|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM IN MARINE ENVIRONMENTS
VOLUME 5, NUMBERS 2/3
Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 89-99
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Fishers, Divers, Scientists, Lawyers, and Marine Protected Areas: The US Experience in Protecting Coral Reefs
Robin Kundis Craig
Florida State University College of Law, Tallahassee, FL, USA
Coral reef tourism in the US provides significant economic benefits that exceed those of reef-based commercial and recreational fisheries. While US coral reefs are subject to a number of stressors, fishing has created the most opposition to coral reef protection. One solution is increased use of coral reef marine protected areas (MPAs), which could simultaneously improve reef-based fisheries. US law provides a number of mechanisms for creating MPAs but contains no clear policy in favor of coral reef preservation. Nevertheless, a tension between fishing and coral reef ecosystem protection has been emerging in US law, indicating that federal law should be modified to promote coral reef ecosystem preservation.
Key words: Law; Coral; Marine protected area (MPA); Marine reserve; US
Address correspondence to Robin Kundis Craig, Florida State University College of Law, 425 West Jefferson St., Tallahassee, FL 32306-160, USA. Tel: +1 850 644 0726; Email: email@example.com
Quantifying Community Perceptions of Marine Environments for Marine Protected Area Planning: When Is the Reef Too Crowded?
Barbara Bollard Breen1 and Daniel Breen2
1Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
2Department of Conservation, Auckland, New Zealand
A widely accepted overall goal in marine protected area management is
to allow for multiple uses that are appropriate and sustainable. An issue
relevant to this goal is the quality of the experience perceived by users
of marine protected areas. Understanding relationships between stakeholder
values at different sites and their perceptions of crowding and other impacts
is, therefore, important information for managers. As a consequence, the
study reported here compares the perceptions of individuals involved in
tourism, commercial and recreational fishing, scientific research, boating,
yachting, and other activities with values derived from the Great Barrier
Reef Marine Park management and scientific databases. Surveys of regular
reef users indicated that different activities were targeted at specific
areas according to a combination of values that could be statistically
analyzed and mapped across the region. Respondents considered that current
levels of use were too high for many locations in the Cairns Sector. They
preferred to see fewer people and vessels, but were more concerned by the
number of vessels than the number of people. Acceptable levels of use varied
widely depending on the location. At established tourism destinations and
major recreational fishing sites, responses indicated that a large number
of vessels (20-100) and people (100-1,000) could be tolerated. At areas
visited only rarely, only low levels of use were acceptable. This suggests
that there may be shifts in perceptions at sites that become used more
frequently. The results have implications for management as reef use continues
to increase and extend to other locations. Results from the survey were
used to assess management settings to limit the level and
type of activity in different areas. The techniques used have since been valuable in helping to plan for sustainable marine use in other regions in Australia and might be usefully employed elsewhere.
Key words: Marine protected areas; Crowding; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park; Limits of use
Address correspondence to Barbara Bollard Breen, School of Applied Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Private Bag 92006, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9 921 9999 EXT. 8837; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Linking Beach Recreation to Weather Conditions: A Case Study in Zandvoort, Netherlands
Alvaro Moreno, Bas Amelung, and Lorena Santamarta
International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands
Beach recreation is one of the most weather-sensitive leisure activities. However, there is a lack of scientific knowledge about how the different weather/climate variables influence beach visitation levels, and the role of other factors such as the hour of the day or the day of the week. This study, carried out during the summer of 2006, uses webcams in combination with real-time weather data as an innovative approach to study the relationship between weather and beach use in Zandvoort, a seaside town in The Netherlands. Over a period of 6 weeks, images were taken hourly and for every day, and then compared to the specific weather conditions from a nearby weather station to assess the relationship between beach visitation and atmospheric conditions. Precipitation has an overriding effect over other weather variables while high temperatures lead to higher beach visitation. These results indicate that webcam-based research is a promising field that can provide important information for coastal planning and climate change research.
