|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 2
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 10, pp. 97-108
1083-5423/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Minho Region (Galicia and Northern Portugal): A Case of Tourism Destination Planning
Xulio X. Pardellas De Blas and Carmen Padín Fabeiro
Department of Applied Economics, Vigo University
The new configuration of the Euro-region Galicia-Northern Portugal is in need of a debate on the problems regarding its development. Important questions arise, such as the organization and planning of common tourism destinations. In this article, important and valuable scientific literature on this topic and data from a study carried out by the authors for the Xunta de Galicia in 2001 are used to implement some instruments for their application to the Minho Region. The model presented here is a systemic elaboration of the design of the region as a common tourism destination in which a formal structure of its elements is provided, which will prove useful to managers and planners in their analysis of situations and in decision-making processes.
Key words: Common destinations; Cross-border regions; Planning
Address correspondence to Xulio X. Pardellas de Blas, Professor, Department of Applied Economics, Vigo University, Campus Lagoas Marcosende s/n 36200, Vigo, Galicia, Spain. E-mail: email@example.com.
Measuring Leisure and Travel Motives in Norway: Replicating and Supplementing the Leisure Motivation Scales
Lillehammer University College, N-2626 Lillehammer, Norway
Based on previous research, nine central motive dimensions were identified. Four scales (Culture, Friends, Accomplishment, and Peace/Quiet) may be seen as conceptual replications of the four scales of Beard and Ragheb, while five (Sun/Warmth, Family, Nature, Fitness, and Indulgence) were found in other research in Norway and abroad. In a representative survey of the Norwegian inland city of Gjøvik (N = 401), four-item rating scales for each of the nine dimensions were tried out. The psychometric properties of most scales are promising, with alpha values comparable to those found in previous work in this field. Judging from a SEM perspective, the replication of the four Beard and Ragheb scales is only moderately successful. While a combined nine-factor model does not appear tenable, an eight-factor model is closer to the data. More work is needed on the issue of validity.
Key words: Leisure; Travel; Motives; Scale construction; Structural equations modeling
Address correspondence to Jo Kleiven, Lillehammer University College, N-2626 Lillehammer, Norway. Tel: +47 61 28 83 71; Fax: +47 61 28 81 90; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Does Personal Interaction Quality Really Pay? On the Influence of Personal Interaction Quality on Willingness to Pay
Christian Laesser1 and Mike Peters2
1Institute for Public Services and
Tourism, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40A, CH-9000 St. Gallen,
2Center for Tourism and Service Economics, University of Innsbruck, Universitätststrasse 15, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria
This article focuses on the influence of perceived quality on the willingness to pay in the case of services in restaurants, aiming at contributing to the empirical analysis of service interaction quality in the hospitality sector. The service literature traditionally considers personal interactions between individual service-providing staff and individual customers to be the main contribution to service quality experiences. The quality of service interaction is often thought to outweigh any other service process experiences and results. A case study approach was applied, including customer surveys in four different hotels/restaurants. The main findings indicate that good quality perception leads to higher readiness to pay (share of wallet), as well as readiness to build identification and customer loyalty towards the restaurant visited. Customer loyalty in this context is not an obligation, meaning that regular customers do not necessarily feel obliged to regularly visit a specific restaurant, but they have a more precise idea of the budget they are willing to spend on the occasion of a restaurant visit. Investment in loyalty programs without a clear focus on customer budgets should hence be questioned and give way to investments in clear prices, standards, and quality.
Key words: Service quality; Willingness to pay; Personal interaction quality; Loyalty
Address correspondence to Professor Christian Laesser, Assistant Professor, Institute for Public Services and Tourism, University of St. Gallen, Dufourstrasse 40A, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland. Tel: +41(71)224-2525; Fax:+41(71)224-2536; E-mail: email@example.com
Plowing Uncharted Waters: A Study of Perceived Constraints to Cruise Travel
Deborah L. Kerstetter, I-Yin Yen, and Careen M. Yarnal
Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Taking a cruise is a "dream vacation" for the majority of adults in North America. Yet, only 15% have ever taken a cruise. Why are so few individuals cruising? Is their participation in a cruise vacation being inhibited or prohibited by specific factors? The objectives of this study were to: (1) document constraints to cruise travel, (2) identify types of potential cruisers based on the resulting constraints as well as amount of cruise travel, and (3) determine whether types of potential cruisers differ in the way they describe constraints to cruising. The results indicated that there were four dimensions (i.e., types) of constraints to cruise travel that, in combination with cruise experience, explain differences between three types of cruisers. In addition, using content analysis, differences in response to specific constraint items were observed, providing additional evidence for the existence of a heterogeneous market of potential cruisers. Discussions regarding the theoretical and practical contributions of this study as well as suggestions for future research are presented.
