|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 3
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 135-148
1083-5423/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Travel Authenticated?: Postcards, Tourist Brochures, and Travel Photography
School of Anthropology, Archaeology and Sociology, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia, 4811
The use of postcards, tourist brochures, and photographic evidence of travel by tourists is a way of justifying their journey and travel experience through visual authentication. The postcard, brochure, or photograph depicts the genuine or authentic vision of the traveler as having physically been present in the often far flung location under perusal. Both postcards and photographs, as visual media, serve to provide the traveler and, in turn, the relative or friend at home, with the proof of travel to distant and exotic places, and visual authentic verification that the traveler was actually present in the location. Tourist brochures, however, provide inducement to visit these same tourist destinations, conjuring up images of the ``Other,'' the exotic, and the authentic.
Key words: Postcards; Tourist brochures; Travel photography; Authenticity; Travel
Address correspondence to Wendy Hillman, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, School of Social Work and Applied Human Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 4072. Tel: +61 7 3365 1841; Fax: +61 7 3365 1788; E-mail: email@example.com
Demonstrating an Exploratory-Confirmatory Factor Approach to Travel Activity Patterns: A Study of French Pleasure Travelers to North America
Soocheong (Shawn) Jang,1 Clark Hu,2 Alastair M. Morrison,1 and Joseph T. O'leary3
1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0327, USA
2National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce at the School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
3Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
An effective way of understanding travelers' preference in a destination is to investigate travel activity patterns. This study took a two-stage approach to discover how travel activities can be explored and verified by a manageable number of dimensions. Activity participation data collected from 434 French outbound pleasure travelers were factor analyzed to explore possible underlying activity dimensions by an exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Using eight explored activity dimensions (including Nature, Sightseeing, Local Lifestyle, Culture & Social, Beach & Outdoor, City Touring, Shopping & Dining, and Entertainment), a model was then hypothesized and validated based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to verify the tenability of the dimension structure. The authors also discuss the managerial implications of the findings and recommend the practical use of activity dimensions in destination marketing by prioritizing budget allocations based on activity participation rates.
Key words: Activity dimensions; Destination marketing; Exploratory factor analysis (EFA); Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA); Budget prioritization
Address correspondence to Clark Hu, Ph.D., Associate Professor, National Laboratory for Tourism & eCommerce at the School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: (215) 204-1994; Fax: (215) 204-8705; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
How Significant Events and Economic Factors Influence Taiwan's Outbound Tourism to China
Ying-Chih Chen, Hsin-Hong Kang, and Tzer-Chyun Yang
Gradate School of Business Administration, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
It was not until 1987 that the relations between Taiwan and China began to thaw, opening the door for cross-strait civilian contacts. In recent years, with China's rapid economic development, ever-increasing numbers of Taiwanese citizens have been traveling to China, in spite of the fact that official cross-strait relations remain hostile, with political and even military crises often occurring. How do such factors affect Taiwanese people's willingness to travel to China? This study is intended to discuss how significant events (such as the "Special State-to-State Relation" proposition, Taiwan's presidential elections, and the SARS outbreak) and economic factors influence Taiwan's outbound tourism to China. Quarterly data used in this study cover the 41-quarter period from 2Q 1994 to 2Q 2004. A unit root test ensures that all of the estimated variables are stationary; then, a casual model is developed to estimate how economic variables and significant events influence Taiwan's outbound travels to China. Empirical results show that significant political events do not remarkably reduce the Taiwanese people's willingness to travel to China, while the SARS outbreak had a greater impact. On the other hand, income, price, and outbound travels of the previous period are significant independent variables, while variables such as exchange rate and the prices of alternative destination tours are less significant.
Key words: Demand estimation; Taiwan; China; SARS; Tourism
Address correspondence to Ying-Chih Chen, Graduate School of Business Administration, National Cheng Kung University, No1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan, R.O.C. Fax: +88662599090; E-mail: email@example.com
Perceptions of the Beach Users: A Case Study of the Coastal Areas of North Cyprus Towards Establishment of a "Carrying Capacity"
Habib Alipour, Mehmet Altinay, Kashif Hussain, and Nazita Sheikhani
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Via Mersin 10, Turkey
Within the main elements of economic sustainability, sociocultural sustainability, and environmental sustainability, the criteria of "carrying capacity" have been emphasized through residents' perception analysis to explore practical methods towards the application and implementation of such criteria. As data analysis revealed, the main tourist resources in the case of North Cyprus--the coast and the beach--have a certain capacity to sustain the impact and pressure. Despite the significance of the indigenous environment and with respect to the residents' perception of optimum carrying capacity levels, the study explores that this issue has not been given a due consideration. This has resulted in a process of coastal development that bypasses any measure towards the application of a standard to harmonize the degree of physical development and the capacity of the beach. The main objective is to establish the concept of carrying capacity as the means to achieve the reconciliation of environmental impacts with tourism development. The study concludes that, if carrying capacity measurement and its implementation are not incorporated into the planning decision as a clear policy, there will be grave negative consequences for the very resources that attract the visitors.
