|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 4
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 10, pp. 335-348
1083-5423/06 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Maturation of Tourism Research: Evidence From a Content Analysis
Honggen Xiao and Stephen L. J. Smith
University of Waterloo, Canada
This article examines the extent of citations from within versus outside the field of tourism research. A systematic and stratified sample of 1254 reference entries from Annals of Tourism Research (Volumes 1 through 30) was used for a content analysis. Data were grouped into six 5-year periods and a focused coding of the sample was further conducted, through Nudist Nvivo, into three broad categories (tourism, tourism-related, and nontourism citations) by five analytic units (authorship, titles, publications, journals, and fields/disciplines), in order to identify the frequency and trend of citing internal versus external sources for tourism research. The research found that, while citations from tourism-related sources such as recreation, leisure, and hospitality have been decreasing over the years to a consistently low frequency of about 7% across the analytic units, the split of citations between tourism and nontourism is 54% against 39% in terms of authorship, 56% against 37% in terms of titles, 41% against 51% in terms of publications, 44% against 49% in terms of field journals, and 28% against 65% in terms of source fields/disciplines. Due to limitations in the use of a single journal for this analysis, the citation patterns identified from the selected medium could potentially cast light on the maturation of tourism as a scholarly field.
Key words: Reference citation; Content analysis; Tourism research; Annals of Tourism Research
Address correspondence to Honggen Xiao, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada. Tel: 001-519-888-4567, ext. 3894; Fax: 001-519-886-2440; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Comparing Methods of Measuring Image Change: A Case Study of a Small-Scale Community Festival*
Xiang (Robert) Li1 and Hans Vogelsong2
1Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas
A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA
2Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, East Carolina University, 165 Minges Coliseum. Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA
The main purpose of this study was to compare the validity of two methodologies in measuring the change of a destination image resulting from a small-scale community festival. One method compared same respondents' rating of image attributes during and after their event participation, while the other method asked respondents to directly report their image change, and chose which factors contributed to the change. Interestingly, the two separate measures employed within this study provided contrasting information on how the festival impacted the image of the host community. The more subjective method indicated that the vast majority (77.9%) of respondents felt that the festival improved their image of the hosting community, while the more objective measure identified decreased image ratings between on-site and mail-back measurement periods. Potential reasons of the conflicting results are proposed and implications of the findings are discussed.
Key words: Image; Image change; Image measurement; Festival
Address correspondence to Hans Vogelsong, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, East Carolina University, 165 Minges Coliseum, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA. Tel: (252) 328-0020; E-mail: email@example.com
*An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the 2003 Travel and Tourism Research Association Annual Conference, St. Louis, MO, USA.
A Classification and Analysis of Cities Based on Tourism Supply Resources in Turkey
Anadolu University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Eskisehir, Turkey
Tourism is one of the major export items of Turkey, contributing significantly to its gross national products. Over the past two decades, tourism has become a very important industry to the economy of a large number of both coastal and inland Turkish cities. The key to continued attraction of visitors to Turkey in significant numbers requires a careful coordination of marketing and planning of tourism supply resources. Thus, it is the objective of this study to define, analyze, and classify cities based on their supply indicators. This study employs a regional analytical method developed by Smith. Using a factor analysis of supply indicators, the study attempts to identify the extent of tourism development in each of the cities in Turkey. The resultant factor scores of supply resources are then used as independent variables in two subsequent analyses: (1) to cluster cities in order to delineate the level of development as suggested by supply indicators, and (2) to establish a relationship between supply and demand measures. The latter is achieved by regressing select demand measures on the delineated factor groupings of supply indicators. Then, appropriate planning, marketing, and resource allocation implications are provided for select city destinations.
Key words: Regional analytical method; Tourism supply; Demand measures; Factor scores; Tourism potential
Address correspondence to Nazmi Kozak, Ph.D., Anadolu University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yunusemre Kampusu, 26470 Eskisehir, Turkey. Tel: (90+222) 335 0580/5961; Fax: (90+222) 335 6651; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Japanese Demand for Tourism in Singapore: A Cointegration Approach
Rex S. Toh,1 Habibullah Khan,2 and Lynette Goh3
1Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University,
3Keppel Shipyard, Singapore
This study uses the cointegration approach to derive the long-run log linear multiple regression equation to measure the income, price, and exchange rate elasticities of demand of the Japanese for tourism in Singapore. We then derive the short-run error correction model to examine the impact of several major catastrophic events. Results show that in the long run, the negative relative price elasticity of demand is the highest (-4.27), followed by the positive (1.74) exchange rate elasticity and positive (1.43) income elasticity. This means that Japanese demand for tourism in Singapore is most affected by prices, followed by exchange rates, and then by incomes. Results also show that in the short run, the 1991 Gulf War and the September 11 terrorist attacks in 2001 also had significant negative impacts, but the 1973-1974 and 1979 oil crises and the Asian Financial Crisis from 1997 to 1998 did not, suggesting that Japanese tourists do not seem to be deterred by economic events that do not directly affect them, but they are very safety conscious.
