|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 10, pp. 3-15
1083-5423/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Theoretical State of the Art in the Sociology and Anthropology of Tourism
Graham M. S. Dann
International Tourism Research Centre, University of Luton, Bedfordshire LU2 8LE, UK
After referring to a number of state-of-the-art conferences and to those sociologists and anthropologists who have undertaken similar appraisals in relation to tourism theory, this article concentrates on a number of issues recently raised by Brown, Meethan, and Seaton. These redesignated themes are treated under the following queries: Literature reviews or mindless trawls? Eureka moments or regurgitation? Eclecticism or monoideism? Black holes or topic avoidance? Maturity or infancy? Cumulatively they act as a framework for the discussion that follows. Separately they expose several uncomfortable trends and pose some awkward questions. Tourism scholars are entitled to ask, for instance, whether reviewing the literature has become too much of a ritual activity associated with a Teutonic treatise syndrome and tendencies towards ethnocentrism and autocitation. They may legitimately reexamine claims to originality by inspecting the provenance of ideas of leading commentators. They can evaluate the respective merits of a micro-pick-and-mix approach when contrasted with grand theory. They can point to those areas in tourism research that have been overlooked and ask why they have been neglected. In such a manner, they are able to confront the final dilemma as to whether advances in the field are genuine or spurious.
Key words: Sociology/anthropology of tourism; Reviewing the literature; Eclecticism; Progress; Source of "original" ideas
Address correspondence to Graham M. S. Dann, International Tourism Research Centre, University of Luton, Putteridge Bury, Hitchin Rd., Luton, Bedfordshire LU2 8LE, UK. Tel: 44 1582 743 113; Fax 44 1582 489 076; E-mail: email@example.com
Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Tourism Choice and Decision Making: A Review and Illustration Applied to Destination Competitiveness
Geoffrey I. Crouch1 and J. R. Brent Ritchie2
1School of Business, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
2Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada
This article examines the use of analytical techniques for investigating and researching the structure of choice and decision making in a tourism context. One such method, the analytic hierarchy process, which has received widespread use in many other industries and contexts but very little use in tourism, is highlighted. This tool offers a number of advantages in situations where the researcher is interested in assessing a large number of decision factors, measuring the importance of each factor influencing the decision, dealing with factors that vary in terms of their subjectivity and objectivity, and engaging large groups of decision participants to optimize a decision or to evaluate how subgroups of participants vary in their choice behavior. A commercial version of the technique also permits the study of the group behavior aspects in an online environment. The method is illustrated in terms of research designed to assess the relative role of factors in a conceptual model of destination competitiveness.
Key words: Analytic hierarchy process; Tourism choice; Decision making; Destination competitiveness
Address correspondence to Geoffrey I. Crouch, Professor of Marketing, School of Business, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 2450; Fax: +61 3 9479 5971; E-mail: G.Crouch@latrobe.edu.au
Not a Minor Problem: Developing International Travel Policy for the Welfare of Children
Linda K. Richter
Department of Political Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506
Each year millions of children are part of the tourism arrival and departure statistics. Leading travel and tourism journals suggest most of this travel is benign. Others are less sanguine and point to trafficking in children, abductions, and the growth of pedophilia tours. Health and security policies of nations and the travel industry may also endanger children both as travelers and as workers in the tourism industry. Recently, the United Nations and some individual countries have begun to address these issues, albeit with little input by the travel industry. This article discusses what role public policy and industry policies can have in protecting traveling children. This study will examine what major tourism journals have published concerning children, explore the breadth of travel policy issues about children, examine selected industry and public policies in place, and conclude with an action agenda.
Key words: Children; Travel policy; Trafficking; Security
Address correspondence to Professor Linda K. Richter, Department of Political Science, Waters 226, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. Tel: (785) 532-0453; Fax: (785) 532-2339; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Resorts and Residents: Stress and Conservatism in a Displaced Community
Yang Wang and Geoffrey Wall
Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
The consequences of tourism-caused displacement of a minority community
are examined at a destination in Hainan, China where tourism is being promoted
as a regional development strategy and planned in a top-down fashion. The
research was conducted during the displacement implementation period until
shortly after the relocation was finished. Two-period and spatial setting
theories were organized into one model and applied, using stressfulness
and conservatism as indicators. During the preparation period of resettlement,
people expressed great stress about displacement and tended towards conservative
behavior, rejecting additional risk-taking activities. However, the short
relocation distance and integrated resettlement pattern, which resulted
in no obvious external spatial setting change in this displacement case,
helped the resettlers to reestablish their production systems more easily.
