ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 233-244
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Life Aquatic: Scuba Diving and the Experiential Imperative

Carl I. Cater

Institute of Biological, Environmental & Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales, UK

There has been significant growth in the number of qualified scuba divers over the last 30 years, and although estimates are vague, there may be as many as 14 million qualified divers worldwide. Although centered on what may be thought of as primarily a recreational practice, it is also a very strong force for marine tourism. This is compounded by the fact that many active divers live in temperate climes, and prefer to engage in the sport, sometimes exclusively, when visiting tropical regions on holiday. A significant dive tourism industry has therefore emerged to cater for these requirements and has been subject to academic and policy inquiry. However, as this article argues, much of this has been focused on management of impacts without adequate attention on diver motivations, which can considerably inform and assist the former. Consequently this article seeks to examine this activity through the grounded perspectives of scuba divers themselves, in parallel to a categorization of leisure motivation suggested by Beard and Ragheb in 1983. However, the work seeks to note that, in addition to these categories, the scuba diving experience is also profoundly embodied, entailing a wide range of sensations and feelings, many of which may be new to the first-time diver. These are explained through concepts of embodied experience, which is a rich arena for marine tourism research inquiry.

Key words: Scuba diving; Motivations; Embodiment; Great Barrier Reef

Address correspondence to Carl I. Cater, Institute of Biological, Environmental & Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Llanbadarn, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion SY23 3AL, UK. Tel: +447798666107; E-mail: cic2000@hotmail.com

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 245-257
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Harnessing Recreational Divers for the Collection of Sea Turtle Data Around the Cayman Islands

Catherine D. Bell,1,2, Janice M. Blumenthal,1,2 Timothy J. Austin,1 Gina Ebanks-Petrie,1 Annette C. Broderick,2 and Brendan J. Godley2

1Department of Environment, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, British West Indies
2Marine Turtle Research Group, Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, UK

Here we present data from a 26-month program "Caribbean Turtle Watch," initiated as part of the "Turtles in the Caribbean Overseas Territories" (TCOT) program and designed to harness recreational divers to assess in-water populations of marine turtles in the Cayman Islands. We recorded 521 dives in Grand Cayman and Little Cayman between September 1, 2002 and November 29, 2003. Data, presented as the mean number of turtles sighted per dive, provide insight into spatiotemporal patterns of sightings as a proxy of abundance. Widespread sightings were recorded of two marine turtle species, green turtles Chelonia mydas and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata, around both islands. There was no obvious relationship between the existence of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and the abundance of turtle sightings. Diving is allowed in Marine Park Zones and dive pressure may impact overall habitat quality in these areas. The vast majority of sightings of both species (94% in each case) were considered to be juvenile or subadults. While turtle sighting potential was not a major influence on dive site choice, actual turtle sighting greatly enhanced dive enjoyment. Spatiotemporal and morphological analyses of data collected by volunteers compared favorably with those based on data collected by scientists. This technique is transferable to other countries and may hold particular value in areas where resources assigned to marine turtle research are low.

Key words: Marine turtles; Cayman Islands; Population monitoring; Volunteers; Ecotourism; Recreational divers

Address correspondence to Catherine Bell at her current address: Pendoley Environmental, PO Box 98, Leederville, WA 6902. Tel: +61892270090; Fax: +61892284635; E-mail: catherine.bell@penv.com.au

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 259-270
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Multidimensional Ethics Scale and Cruise Ship Tourists: Testing the Troubled Waters

Valerie A. Sheppard1 and David A. Fennell2

1British Columbia Partnership for Sustainable Tourism, British Columbia, Canada
2Department of Tourism and Environment, Brock University, Canada

Reidenbach and Robin's Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES), has been tested and employed in a number of applications. This study sought to test the ability of the MES to be extended to examine the ethical standards of cruise ship tourists in Alaska (USA) and Cozumel (Mexico). Based upon the findings of this research, the utility of employing the MES as an instrument to measure ethical standards of tourists may be problematic and, consequently, further testing of the scale is recommended. Overall, 22.4% of respondents (n = 483) did not respond, in part or in whole, to the MES section of the questionnaire. This article will discuss the in-field difficulties experienced by respondents in completing the MES section of the questionnaire.