Key words: Beach visitation; Weather; Webcam; Climate change
Address correspondence to Alvaro Moreno, International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, Netherlands. Tel: +31 43 3883070; E-mail: email@example.com
Quantifying Values: A Sampling Methodology for Use in Assessing the Impacts on Tourism, Local Community, and Businesses of Victoria's Marine Protected Areas
Nina Hall and Jim Sillitoe
University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia
A sampling methodology has been devised to facilitate the selection of a purposeful sample of marine parks and sanctuaries for the investigation of their impacts on tourism, local community, and businesses. The methodology is based on multiattribute utility theory used for comparing complex alternatives in decision making and takes into account those key attributes of Victoria's 13 marine national parks and 11 marine sanctuaries that have been identified through both published and draft management plans, government policies, and relevant strategies. The attributes are: tourism services, activities, community engagement, visitation, values, interpretation, access, location, conservation significance, and regional context. Values of each marine protected area are quantified and establishment of a total attribute value score for a "typical area" enables the comparison between individual marine parks and sanctuaries. To strengthen the methodology, a panel of independent experts representing tourism, local government, and community organizations were invited to express their views with regard to these attributes, and their responses have been incorporated into the research.
Key words: Marine protected areas; Tourism; Case study; Multiattribute utility models
Address correspondence to Nina Hall, Global Innovation Centre, School of Business, University of Ballarat, P.O. Box 663, Mt Helen Drive, Ballarat, Victoria, 3353, Australia. Tel: +61 3 5335 2227; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Socioeconomic Impacts of Cruise Tourism: A Case Study of Croatian Destinations
Zrinka Marusic, Sinisa Horak, and Renata Tomljenovic
Institute for Tourism, Zagreb, Croatia
The aim of this research was to estimate the economic, promotional, and sociocultural impact of cruise tourism to Croatian destinations. Due to the anticipated growth of cruise tourism worldwide and, especially, in the Mediterranean, measuring its impacts is becoming an increasingly important issue in terms of appropriate planning of cruising tourism on the local level. The study reported here included the survey of cruise ship passengers and crew members in order to estimate their on-land expenditure, survey of hotel guests aimed to estimate the impact of cruise experience on repeat, land-based, visits, and survey of local residents aimed to estimate the sociocultural impact of cruise ship tourism. The study found that, in terms of the passenger- and crew-related expenditure, cruise passengers were relatively good spenders. They spent between 34 and 82 Euros, depending on the port of call. In terms of the value of cruising upon the return visit to a destination, the survey revealed that only between 1.5% and 3% of cruise passengers who visited Croatian destinations during 2000-2006 returned in 2006 as land-based visitors. In destinations with frequent cruise ship calls the negative impact on destination attractiveness is already present. Land-based tourists disliked seeing cruisers/cruise passengers in destination (23%), and were complaining of the noise generated by the cruise ships. Finally, residents also reported the adverse impact of cruisers and their passengers relating mostly to the excessive crowdedness created in the short time. However, they still supported cruise tourism, albeit advocating an urgent need to improve the traffic and visitor flow management. With an understanding of the economic value of the cruise industry and the range of the impact that it creates on land-based tourists and residents' community, the results are very important for drafting the strategic direction for cruise tourism development already under way in Croatia.
Key words: Cruise tourism; Croatia; Socioeconomic impact; Repeat visit
Address correspondence to Zrinka Marusic, Institute for Tourism, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia. Tel: +385 1 3909 655; E-mail: email@example.com
The Value of Recreational Surfing to Society
Neil Lazarow,1,2 Marc L. Miller,3 and Boyd Blackwell4
1The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian
National University, Canberra ACT, Australia
2Griffith Centre for Coastal Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
3School of Marine Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
4National Centre for the Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability, Australian Maritime College, An Institute of the University of Tasmania, Newnham, Australia
This article comments briefly on the origins of surfing and its growth through the 20th century, discusses the growth of participation in surfing, and then uses a range of social science techniques including observed market expenditure and nonmarket valuation to describe the socioeconomic value of surfing at various locations. The findings demonstrate the significant economic, social, and cultural importance of surfing amenity, the need to clearly articulate and measure changes in recreational amenity, and the need to consider any negative impacts on surf breaks and the natural environment that may occur as a result of development, coastal planning, and protection works.