Key words: Cruise travel; Constraints; Segmentation
Address correspondence to Deborah Kerstetter, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Mateer, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Tel: (814) 863-8988; Fax: (814) 863-4257; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism Potential and Achievement of Protected Areas in Kenya: Criteria and Prioritization
Moses Makonjio Okello,1 Bobby E. L. Wishitemi,2 and Benjamin Lagat3
1The School for Field Studies, Center
for Wildlife Management Studies, Kenya, P.O. Box 27743, 00506 Nairobi,
2Department of Tourism and 3Department of Wildlife Management, Chepkoilel Campus, Moi University, P.O. Box 1125, Eldoret, Kenya
Tourism is a big revenue-generating industry in Kenya, hence interest in its stability and status. But this industry is very sensitive to a number of factors that affect its performance. To help bridge realized and potential tourism of protected areas as tourist destinations, this study compared the influence of these factors and how they affected tourism achievement. Six factors (biodiversity attributes, physical landscape attributes, cultural attractions, marketing campaigns, facility endowments, and health/security risks) were considered. Scores were assigned for each factor for each protected area and mean scores determined. The mean score of factors for each protected area was considered an index of its tourism potential. This tourism potential index was used to assess whether each protected area had significant tourism potential, had achieved it, or exceeded it (tourism achievement). Only 12 (22.6%) of the protected areas had achieved and/or exceeded their tourism potential, and only 22 out of 53 protected areas (41.51%) had any meaningful potential for tourism. Generally, tourism potential scores were higher than those based on tourist numbers alone (Wilcoxon signed rank test, T = 3.00, p = 0.003), implying that tourist visits alone were not sufficient in evaluating the tourism potential of protected areas. Protected areas that had a high tourism achievement index were: Aberdares, Lake Nakuru, Buffalo Springs, Tsavo West, Nairobi, Tsavo East, Maasai Mara, Lake Bogoria, and Amboseli, respectively. Generally, biodiversity and facility endowment influenced tourist performance, and specifically the marketing campaigns, communication facilities, accessibility, and the diversity of large mammal species. These findings confirm that Kenyan tourism is mainly wildlife based and strongly influenced by facilities and infrastructure. A national tourism-based conservation strategy should be targeting protected areas that have tourism potential but have failed by improving facilities and infrastructure, rather than the current ad hoc approach.
Key words: Biodiversity; Kenya; Protected areas; Tourism achievement; Tourism potential
Address correspondence to Moses Makonjio Okello, The School for Field Studies, Center for Wildlife Management Studies, Kenya, P.O. Box 27743, 00506 Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
An Empirical Analysis of Ecogeneralists Visiting Florida: 1998-2003
Mark A. Bonn,1 Sacha M. Joseph,2 and Mo Dai3
1Dedman School of Hospitality and 2Department
of Marketing, College of Business, Florida State University, Tallahassee,
FL 32306-2541, USA
3Bonn Marketing Research Group, Inc., Tallahassee, FL 32308, USA
As ecotourism becomes more and more popular, the emerging trend creates an "ecogeneralist" market segment. The purpose of this study is to present statistical evidence to illustrate the changing market profile of the ecogeneralists in North America, through the investigation of as well as through an analysis of ecogeneralists' spending habits and activities undertaken between 1998 and 2003, during their visit to Florida. The findings of this study indicated that: (1) the basic demographic characteristics exhibited by ecogeneralists in Florida coincided with those market profiles from the previous research findings specific to ecogeneralists, (2) all demographic and behavioral characteristics of ecogeneralists from different geographical origins were found to differ significantly, (3) the economic environment of the US had the most significant impact on the international ecogeneralists' travel experience.
Key words: Economics of ecotourism visitors during growth vs. recession; Geographical segmentation; Ecogeneralists
Address correspondence to Mark A. Bonn, Dedman Professor in Service Management, Dedman School of Hospitality, College of Business, Florida State University, 1 Champion Way, Room 4110, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2541, USA. Tel: (850) 644-8244; Fax: (850) 644-5565; E-mail: email@example.com
Analytical Knowledge Management for Tourist Destinations
Department of Tourism Management, Kyonggi University, Seoul, Korea
The purpose of this study was to explore important analytical knowledge by tourist destinations. Types of knowledge are explored and examples of analytical knowledge are presented. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to explore and compare the important analytical knowledge by destinations. It was found that each destination type has unique environment in the managerial and marketing perspectives, and consequently, perceived important knowledge is different. Thus, efforts to create important analytical knowledge should be destination specific and the resources' allocation for the knowledge creation, storage, and reuse should consider destination-specific knowledge needs.
Key words: Tourism; Analytical knowledge; Knowledge management
Address correspondence to Sungsoo Pyo, Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Kyonggi University, Choongjeong-ro, Seodaemoon-goo, Seoul, Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Tourism Strategic Marketing Planning: Challenges and Opportunities for Tourism Business Sector in Egypt
Mohammed I. Eraqi
Tourism Studies Department, Faculty of Tourism & Hotels, Cairo University, Fayoum Branch
The results of this study proved that the tourism business sector managers in Egypt have positive attitudes towards the importance of tourism strategic marketing as a way to improve their companies' operating efficiency. However, there is still a degree of misunderstanding to the concept of tourism strategic marketing and most of them are dealing with it as a tool or a policy to implement tourism marketing functional objectives.
Key words: Strategy; Planning; Tourism; Scale; Marketing; Mission
Address correspondence to Mohammed I. Eraqi, Tourism Studies Department, Faculty of Tourism & Hotels, Cairo University, Fayoum Branch, Cairo, Egypt. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org