Key words: Multidimensional Ethics Scale; Cruise tourism; Ethics; Business ethics; Mexico; Alaska

Address correspondence to Valerie Sheppard, Senior Manager, Sustainability Program Development, British Columbia Partnership for Sustainable Tourism, c/o 331 Wilson Street, Victoria, BC, V9A 3G4, Canada; E-mail: vsheppard7@gmail.com

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 271-285
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Whale Watchers' Past Experience, Value Orientations, and Awareness of Consequences of Actions on the Marine Environment

Alicia Christensen,1 Mark D. Needham,2 and Shawn Rowe3

1Science and Math Investigative Learning Experiences (SMILE) Program, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
2Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA
3Oregon Sea Grant and Department of Science and Mathematics Education, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, OR, USA

This article examines whale watchers' environmental value orientations, experience in relation to whales and the marine environment, and awareness of consequences of their behavior on whales and their habitat. Data were obtained from surveys of 229 shore-based whale watchers in Oregon (USA). Respondents believed that whales and marine areas are important and require protection, and their daily actions affect them and their habitat. Many respondents visited the ocean and watched programs about whales and marine ecosystems; few volunteered or donated to related causes. Structural equation models showed that experienced viewers had stronger biocentric value orientations and were more aware of consequences of their behavior. Value orientations mediated effects of experience on awareness of consequences.

Key words: Value orientations; Experience; Awareness of consequences; Norm activation; Whale watching

Address correspondence to Dr. Mark D. Needham, Recreation Resource Management Program, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Tel: 541-737-1498; Fax: 541-737-1393; E-mail: mark.needham@oregonstate.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 287-299
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Methods to Measure and Mitigate the Impacts of Tourism Development on Tropical Beach-Breeding Shorebirds: The Malaysian Plover in Thailand

Maï Yasué and Philip Dearden

Marine Protected Areas Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada

Beach tourism can lead to increased levels of human disturbance and cause changes in habitat structure that may affect wildlife. This article reviews the range of impacts of beach tourism on wildlife, describes the expansion of tourism in Thailand, and summarizes the results and management recommendations from a study on Malaysian plovers (Charadrius peronii) breeding in the Gulf of Thailand. This region has experienced tremendous growth in beach tourism over the last decade. The results suggest that human disturbance, tourism-related changes in vegetation behind beaches, and narrowing of beaches influence habitat availability and breeding success. The article concludes with recommendations to assess and mitigate the impacts of tourism development on breeding tropical shorebirds.

Key words: Beach; Breeding; Disturbance; Shorebirds; Southeast Asia

Address correspondence to Maï Yasué at her current address: Projet Seahorse, Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. Tel: 1-(604) 827 3162; E-mail: maiyasue@gmail.com

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 301-317
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Benchmarking Recreational Boating Pressure in the Rottnest Island Reserve, Western Australia

Claire B. Smallwood and Lynnath E. Beckley

School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia

Rottnest Island, off Western Australia, is a popular holiday destination with 0.5 million visitors annually, of which 150,000 arrive by private vessel. Management of these vessels is difficult as few data are available on their visitation patterns and associated recreational activities. An observational survey was conducted to provide baseline data. It clearly indicated higher vessel numbers during summer and on public holidays with some mooring areas exceeding 100% occupancy during these periods. Scuba diving and surfing were recorded at numerous locations around the island in the summer and winter months, respectively. Recreational fishing generally occurred throughout the year. The spatial and temporal patterns of boating and associated recreational usage can be used to assess the impact of management decisions and provide a benchmark for long-term monitoring.

Key words: Moorings; Fishing; Scuba diving; Zoning; Marine management

Address correspondence to Claire Smallwood, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, 90 South Street, Murdoch 6150, Western Australia. Tel: +61 8 9239 8802; Fax: +61 8 9239 8899; E-mail: claire.smallwood@gmail.com

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 5, pp. 319-336
1544-273X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Recent Advances in Whale-Watching Research: 2007-2008

C. Scarpaci,1 E. C. M. Parsons,2,3 and M. Lück4

1School of Engineering and Science, Ecology and Sustainability Group, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia
2Department of Environmental Science and Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA
3University Marine Biological Station Millport (University of London), Isle of Cumbrae, Glasgow, UK
4School of Hospitality and Tourism and New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand

Whale-watching research encompasses a wide variety of disciplines and fields of study, including monitoring the biological impacts of whale-watching activities on cetaceans and assessments of the effectiveness of whale-watching management and regulations, to the sociological and economic aspects of whale watching on communities hosting such activities. This article is the latest in a series of annual digests, which describes the variety and findings of whale-watching studies published over the past year, since June 2007.

Key words: Whale watching; Code of conduct; Regulations; Management; Whale watchers; Protected areas

Address correspondence to C. Scarpaci, School of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Ecology and Sustainability Group, Victoria University, Victoria, Australia. E-mail: Carol.Scarpaci@vu.edu.au