|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 11, NUMBER 2
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 11, pp. 79-93
1083-5423/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Destination Image: The Case of Turkey
Asli D. A. Tasci,1 Selma Uygur Meydan,2 and S. Tamer Cavusgil3
1School of Tourism and Hotel Management,
Mugla University, Kotekli Kampusu, Mugla, Turkey
2Faculty of Commerce and Tourism Education, Gazi University, Incitasi Sok. Golbasi, Ankara, Turkey
3The Eli Broad Graduate School of Management, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Despite ample tourism assets and several decades of tourism development, Turkey still does not have a competitive edge in international tourism. A relatively negative image and/or lack of image are cited as one factor among several others in Turkey's low tourism arrivals and revenues relative to other Mediterranean destinations. Few researchers have measured the image of Turkey and even fewer have done so in the context of international travel. In this study, Turkey's image as an international travel destination was measured using a student population from the US. The findings confirm previous research in terms of Turkey's negative image shaped by stereotypical conceptions rather than factual information. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are provided.
Key words: Destination image; Image management; Image measurement; Image of Turkey; Image formation
Address correspondence to S. Tamer Cavusgil, Faculty, The Eli Broad Graduate School of Management, Michigan State University, N370 Business College Complex, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Tel: (517) 432-4320; Fax: (517) 432-4322; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Relationship Between Cruise-Ship Tourism and Stay-Over Tourism: A Case Study of the Shift in the Cayman Islands' Tourism Strategy
Hannarong Shamsub,1 William Albrecht,2 and Russell Dawkins3
1Labor Market Statistics & Research
Consultant, Department of Employment Relations, Cayman Islands Government,
Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, British West Indies
2Department of Political Science & Public Administration, University of North Carolina at Pembroke, Pembroke, NC 28372, USA
3Nelson Mandela School of Public Policy, Southern University and A & M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA
Like all Caribbean destinations, the Cayman Islands has two sectors of tourism: stay-over tourism and cruise-ship tourism. Before the 1990s, the official Cayman Islands' tourism strategy placed more emphasis on the stay-over sector. After the significant drop in the number of stay-over visitors in the late 1990s, the official stance shifted, placing more emphasis on the cruise-ship sector with the intent of converting cruise ship visitors into stay-over visitors. This study investigates the simultaneous relationship between the two sectors. Results suggest that in terms of the number of visitors generated to each other a) both sectors of tourism are simultaneously related, b) stay-over tourism is a substitute for cruise-ship tourism, and c) cruise-ship tourism is a complement to stay-over tourism. Policy makers should therefore note that while stay-over tourism is a substitute for cruise-ship tourism, cruise-ship is actually a complement to stay-over tourism.
Key words: Cruise-ship tourism; Stay-over tourism; Cayman Islands tourism; Tourism marketing strategy; Vector autoregression analysis
Address correspondence to Hannarong Shamsub, Labor Market Statistics & Research Consultant, P.O.Box 477 BT, Department of Employment Relations, Cayman Islands Government, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, British West Indies. Tel: (345) 945-3114; Fax: (345) 945-3115; E-mail: email@example.com
Business Environment, Operations Strategy and Performance in Travel Agencies: Evidence From Taiwan
Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur,1 Ying-Wen Liang,2,3 and Hsin-Yu Hsiao4
1Graduate Institute of Recreation,
Tourism and Hospitality Management, National Chiayi University, Chiayi
2Department of Leisure and Recreation Management, China University of Technology, Taipei City, Taiwan
3Ph.D. Program in Graduate School of Management, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li City, Taiwan
4Graduate Institute of Geography, Chinese Culture University, Taipei City, Taiwan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the business environment and the operational strategies of travel agencies. We examine and analyze the strategies adopted by travel agencies with different performance levels when facing the changes in business environment. The results indicate that the travel agencies concerned with business cost and political factors tend to adopt the cost leading strategy, those concerned with labor availability and dynamism in the market tend to adopt the differentiation strategy or focus strategy, those concerned with competitive hostility and travel risk tend to adopt the focus strategy, and those concerned with market environment and travel risk tend to adopt the flexibility strategy. Furthermore, high performers place more importance toward the environmental dimensions of cost leading and labor availability. Data also present that the high and low performers use different strategies. The research validates the theoretical framework for the relationship between business environment and operations strategy choices. Some useful suggestions are offered as references for travel agents.
Key words: Business environment; Operational strategies; Travel agencies
Address correspondence to Ying-Wen Liang, 5F-1, No. 72, Section 1, Xing-Long Road, Wen-Shan District, Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC. Tel: 886-2-29316448; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism Entrepreneurship: People, Place, and Process
Khoon Y. Koh
Department of Marketing, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT 06050-4010, USA
Tourism development is a function of tourism supply and demand. Whereas the tourism development literature has abundant information relating to tourism demand, the literature on tourism supply is scarce. This article identifies three tourism supply themes for empirical research: Entrepreneurial people, Entrepreneurial places, and Entrepreneurial process.
Key words: Tourism development; Tourism entrepreneurship; Tourism entrepreneur; Tourism supply
Address correspondence to Khoon Y. Koh, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Marketing, Central Connecticut State University, 1615 Stanley Street, New Britain, CT 06050-4010, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Reducing Meeting Costs: Consolidation and Outsourcing
Rex S Toh, T. Noble Foster, and Dean Peterson
Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA
This study is based on an extensive review of the literature and interviews with 50 executives from the hospitality industry, cruise lines, corporations, and associations, individually interviewed at their premises. Using content analysis, we discovered that since September 11 2001, the accompanying recession, and the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002, corporations have become very cost conscious in regard to meeting costs. We also found that corporations have used two different but not mutually exclusive approaches to cost cutting: consolidate operations and outsource non-core activities. This article outlines these measures and identifies the types of companies that will engage in them, as well as situations that call for one or the other.
Key words: Corporate meetings; Cost containment; Consolidation; Outsourcing
Address correspondence to Rex S. Toh, Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, PO Box 222000, Seattle, WA 98122-1090, USA. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Students' Travel Motivations
Zaher Hallab,1 Catherine Price,1 and Herve Fournier2
1Department of Tourism Management,
College of Business, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg,
MS 39406-5176, USA
2Institut Hôtelier "César Ritz," CH-1897 Le Bouveret, Switzerland
The purpose of this research study was to explore travel motivations and sociodemographic characteristics of hospitality management students in Switzerland. The results of this study revealed that hospitality management students attached a high level of importance to attributes in a tourist destination such as cost/price, security, scenery, accessibility, the food and beverage experience, the lodging experience, and nightlife and entertainment facilities. It was also revealed that male students valued more nightlife, entertainment, and casinos than did female students. On the other hand, female students valued more the attribute of unfamiliar environment. When it comes to age, it was revealed that those in the 18-21 age category valued more shopping than members in the 22-29 age category. However, members in the 22-29 age category valued more the attribute of unfamiliar environment.
Key words: Switzerland; Hospitality; Tourism; Students; Motivations; Europe; Travel; Preferences
Address correspondence to Zaher Hallab, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism Management, College of Business, The University of Southern Mississippi, 118 College Drive #5176, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5176, USA. Tel: (601) 266-6660; Fax: (601) 266-6707; E-mail: Zaher.Hallab@usm.edu