Once settled in the new village, levels of stress and conservatism decreased,
resulting in more innovative behaviors. Nevertheless, if resettlers are
to get their share of benefits from tourism, improved planning is required,
incorporating the provision of training opportunities and greater access
Key words: Development-related displacement; Resort development; Stressfulness and Conservatism Model; China
Address correspondence to Dr. Geoffrey Wall, Associate Dean, Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: 519-885-1211, Ext. 3609; Fax: 519-746-2031; E-mail: email@example.com
The Economic Impact of Tourism: Beyond Satellite Accounts
WIFO-Austrian Institute of Economic Research, 1030 Vienna, Austria
The tourism satellite account (TSA) has as its main categories "tourism-specific," "tourism-related," and "non-tourism-specific" production industries, which in turn produce "tourism-specific," "tourism-related," and "non-tourism-specific" goods. The latter comprise goods and services supplied primarily to nontourists. The macroeconomic importance of tourism and its contribution to the overall value added is a crucial index for economists. For calculating the total economic impact of tourism, the TSA results have to be corrected for indirect effects triggered by tourism as the TSA concept considers only the direct value-added effects. Further, in an overall economic perspective, business trips of residents have to be excluded to get the right impact figures. In the case of Austria, it was found that in the year 2002 the direct and indirect value-added effects, excluding business trips, of Austrians contributed 9.6% to the GDP whereas direct effects contributed only 6%.
Key words: Tourism satellite accounts; Tourism demand; Leisure time consumption; Economic impact; Input-output analysis
Address correspondence to Egon Smeral, WIFO-Austrian Institute
of Economic Research, P.O. Box 91, 1103 Vienna, Austria. Tel: (+43-1)7982601-219; Fax: (+43-1)7989386; E-mail: Egon.Smeral@wifo.ac.at
The Cross-Border Bricklaying Concept in the Alpen-Adria Region
University of Primorska, Koper/Capodistria, Slovenia
This article focuses on the development of tourism in the Three-Border Area of Austria, Italy, and Slovenia. Often named the Hearth of the Alpen-Adria region, this southeastern alpine landscape tends to develop tourism disregarding borders and nation-state disputes. In an area of less than 2000 km2, three major cultures of the world intertwine: the Romance (Italian), the German (Austrian), and the Slavonic (Slovenian). Through the concept of "bricklaying," the existing natural and cultural resources are to be glued together and marketed as one single product. The major idea is not to expand existing tourist infrastructure but, instead, to point out the uniqueness of the area and the compatibility. The article registers natural and human resources in relation to demographic and economic patterns of the second half of the 20th century. It discusses protected sites, winter sport destinations, white-water attractions, battlegrounds of World War I, heritage, and cuisine in an effort to produce an outstanding market product. As a result, a less popular tourist destination of the Alps could become recognizable. Due to the fact that the research was done at the dawn of the 21st century, several proposed cross-border packages are already operational.
Key words: Tourism; Sustainable development; Bricklaying; Geography; Alpen-Adria region; Slovenia; Carinthia; Friuli-Venetia Giulia
Address correspondence to Dr. Anton Gosar, Department of Geography, University of Primorska, Glagoljaska 8, SI-6000 Koper/Capodistria, Slovenia. Tel: 386 5 663 77 44; Fax: 386 5 663 77 42; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Relationship Between Machiavellianism and Sales Performance
John C. Crotts,1 Abdul Aziz,1 and Randall S. Upchurch2
1School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston,
Charleston, SC 29424-001, USA
2Rosen School of Hospitality Management, Orlando, FL 32819-1450, USA
This study explored timeshare sales executive characteristics as measured by a relatively well-known personality profile among social psychologists, the Machiavellian Scale. The researchers administered a Machiavellian (Mach-B) Scale to the entire sales force of a US resort timeshare company for the purposes of testing the relationship of sales executives Mach scores with individual sales performance measures. The results of the study failed to support the hypothesis that time-share salespeople with a Machiavellian orientation are likely to be more successful. In this tightly structured sales environment, sales representatives with lower scores on the Mach scale outperformed those with higher scores.
Key words: Timeshare; Machiavellianism; Sales success; Organizational performance
Address correspondence to John C. Crotts, Ph.D, Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business and Economics, 66 George Street, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424-001, USA. Tel: (843) 953-6916; E-mail: email@example.com
Nostalgia and Tourism
Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261
The concept of nostalgia has drawn significant attention from diverse disciplines for its powerful impact on contemporary individuals' mind and behaviors. However, the study of tourism has been negligent on exploring the association between nostalgia and heritage tourism despite its increasing importance. This note, in recognition of this research gap, offers a chance to understand the role of nostalgia within the heritage tourism context. As there are two types of nostalgia, personal nostalgia and historical nostalgia, particular attention is given to the importance of historical nostalgia (a sentimental yearning for the past beyond one's living memory). It is argued that the role of historical nostalgia in heritage tourism can be better understood through the reciprocal relationship between sociocultural conditions, the culture industry, and heritage tourism institutions. This note uses the Texas Renaissance Festival to illustrate how historical nostalgia arises from such dynamic interplay. It is interpreted that the Texas Renaissance Festival can be conceived of as a simulacrum where nostalgic desires are stimulated through active consumption of positive images of the past. Several suggestions for future research are made at the end of the note.
Key words: Nostalgia; Culture industry; Renaissance Festival; Heritage Tourism
Address correspondence to Hyounggon Kim, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: (979) 694-9586; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org