnessy,1,2 Anthony O. Nicholls,2 and Sue V. Briggs3

1CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia
2South Australian Museum, Adelaide, Australia
3New South Wales Department of Environment and Conservation, Canberra, Australia

Interactions between fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and A. forsteri) and tour boats at Montague Island were investigated between November 1997 and November 1998. The fur seals were in four haul-out sites, which are referred to here as colonies. The study was instigated by the management requirement of the National Parks and Wildlife Service of New South Wales to determine effects of disturbance from tour boats on the fur seal colonies. At each of 84 inspections, distance between the boat and the colony was measured and seal behavior (or response) was recorded 11 times at 15-second intervals as the boat moved toward the seals. This period of 2.5 minutes was approximately the time tour boats stayed at a colony. Behavior of the fur seals ashore was recorded in four categories of increasing disturbance from "Resting" to "Many moving." From analyses using multinomial models, the probability of observing a given response by the fur seals and the pattern of the responses as a function of distance from the colony were both influenced by the colony under observation. In general, fur seals' responses were significantly correlated with distance between the study boat and the colony, and with the size of the colony (i.e., number of fur seals visible ashore). In all cases, the probability of the colony remaining in the "Resting" category decreased as the distance between the colony and the study boat decreased. Similarly the probability of the colony showing the maximum response ("Many moving") increased as the distance decreased. The probability of New Zealand fur seals "Resting" was higher than for Australian fur seals. Tour boats approaching the colonies had a relatively small effect on the fur seals; few or none of them ran to the sea. Based on results from this study, we recommended that the minimum approach distance of tour boats to the fur seal colonies at Montague Island should be 40 m; other recommendations involved how tour boats approach the fur seal colonies. The former has been gazetted as a government regulation and the other recommendations have been incorporated into the license conditions for the tour boats operators.

Key words: Fur seals; Tour boats; Wildlife tourism; Wildlife interactions

Address correspondence to Peter D. Shaughnessy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8207 7499; E-mail: shaughnessy.peter@saugov.sa.gov.au

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 29-42
1544-273X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Effectiveness of an Established Sanctuary Zone for Reducing Human Disturbance to Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca Cinerea) at Carnac Island, Western Australia

Chandra P. Salgado Kent and Brett Crabtree

Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia

This study tested the effectiveness of a recently established sanctuary zone on Carnac Island (Western Australia) in reducing human disturbances to Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea). Several methods of recording behaviors were also tested to clarify their adequacy for detecting human disturbances. Observations made between March 2005 and September 2006 (98 observations over 16 days) indicated that a wireless camera was effective for monitoring sea lions unobtrusively, and continuous and instantaneous observations were both generally effective in monitoring levels of human disturbance. The sanctuary zone was ineffective in that sea lions hauled out more often in the adjacent recreational zone, even though the sanctuary was established based on previous observations. This study concluded that sea lions are more likely to haul out where environmental attributes along a beach are suitable. Because environmental conditions are variable over time, a fixed sanctuary zone will only aid in reducing impacts when conditions are suitable in that zone. The authors recommend that future sanctuaries should include entire stretches of useable beach to be effective.

Key words: Australian sea lion; Western Australia; Sanctuary zone; Observation methods; Wildlife tourism

Address correspondence to Chandra P. Salgado Kent, Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, West Australia 6845; Tel: +61 (8) 9266 3104; Fax: +61 (8) 9266 4799; Email: c.salgado@cmst.curtin.edu.au

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 43-53
1544-273X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Exploring Social Carrying Capacity Based on Perceived Levels of Crowding: A Case Study of Hanauma Bay, Hawaii

Samuel V. Lankford,1 Yuka Inui,1 and Amber Whittle2

1Sustainable Tourism & Environment Program, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA, USA
2Biological Research Associates, Sarasota, FL, USA

This study explored the concept of social carrying capacity to identify an acceptable use level for a marine park reserve. Many studies have examined a social capacity of the outdoor recreation sites, whereas few studies have been conducted in the ocean recreation settings. The study attempts to identify a social carrying capacity of a marine park based on the users' evaluation of crowding. Based on the perceived level of crowding, the results suggest that the use level of Hanauma Bay (the Bay) is exceeding capacity. This article provides suggested use levels to implement a social carrying capacity management system.

Key words: Social carrying capacity; Crowding; Coastal and marine recreation

Address correspondence to Samuel V. Lankford, Ph.D., University of Northern Iowa, Sustainable Tourism & Environment Program, Division of Leisure, Youth, and Human Services, 203 Wellness Recreation Center, Cedar Falls, IA 50614, USA. Tel: 319-273-6840; Fax: 319-273-5958; E-mail: Sam.Lankford@uni.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 55-66
1544-273X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Recent Advances in Whale-watching Research: 2006-2007

C. Scarpaci,1 E. C. M. Parsons,2,3 and M. Lück4

1Department of Science and Biotechnology, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia
2Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA
3University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK
4School of Hospitality and Tourism and New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. One field of study that is attracting more attraction is the conflicting uses of marine mammals as a resource: nonconsumptive (whale watching) versus consumptive (whaling). This article is the latest in a series of annual digests that describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published since June 2006.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas

Address correspondence to E. C. M. Parsons, Department of Environmental Science & Policy, MSN 5F2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA. E-mail: ecm-parsons@earthlink.net