|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 12, NUMBERS 1/2
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 1-13
1083-5423/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Barriers to Sustainable Tourism Development in Jamaica
Levent Altinay,1 Turgut Var,2 Suzette Hines,3 and Kashif Hussain4
1Department of Hospitality, Leisure
and Tourism Management, Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford,
2 Department of Business Administration, Izmir University of Economics, Izmir, Turkey
3Hilton Hotel, London, UK
4Department of Educational Sciences, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Many destinations have recognized the importance of implementing sustainable tourism development. However, for many developing countries worldwide, economic, social, and physical challenges pose great hindrances to sustainable development. The aim of this article is to investigate and evaluate the difficulties of implementing sustainable tourism development practices in Jamaica. The primary research is based on qualitative analysis to find out the obstacles regarding the implementation of sustainable tourism development, based on three themes, namely financial constraints, social instability, and lack of coordinated tourism planning. The overall results revealed that, in terms of sustainable practices, there are several initiatives being implemented by both public and private sectors, but they lack management, cohesiveness, and in some cases, collaboration. Also, if sustainability is to be achieved in a developing country, it will require effective financial management of all industries and a serious concentration on social sustainability.
Key words: Sustainable development; Social sustainability; Stakeholder; Developing country
Address correspondence to Dr. Levent Altinay, Department of Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism Management, The Business School, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford, OX3 OBP, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1865 483832; Fax: +44 (0) 1865 483878; E-mail: email@example.com
Data Patterns and the Accuracy of Annual Tourism Demand Forecasts
Gongmei Yu, Zvi Schwartz, and Brad R. Humphreys
Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA
Both data patterns and forecasting accuracy have been identified in the literature as important constructs in tourism demand forecasting. However, the relationship between the two was either ignored or addressed only indirectly. This study develops an innovative methodology to identify and categorize typical tourism demand patterns, and assesses the impact of the identified patterns on the accuracy of various tourism forecasting methods using a large data set. Four distinct patterns were identified: (1) a stable linear trend, (2) a nonlinear trend, (3) a wave-shaped trend, and (4) an abrupt change pattern. These four arrival data patterns affect the accuracy of forecasting models in a specific and systematic manner. Within the tourism industry, it might be feasible to categorize data based on a small number of typical, easily observable features. The relationships between the performance of the forecasting models and these data patterns could be exploited for optimal selection of a forecasting method, improving the accuracy of the forecasts.
Key words: Tourism; Forecasting; Accuracy; Data patterns
Address correspondence to Gongmei Yu, Tourism Laboratory for Economic and Social Behavior Research, Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 104 Huff Hall, MC-584, 1206 South Fourth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: 217-244-3292; Fax: 217-244-1935; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Analyzing the Total Productivity Change in Travel Agencies
Carlos Pestana Barros1 and Peter U. C. Dieke2
1Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão,
Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
2School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, College of Education and Human Development, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA
This article estimates changes in total productivity in travel agencies in two stages. In the first stage, it breaks down total productivity into technically efficient change and technological change by means of data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to a representative sample of travel agencies operating in the Portuguese market. The aim of this procedure is to seek out those best practices that will lead to improved performance in the market. We rank the companies according to their change in total productivity for the period 2000-2004, concluding that some companies experienced productivity growth while others experienced a decrease in productivity. In the second stage, the inefficient scores are regressed into contextual variables of inefficiency with a bootstrapped Tobit model. The implications arising from the study are considered in terms of managerial policy.
Key words: Portugal; Travel agencies; Malmquist DEA model; Productivity; Tobit model; Bootstrapping
Address correspondence to Carlos Pestana Barros, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-068 Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: email@example.com
Ecotourism Resources Management as a Way for Sustainable Tourism Development in Egypt
Mohammed I. Eraqi
Tourism Studies Department, Faculty of Tourism & Hotels, Fayoum University, Egypt
As ecotourism becomes more and more popular, sustainability requirements cannot be ignored from the viewpoints of both practitioners and researchers. The purpose of this study is to present an overview of a general picture for ecotourism resources management to understand how sustainability can be applied to different tourism sites and how ecotourism resources can be managed and marketed effectively and efficiently in Egypt. Statistical models, such as Statistical Means, Correlation Coefficients, Chi-Square, and Regression Analysis, are used to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings explained that there are positive attitudes of locals towards sustainability requirements and there is a degree of misunderstanding to the concept of ecotourism for many tourism companies and agencies in Egypt. Also, it is important to develop a new marketing strategy for ecotourism in Egypt using suitable tourism marketing strategies and policies.