Key words: Japan; Singapore; Tourism; Cointegration; Elasticities
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122-4460, USA. Tel (206) 296-6007; Fax (206) 296-2083; E-Mail: email@example.com
A Principal Components and Gis-Based Tourism Index for Jordan
Abdulla Al-Shorman and Khalid Magablih
Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Anthropology and Archaeology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
As choices of destinations and the fear of encountering the unexpected in tourism drive the attention of international tourists, this study comes to better aid in site management and to alleviate negative expectations. To achieve this, the present study proposes a tourism index (TI) for the country of Jordan, which has witnessed a rapid growth in the tourism industry. The tourism index relied on five factors that determine how international tourists plan their tours (climate, the development, accessibility, popularity, and proximity of the site). Each of the above factors was interpolated from data collected from 22 tourist sites using GIS. Assigning a value of 5 for the first four variables but of different weights, the TI was summed on the range from 0 to 100. The results show that Jordan is suitable for tourism any time of the year despite the location (TI = 50-85%), which stands for "marginal" to "very good" tourism activity.
Key words: Tourism index; Jordan; GIS; PCA
Address correspondence to Dr. Abdulla Al-Shorman, Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Anthropology and Archaeology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Adaptation to Cultural Distance and Its Influence on Visitor Satisfaction: The Case of First-Time Visitors to Hong Kong
John C. Cortts1 and Bob McKercher2
1School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston,
Charleston, SC 29424-001
2School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong, PRC
The adaptation to perceived cultural differences and its relationship to visitor satisfaction and intent to repeat visit was the focus of this study. Drawing from a sample composed of 256 international visitors who had completed their first trip to Hong Kong, this study revealed that subjects residing in high cultural distance (CD) countries that availed themselves of fully prepackaged tours reported higher visitor satisfaction and probability to repeat visit than those that did not. In contrast, those that resided in low CD countries and engaged in free and independent travel behaviors reported higher visitor satisfaction and repeat visit intent compared to those with more structure in their visit. Though the adaptation to CD, as measured, proved only moderately effective in explaining visitor satisfaction, statistically the measure proved superior to other predictive measures including previous international travel experience, trip expenditures, education, age, and household income. Implications for future research are discussed.
Key Words: Cultural distance; National culture; Visitor satisfaction
Address correspondence to John C. Crotts, Ph.D., Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424-001, USA. E-mail: CrottsJ@cofc.edu
US Travelers' Images of the State of Mississippi as a Tourist Destination
Zaher Hallab1 and Kyungmi Kim2
1Tourism Management, The University of Southern Mississippi,
Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5176, USA
2Hospitality and Tourism Program, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6803, USA
This study looks at US travelers' perceptions of Mississippi as a tourist destination--for both past visitors and nonvisitors. Descriptive analysis of participants' sociodemographic characteristics and their images of the mentioned destination is provided. A MANOVA analysis indicated some differences in the images portrayed by US travelers who have experienced the destination in the past and those who have not. In addition, chi-square was undertaken to find out whether past visitations to Mississippi had an influence on participants' future intention's to visit the mentioned destination. The findings revealed some variations in regard to the image of Mississippi between past visitors and nonvisitors. It was also revealed that past visitation does have an effect on one's intention to visit/revisit the destination. Practical and theoretical implications are provided.
Key words: Destination image; Mississippi; Factor analysis; US market; Tourist behavior
Address correspondence to Zaher Hallab, Tourism Management, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5176 USA. Tel: 601-266-6660; Fax: 601-266-6707; E-mail: Zaher.Hallab@usm.edu
The Relationship Between Vacation Club Program Components and Owner Satisfaction: The Case of the Vacation Ownership Industry
Tammie J. Kaufman, Denver E. Severt, and Randall Upchurch
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32819, USA
The timeshare/vacation ownership segment of the hospitality industry has experienced dramatic growth in recent years. As the segment matures and evolves, the need for consumer education of the components of the product continues to increase. Timeshare owners from one of the leading timeshare companies in the US were surveyed to determine their consumers' level of product knowledge of 12 different components of the timeshare product, varying from maintenance fees and membership dues to the concept of borrowing and depositing points. The owners were also surveyed to determine their satisfaction level with the timeshare product offerings. Results indicate that the higher the level of knowledge that the owners have of the timeshare product the greater their satisfaction level. The results show the need for continued education of the timeshare owner for lasting satisfaction with their ownership.
Key words: Timeshare; Vacation; Ownership; Satisfaction; Product knowledge
Address correspondence to Tammie J. Kaufman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: (407) 903-8033; E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism in Kenya: A Preliminary Examination
Binta Abubakar1 and Tekle Shanka2
1School of Marketing, Swinburne University of Technology,
2School of Marketing, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
This study seeks to explore the trends in international tourist arrivals in a developing country--Kenya--which has been well recognized as an international tourist destination in Sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya's tourism sector has undergone several challenges over the years. Several factors that affect the tourists' propensity to stay longer in a destination are discussed and suggestions for marketing are proposed.
Key words: Tourism; Kenya; Sub-Saharan Africa; Marketing
Address correspondence to Tekle Shanka, Ph.D., School of Marketing,
Curtin University of Technology, GPO BOX U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
Tel: +61 8 9266 2839; Fax: +61 8 9266 3937; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org