Key words: Beach users' perceptions; Carrying capacity; North Cyprus; Sustainable tourism planning
Address correspondence to Habib Alipour, Ph.D., School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazima?usa, TRNC, Via Mersin 10, Turkey. Tel: +90 392 630 1392; Fax: +90 392 365 1584; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Local Communities' Attitudes Towards Impacts of Tourism Development in Egypt
Mohammed I. Eraqi
Department of Tourism Studies, Faculty of Tourism & Hotels, Fayoum University, Egypt
This study examines the attitudes of local citizens toward tourism development of residents in Egypt through studying impacts of tourism development on the local community. It aims to measure the effect of tourism development on the standard of living of the Egyptian people. For achieving the research objectives data were collected through a questionnaire distributed among local people; 462 questionnaire forms were recollected after they were filled in by the chosen random sample of respondents. Descriptive statistic analysis was used to measure the tourism development impacts depending on a Likert scale. Multiple regression/stepwise model was used to decide the relationship between the standard of living in Egypt as a dependent variable and the tourism development indicators as independent variables. The main results are that local people have positive attitudes towards tourism development indicators and there are some negative sociocultural impacts of tourism development on local communities in Egypt.
Key words: Egypt; Tourism; Development; Impacts; Local; People
Address correspondence to Mohammed I. Eraqi, 110/4B/Bitco, 32 Al-Ahram Street, Giza, Egypt. Tel: 202 3846243; E-mail: m_eraqi@Hotmail.com
DEA Application for the Tourist Satisfaction Management
Department of Tourism Management, Kyonggi University, Seoul 156-778 Korea
The outputs of Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) can be used for destination satisfaction management. This study attempts to show an application of DEA to a tourist destination, Jeju Island, suggesting that DEA is a useful tool to produce important information in managing destination tourist satisfaction. DEA can be used to find best practices for benchmarking by producing a single index of efficiency of decision-making units (DMU; here, market segments were used). The efficiency index also helps to identify DMUs (market segments) requiring immediate attention for improvements because they have the smallest index number. Weighted efficiency reference set suggests possible DMUs to benchmark. Overcommitted input could be identified and quantified to optimize the resources allocation with the reduced input by reviewing scores of excessive inputs used. This study uses survey data in DEA. Interpretation of DEA with survey data has different implications compared to financial and other ratio data.
Key words: Data Envelope Analysis (DEA); Input and output; Benchmarking; Efficiency; Excess input; Satisfaction; Tourist; Destination
Address correspondence to Sungsoo Pyo, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Kyonggi University, Lotte Nakcheondae Apt. 104-2001, Sadang 3-dong, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-778 Korea. Tel: +82-2-534-9226; Fax: +82-2-537-1575; E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Analyzing Stakeholders' Perceptions of Sports Tourism
School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA
The unprecedented growth of sports tourism requires systematic and coordinated planning. The primary aim of this study was to craft an existing sports tourism framework and examine the position and role of the Tourism and Visitors Bureau from the perspective of the stakeholders. Based on the results, a modified framework is suggested.
Key words: Sports tourism; Stakeholders; Tourism planning
Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020 411, N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: 1-602-496-0172; Fax: 1-602-496-0853; E-mail: email@example.com
World Cup 2002: Perceptions of Korean and Japanese Expatriates
Rex S. Toh,1 Habibullah Khan,2 and Chrystal Fong3
1Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University,
2Universitas 21 Global, Singapore
3State Street Bank and Trust Company
Hallmark sporting events can stimulate the economy, promote tourism and business opportunities, engender national unity and improve country image, and have beneficial or deleterious sociological impacts. The aim of this study of World Cup 2002 (cohosted by Korea and Japan) is to investigate the differential impacts of World Cup 2002 on Korea and Japan, using the results from a small survey conducted among their expatriate communities living in Singapore. Analysis of the survey results show that Korea is perceived to have benefited more than Japan.
Key words: World Cup 2002; Korea; Japan
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh, Genevieve Albers Professor and Director of the Marketing Program, Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, PO Box 222000, Seattle WA 98122-1090, USA. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org