Key words: Tourism; Environment; Resources; Management; Heritages; Culture
Address correspondence to Mohammed I. Eraqi, Associate Professor, 110/4B/Bitco, 32 Al-Ahram Street, Giza, Egypt. Tel: +2 3846243; Mobile: 0183514571; Fax: +2 084 6356631; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourist Vacation Preferences: The Case of Mass Tourists to Crete
Konstantinos Andriotis, George Agiomirgianakis, and Athanasios Mihiotis
Hellenic Open University, Greece
Tourists during their vacations participate in a variety of activities. These activities range from active to passive ones and they may depend on various factors, including travel arrangement and sociodemographic characteristics. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines to Cretan destination managers for supplying well diversified tourist products that could satisfy particular requirements of tourists by examining tourist vacation preferences and identifying whether certain factors can influence tourists' preferences. The findings suggest that tourists visiting Crete prefer passive activities, and that the three main factors that influence tourists' activities are nationality, age, and season of visit. Despite the limitations of the study, it is evident that various policies are required by Cretan destination managers in order to provide activities directed to satisfy tourists' demand. These policies are discussed in relation to Crete's brand identity.
Key words: Activities; Preferences; Mass; Alternative tourism; Policy-making; Crete
Address correspondence to Dr. Konstantinos Andriotis, Ionias Street 14, 713 05 Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Tel.: +30 6944447035; E-mail: email@example.com
Understanding Differences in Tourist Motivation Between Domestic and International Travel: The University Student Market
Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI
While travel motivation is a key concept to predict travel behaviors, the concept has not much been highlighted by tourism researchers in the student market. Thus, the current study was intended to determine push and pull motivational factors of US university students and to assess whether the motivational factors significantly differed between domestic travel and international travel. A total of 1,761 responses obtained from an e-mail/Internet-based survey were analyzed. Factor analysis suggested eight push factors and six pull factors. Independent samples t-test and the chi-square statistic indicated substantial differences as well as similarities in the factors and sociodemographic characteristics between the two types of travel, correspondingly. Both theoretical and practical implications based on the findings are discussed, which may prove beneficial to travel destination marketers and businesses.
Key words: Tourist motivation; Tourist behavior; Domestic travel; International travel; Market segmentation; E-survey
Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, 139 Natural Resources Building, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Tel: (517) 432-0286; Fax: (517) 432-3597; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Determinants of Outbound Holiday Travel for Barbados
Trevor Campbell and Travis Klaus Mitchell
Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Tom Adams Financial Centre, Bridgetown, Barbados
Over the years in Barbados, the focus of tourism research has been on inbound tourism. No previous study appears to have addressed the issue of outbound holiday travel by Barbadians. Like inbound holiday travel, outbound holiday travel is seen as a form of relaxation. In addition, it allows Barbadians to visit family and friends that they may not have seen for decades, to witness cultural events, and to purchase goods that are cheaper than at home or that may not be available in the home country. Outbound holiday travel by Barbadians helps to maintain and increase employment in businesses such as travel agencies and airline companies, thereby helping to boost government's tax intake and fiscal position. The article reviews some literature on the subject matter, looks at trends in outbound holiday travel by Barbadians, and, using the Engle Granger two-step method, attempts to identify variables that will impact on this dependent variable over the long and short run. The results show that real per capita income, the real exchange rate, the price of tourism, and personal commercial bank credit affect outbound holiday travel in the long run while all the above-mentioned explanatory variables with the exception of personal commercial bank credit impact upon outbound holiday travel in the short term.
