ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 63-71
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653194925
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Assessing the Economic Importance of Recreational Fishing for Communities Along Lake Ontario

Nancy Connelly and Tommy Brown

Human Dimensions Research Unit, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

A 2007 survey found that "tourist" anglers spent $43 million in communities in New York State along the Lake Ontario shoreline. Using IMPLAN, a computerized input-output economic software package, the indirect and induced economic impacts of those expenditures was estimated. The total economic impact of recreational fishing to shoreline communities was $60 million, which was associated with approximately 1,000 jobs. A regression model was developed that explains fishing participation on Lake Ontario using biological and socioeconomic variables. It predicts a decline in fishing participation over time on Lake Ontario. This model was used to forecast future economic impacts on Lake Ontario communities estimated at a loss of $19 million in 5 years. Some suggestions were offered for altering the downward economic trend.

Key words: Economic impact; Lake Ontario; Recreational fishing

Address correspondence to Nancy A. Connelly, Human Dimensions Research Unit, Cornell University, 126 Fernow Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. Tel: (607) 255-2830; Fax: (607) 254-2299; E-mail: nac4@cornell.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 73-87
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653194961
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Retiring North: Comparing Retirement Migration Decisions Among Residents Who Did and Past Visitors Who Did Not Move to a Tourist Destination

Walter F. Kuentzel1 and Thomas A. Heberlein2,3

1Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
2Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA
3The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden

Research on retirement migration decisions has found uniformly that natural amenities and recreational opportunities are primary decision-making factors among those who move to high-amenity rural-based tourism destinations. Most of the research, though, relies on interviews of existing in-migrant retirees. Few studies have analyzed the decision-making process of past tourists who considered moving to the tourist destination, but instead moved elsewhere. Were scenic and recreational amenities less important to this group's retirement decision than other lifestyle or life stage demands? This study compared retirement decisions among people who retired to the South Shore of Lake Superior with the retirement decisions of past tourists to the area who did not retire to this area. The results showed that the potential market of retirees among past visitors is a small and select group who enjoy cold weather and appreciate the solitude and isolation of the winter season. The results also showed that recreational activities are neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for making a retirement migration decision. Recreation was important during retirement years, but respondents were able to participate in preferred recreational activities regardless of where they lived. Finally, those who did not retire to the South Shore were more likely to be retiring "home," where they grew up. They also valued quality health care, and opportunities for shopping in retirement, while those who did retire to the South Shore were more likely to prefer solitude, peacefulness, and high-quality scenery in retirement.

Key words: Amenity migration; Lake Superior; Recreation; Retirement migration

Address correspondence to Walter F. Kuentzel, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, 357 Aiken Center, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. Tel: 802-656-0652; Fax: 802-656-2623; E-mail: walter.kuentzel@uvm.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 89-99
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653195005
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Perspectives of Sacred Sites on Lake Superior: The Case of Apostle Islands

Raintry Salk,1 Ingrid E. Schneider,2 and Leo H. Mcavoy3

1Dahl School of Business, Viterbo University, La Crosse, WI, USA
2Department of Forest Reserves, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA
3University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA

Lake Superior and adjacent lands represent a range of meanings, including sacredness. Common understandings of sacred sites vary and thus may impede effective tourism and resource management. Therefore, this study sought to understand and differentiate the meaning of "sacred site" among tourists and other stakeholders at the Apostle Island National Lakeshore. A multimethod approach was used. First, focus groups explored definitions among management groups, local non-Indian adjacent community residents, and local tribal members. Second, a mail questionnaire to visitors identified common components. Predominately, sacred site was identified as a place that has special cultural, spiritual, or religious significance. Results provide insight for tourism destination managers and marketers to enable effective communication with visitors as well as other stakeholders.

Key words: Sacred site; Cultural tourism; Communication; Meaning

Address correspondence to Raintry Salk, Viterbo University, 900 Viterbo Drive, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA. Tel: (608) 796-3361; E-mail: rjsalk@viterbo.edu

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 101-118
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653195041
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Voyages to Kitchi Gami: The Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area and Regional Tourism Opportunities in Canada's First National Marine Conservation Area

Raynald (Harvey) Lemelin,1 Rhonda Koster,1 Izabella Woznicka,1 Kirstine Metansinine,2 and Hoss Pelletier2

1School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada
2Red Rock Indian Band, Lake Helen First Nation, ON, Canada

With a substantial amount of natural (e.g., islands, estuaries, shoals) and cultural (e.g., pictographs, lighthouses, shipwrecks) heritage, the Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area (LSNMCA), located in Northwestern Ontario, is a protected area steeped in history. Apart from a few exceptions, this region of Ontario has lacked the opportunity to capitalize on potential tourism and recreational opportunities. An historic overview of the region highlights past tourism achievements, such as brook trout fishing in the Nipigon River, and the Rossport Fish Derby, and indicates new tourism opportunities in Northwestern Ontario (e.g., sailing regattas and kayak symposia). The significance of tourism in a region largely dependent upon mining and forestry is also highlighted. The article then reviews the potential role of the LSNMCA in regional tourism development by utilizing Kelleher's levels of stakeholder engagement framework. Although stakeholder involvement in the LSNMCA, according to Kelleher's model, requires further work, the establishment of this protected area (the very first of its kind in Canada) appears to be engaging stakeholders in regional tourism development.