Key words: Surfing; Surf quality; Coastal planning and management; Economics; Recreation and tourism; Serious leisure
Address correspondence to Neil Lazarow, The Fenner School of Environment and Society, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT, 0200, Australia. Tel: +61 (0) 416 022 742; E-mail: Neil.Lazarow@anu.edu.au
Why Dive? And Why Here?: A Study of Recreational Diver Enjoyment at a Fijian Eco-Tourist Resort
School of Marine Science and Technology, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK
A considerable challenge to coastal managers in tourism settings is to provide visitor opportunities to observe pristine coral reef systems, while simultaneously protecting them from tourist impacts. Most dive area management strategies are designed around the concept of restricting numbers of visitors, in a variety of ways, or diverting their attention from pristine areas, to "sacrificial" sites, such as artificial reefs. For this to be economically and socially effective, as well as ecologically successful, further information is required, indicating to what level such policies are acceptable to divers. Insight into the relative importance of a variety of attributes preferred by dive tourists, and trade-offs acceptable to divers, are required. Established interviewing and attitude assessment techniques were used to identify which pristine coral reef area attributes and associated resort facilities most greatly contributed to ecotourist enjoyment at a Fijian dive resort. No significant increases in diver enjoyment were detected at sites representing "pristine reef," compared to more degraded inner lagoon sites. Additionally, managerial and social factors were found to contribute significantly more to tourists' overall trip enjoyment than ecological and environmental factors, and quality of the diving experience. Initial indications are that diver satisfaction can be achieved with less than pristine reefs, and site substitution policies should be accepted by divers. Management strategies attempting to offset degraded dive attributes by enhancing alternative aspects of the holiday environment are also likely to succeed. Effective implementation of policies based on these results has the potential to result in more efficient economic exploitation of reef resources, minimal economic loss, and increased dive industry sustainability.
Key words: Coral reefs; Scuba diving; Impacts; Enjoyment; Management
Address correspondence to Clare Fitzsimmons, School of Marine Science and Technology, Ridley Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 191 222 6673; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Responding to Stakeholder Research Needs Using a Visitor Monitoring Survey: The Case of the Great Barrier Reef Tourism Industry
Alexandra Coghlan and Bruce Prideaux
Centre for Tropical Tourism and Hospitality, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Marketed internationally as an iconic tourism experience, Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR) faces a range of issues similar to those faced by coral reefs in other parts of the world. According to the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GRBMPA), the management body responsible for the reef, 1.9 million tourists visit the reef annually, using marine tour operators that offer a wide range of tour products. Management of the tourism industry is based on a zoning system that requires natural and social science input. Data on visitor experiences and satisfaction have been collected in the past by CRC Reef Research, and more recently by a new long-term reporting system of reef tourist visitation supported by the Marine and Tropical Sciences Research Facility (MTSRF) funded by the Australian Federal Government. The sustainability of this industry is influenced by a range of natural (climate change, crown-of'thorns, etc.) and social (rising cost of fuel, changing travel patters, emerging markets) issues. These issues are reviewed followed by analysis of the reef tourism experience within this natural and social context. Data used in this analysis were drawn from a visitor monitoring survey that is discussed in this article. The monitoring program was designed to collect data that can be compared on a monthly and annual basis to enable comparison over time with the aim of identifying emerging social and environmental issues and threats to determine their effect on the sustainability of reef tourism. Finally, the article identifies a number of solutions and strategies that may be available to tourism operators.
Key words: Reef tourism; Great Barrier Reef; Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority; Climate change
Address correspondence to Alexandra Coghlan, Centre for Tropical Tourism and Hospitality, James Cook University Cairns, PO Box 6811, Cairns Mall Centre, Cairns, 4870, Queensland, Australia. Tel: +61 7 4042 1763; E-mail: Alexandra.email@example.com
The Role and Presence of a Guide: Preliminary Findings From Swim With Seal Programs and Land-Based Seal Viewing in New Zealand
Laura J. Boren,1 Neil Gemmell,2,3 and Kerry Barton4
1Richmond, New Zealand
2School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand
3Centre for Reproduction and Genomics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
4Landcare Research, Nelson, New Zealand
Marine mammal tourism is increasing worldwide and pinnipeds are increasingly a target of guided tourism ventures, in the form of "walk" and "swim-with" seal programs. This article aimed to quantify the response of seals to commercial seal swim operations and guided walks; compare responses of seals to guided versus unguided tours; and determine what human behaviors were more likely to elicit an avoidance response from the seals. Both guided and unguided commercial seal swims, as well as freedom/independent swims were monitored in Abel Tasman National Park, and Kaikoura, located in the South Island of New Zealand in the 2000/2001 austral summer. The behaviors of seals approached during seal swims were monitored from kayak or land-based platforms. Seal behavior in response to a guided walk on the Kaikoura Peninsula was also monitored; landing is not permitted on Tonga Island so land-based approaches were not observed there. Commercial seal swims elicited fewer avoidance responses than independent swimmers; however, no significant differences were found between seal swim companies. The benefit of having a guide present on walks to view seals was considerable, with 15% fewer seals responding ("changing behavior" or "avoiding") to tourists on guided walks than independent land-based tourist approaches. Key factors that influence seal responses to tourist approaches include group size: seals responded significantly more to groups of seven to nine tourists than to tour groups of smaller size. The findings presented in this study highlight some key factors that influence seal responses to tourist approaches, and also show that the presence of a guide significantly reduces the amount of avoidance responses from seals. As the popularity of seal tours increases, this information will be useful in establishing guidelines to effectively manage encounters with positive outcomes for both animals and tourists.