Key words: Outbound holiday travel; Real per capita income; Real exchange rate
Address correspondence to Trevor Campbell, who is a former Senior Economist of the Central Bank of Barbados. Send to Grazettes Terrace, St. Michael, 12034, Barbados, West Indies. E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism and "the Third Ear": Further Prospects for Qualitative Inquiry
Keith Hollinshead1 and Tazim B. Jamal2
1University of Bedfordshire, England
2Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, USA
This commentary on the state of the art of qualitative research in Tourism Studies is prompted and inspired by the recent appearance of Phillimore and Goodson's valuable coverage of the ontological and epistemological issues involved in the conduct of the enlarging body of qualitative research that has lately emerged in the field. It also stands as a follow-up article to the work of Jamal and Hollinshead in Tourism Management on similar matters. Like the latter, that is, that timely "Qualitative Research as a Forbidden Zone" article, this Tourism Analysis review article is premised upon the view that just as travel and tourism mirror so much of the social, communal, and political realities of the cultural world "out there," so research in Tourism Studies can mirror and much more advantageously utilize so many of the emergent phenomenological and ethnographic advances in research praxis that have followed in the wake of the so-called interpretive turn and the so-called literary turn of the human sciences. In viewing travel and tourism as critical and dynamic fields of seeing, being, experiencing, inventing, and knowing of and about the world, this review article positions travel and tourism as an inherently endlessly creative and mediating field of lived experience that, therefore, should be much more deeply explored interpretively, and thereby "qualitatively," in the light of the new insights that qualitative researchers have lately gained across human science disciplines into matters of meaning, textuality, and rhetorical power. Although The Forbidden Zone of Jamal and Hollinshead (in Tourism Management) explored the relevance of matters of "messy text," "confirmability," "engaged interestedness," and "locality" for Tourism Studies, this follow-up article here in Tourism Analysis peruses related questions of "text," "voice," "reflexivity," and "audience." It broadly concludes that--after Wichroski (1997)--the inexperienced qualitative researcher in travel/tourism/any domain can normally improve his or her sensibilities to the interpretive issues faced and to the contextual situation encountered by learning how to deploy "a third ear" to actively sense the involved difficult matters of "tacit" individual presence, "unstated" communal existence, and "undeclared" researcher power and authority in both the research locales and the investigative processes he/she is engaged in. Although this follow-up (Third Ear) article posits many strengths in the use of qualitative research in Tourism Studies--particularly in tapping the misty plurivocality of populations and the exacting, contested narratives about places and pasts--the endeavor to understand the different styles of interpretive/ethnographic/textual insight that course through various qualitative techniques is no soft option in research, and demands considerable sensitivity to the unfixities of meaning, affiliation, and identity. Overall then, as did Phillimore and Goodson, this Third Ear review article seeks to shift the debate about the merit and value of qualitative research beyond concerns of "technique" and away from the strictures of "method," per se, towards the need for the collective field of Tourism Studies to encourage more of its researchers towards flexible, interpretive approaches that demand enhanced situational use of their human intuitive and creative capacities themselves as a perceptual, diagnostic, and inferential resource. Thereby, the article calls for a more reasoned use of these sorts of creatively informed human capacities where they can be utilized sensitively in critical-vigorous fashion to gauge the held local/situational realities of and about the world, and with critical-rigor over the care in which those found understandings are reflexively captured and crosschecked. But the authors of this review article recognize that the new/emergent intersubjectivities and the new/unfolding moral discourse of qualitative inquiry are still rupturing, still messy, and (for many researchers) still a rather dark matter. As the field of Tourism Studies continues into the 21st century, there are so many new options and opportunities in the engagement with the ever-expanding portfolio of qualitative research approaches--but there is still so much to learn in situ about how each one of them may be sensibly and appropriately deployed in each of those specific research locales.
Key words: Tourism/travel; Qualitative research/qualitania; Self/other; Bricolage/bricoleur; Interpretive turn; Textuality; Goodness criteria; Methodolatry
Address correspondence to Keith Hollinshead,
157 Higham Lane, Nuneaton, Warwickshire, UK CV11 6AN. Tel: +44 (0)2476-385460;