Key words: Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area (LSNMCA); Regional tourism opportunities; Canada

Address correspondence to Raynald (Harvey) Lemelin, Associate Professor, School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada. E-mail: harvey.lemelin@lakeheadu.ca

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 119-132
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653195087
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Climate Change and Tourism in the Great Lakes Region: A Summary of Risks and Opportunities

Jackie Dawson1 and Daniel Scott2

1Department of Geography, Global Environmental Change Group, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada
2Department of Geography and Environmental Management, Canada Research Chair in Climate Change and Tourism, Waterloo, Canada

An integral component of the tourism/recreation sector in the Great Lakes region of Canada is climate. Climate defines the length and quality of tourism seasons and associated levels of participation (i.e., natural seasonality) and it affects the natural resource base that many forms of tourism depend upon. Changes in natural seasonality and the environment induced by climate change could have substantial implications for the sustainability of specific tourism sectors and the communities that depend on them. This article summarizes existing literature to provide an overview of the risks and opportunities climate change poses for the tourism/recreation sector across the entire Great Lakes region. Winter tourism is projected to be negatively impacted in the region, with reductions in season length for skiing, snowmobiling, and ice fishing. Warm weather tourism is projected to benefit from climate change through extended seasons for major activities such as golfing, park visitation, camping, beach use, and boating. The differential effects of climate change in the Great Lakes region will alter the competiveness of tourism sectors. Determining how tourism operators and communities will need to adapt to supply- and demand-side changes in order to reduce the risk and take advantage of new opportunities in a sustainable manner remains an important area for future inquiry.

Key words: Climate change; Great Lakes region; Tourism; Review

Address correspondence to Dr. Jackie Dawson, Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Global Environmental Change Group, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada. Tel: 519-884-4120, ext. 54174; E-mail: jackiepdawson@gmail.com

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 133-138
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653195122
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
The Relationship Between Recreation Experience Preferences and Revealed Activity Choice in the North Shore Lake Superior Region

Michael Yuan1 and Peter Fredman2

1Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada
2Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden

Planning for tourism in rural regions necessitates much information about the visitor. The goal of most planning efforts is to understand visitor expectations and predict participation patterns. When demand is understood, the provision of appropriate supply can be more effective and efficient. This study examined the degree to which the experience preference-activity relationship holds for the three primary target market groups (Northwest Ontario, rest of Canada, US) to the Ontario North Shore Lake Superior region. For this study, 464 visitors who engaged in activities along Lake Superior or related activities in the communities and land adjacent to the water were used in the analysis. The results suggest that there is a weak relationship between experience preference and activity choice, but when results are examined by more defined market segments, some moderate relationships appear. This suggests that associated promotion and advertising in the region should focus its message and images based on these significant relationships.

Key words: Experience preference; Activity participation; Revealed choice; Rural tourism

Address correspondence to Michael Yuan, School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada. Tel: 807-343-8112; Fax: 807-346-7836; E-mail: myuan@lakeheadu.ca

Tourism in Marine Environments, Vol. 6, pp. 139-143
1544-273X/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/154427310X12682653195168
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Facilitating Sustainable Tourism in Superior Country: The Tourism Resource Team

Cynthia C. Messer,1 Ingrid E. Schneider,1 and Okechukwu Ukaga2

1University of Minnesota Tourism Center, St. Paul, MN, USA
2Northeast Minnesota Regional Sustainable Development Partnership, University of Minnesota, Cloquet, MN, USA

To enhance understanding and application of sustainable tourism, a program based on best practices across the US was developed. The Tourism Resource Team (TRT) program provides technical assistance to communities encountering an obstacle to their sustainable tourism goals. Each TRT project begins with a community-generated issue, includes site visits and meetings, as well as a presentation and report with recommendations to discuss with the community, and monitors progress with evaluation for 12 months. This article examines the TRT model and illustrates the process with work done in Two Harbors on Minnesota's North Shore of Lake Superior. Implications for other Great Lakes communities are discussed.

Key words: Sustainable tourism; Water-based community; Minnesota; Community engagement

Address correspondence to Cynthia C. Messer, University of Minnesota Tourism Center, 1390 Eckles Avenue Suite 120B,St. Paul, MN 55108, USA. Tel: 612.624.6236; E-mail: cmesser@umn.edu