Key words: Marine mammal; Pinniped tourism; Seal swimming; Guided walk; Independent tourists
Address correspondence to Laura J. Boren, Ph.D., 44 Crescent St., Richmond, Nelson, 7020, New Zealand. Tel: +64 021 0227 0445; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dolphin Watch Tourism: Two Differing Examples of Sustainable Practices and Proenvironmental Outcomes
Gayle Mayes1 and Harold Richins2
1School of Management, University of the Sunshine Coast,
Maroochydore, Queensland, Australia
2School of Travel Industry Management, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA
This study compares the management practices and content of the education/interpretation commentaries of two differing commercial dolphin watch operators in Nelson Bay, New South Wales, which is promoted as the "Dolphin Capital of Australia." The major objective of the study was to measure and evaluate the postexperience effectiveness of the education/interpretation components on the self-reported proenvironmental attitudes, beliefs, intended behaviors, and intended actions of participants. A questionnaire was administered to participants immediately after their half-day dolphin watch cruises. The most important feature of the experience for all participants was the opportunity to see wild dolphins behaving naturally in their natural habitat. Although the management practices and content of the education and interpretation messages differed aboard the two vessels, no significant differences occurred between the two differing samples for impacts on visitors' intended proenvironmental actions. Significant differences did occur between samples for the self-reported impacts on participants' strength of support for conservation of marine wildlife and for conservation of dolphins. The effectiveness and influence of the dolphin watch cruises on proenvironmental attitudes, beliefs, intended behaviors, and actions of participants appears to be related to two factors: the quality and content of the education/interpretive message, and the intensity level of the dolphin watching experience.
Key words: Dolphin watching; Education; Interpretation; Proenvironmental behaviors and actions
Address correspondence to Gayle Mayes, School of Management, Faculty of Business and Tourism, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag #4, Maroochydore DC, 4558, Queensland, Australia. Tel: +61 7 54302894; E-mail: email@example.com
Conservation and Education Benefits of Interpretation on Marine Wildlife Tours
Heather Zeppel1 and Sue Muloin2
1Centre for Tropical Tourism and Hospitality, James Cook
University Cairns, Queensland, Australia
2Teaching and Learning Development, James Cook University Cairns, Queensland, Australia
Marine wildlife tourism can provide a range of education and conservation benefits for visitors. These benefits derive from close personal encounters with marine wildlife and visitor learning about marine species and ocean environments. There has been limited assessment of marine wildlife tourism experiences and educational programs to identify whether these increase tourists' knowledge, promoting attitudinal shifts and also lifestyle changes that aid marine conservation and help to conserve marine wildlife. Similarly, there has been little evaluation of on-site and longer term conservation intentions, or behaviors, of visitors that benefit marine wildlife and environments. This article reviews the education and conservation benefits of marine wildlife experiences in Australia using Orams' framework of indicators to manage marine tourism. The key indicator for tourists assessed in this article is behavior/lifestyle change that benefits marine species, along with three indicators of conservation outcomes for marine environments. Information is drawn from selected case studies of research on guided tourist encounters with whales, dolphins, and marine turtles from 1996 to 2007, mainly in Australia. This analysis found tourist learning during mediated encounters with marine wildlife contributes to proenvironmental attitudes and improved on-site behavior changes, with some longer term intentions to engage in conservation actions that benefit marine species.
Key words: Marine wildlife; Interpretation; Education benefits; Environmental behavior; Conservation actions
Address correspondence to Heather Zeppel, Centre for Tropical Tourism
and Hospitality, James Cook University Cairns, PO Box 6811, Cairns Mall
Centre, Cairns, 4870, Queensland, Australia. Tel: +61 7 4042 1446; E-mail: