|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 12, NUMBER 4
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 231-245
1083-5423/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Evaluation of Tourism Journals: A Quality Model
School of Tourism and Leisure, Management Center Innsbruck (MCI), Austria
The arrival of electronic journals and the general increase in tourism journals makes it more complicated for researchers in their academic field to choose among the plethora of outlets. In the consumer behavior theory the consumption decision of the consumer is the focus of research. In the academic setting, this consumption decision concerns determining the best journal to publish in. Besides the many existing studies carried out to rank and rate a list of tourism journals according to predefined criteria, this article reports the development of an objective model to assess journal quality. The use of expert perception and opinion as a proxy for journal quality has been an established practice in many research fields and was therefore applied in the survey. The purpose of the article is to provide a quality model that can help researchers formulate their own perception of a scholarly journal.
Key words: Journal quality; Structural equation modeling; Consumer behavior
Address correspondence to Dr. Anita Zehrer, School of Tourism and Leisure, Management Center Innsbruck (MCI), Weiherburggasse 8, Austria. Tel: +43 0512 2070 3321; Fax: +43 0512 2070 3399; E-mail: email@example.com
Adapting the Tourism Satellite Account Conceptual Framework to Measure the Economic Importance of the Meetings Industry
Larry Dwyer,1 Margaret Deery,2 Leo Jago,2 Ray Spurr,1 and Liz Fredline3
1University of New South Wales, Australia
2Victoria University, Australia
3Griffith University, Australia
This article presents the findings from research undertaken for the United Nations World Tourism Organization that examines the global meetings industry. In particular, the research investigated the type, source, and credibility of data collected on the meetings industry and the potential to use the data for evaluating the economic contribution of the meetings industry. In so doing, the article details the data that are available and presents a method, using the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA), to evaluate the meetings industry on a global basis. The research found that the industry lacked clear definitions and therefore inconsistent data. The article provides suggested definitions and a conceptual framework for use in a TSA evaluation of the meetings industry.
Key words: Meetings industry; Tourism satellite account; Definition; Economic measurement
Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Australia. Tel: +61 93852636; Fax: +61 9313 6337; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Trends in Outbound Group Package Tours in China and Taiwan: A Marketing Mix Perspective
Janet Chang,1 Kuo-Ching Wang,2 Ying-Zhi Guo,3 Che-Jen Su,4 and Shih-Jung Yen5
1Graduate Institute and Department of Tourism Management,
Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality Management, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan
3Tourism Department of Fudan University, Shanghai, China
4Department of Restaurant, Hotel and Institutional Management, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan
5Marketing Department, LVMH Fragrance & Cosmetic Co., Ltd., Taiwan Branch
In many Asian economies such as Taiwan, Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, and China, the group package tour (GPT) is one of the main modes of outbound travel. In order to explore the emerging trends, two major outbound travel markets--Taiwan and China--were selected for investigation. In total, 30 in-depth interviews with either General Managers or Presidents of well-known travel agencies were conducted in Taipei and Beijing. The GPTs have a similar pattern for both Taiwanese and Chinese but, interestingly, are at a different stage of development. This information should serve as a valuable reference to Taiwan and China, to destination countries that depend heavily on the Chinese market, and to management teams in relevant travel industries.
Key words: Emergent trends; Group package tour (GPT); Marketing mix; Taiwan; China
Address correspondence to Kuo-Ching Wang (Gordon), Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality Management, National Chiayi University, 600 Chiayi, Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: +886-5-284-4385; E-mail: wangKc@mail.ncyu.edu.tw
Benchmarking Destinations Via DMO Websites: A Methodological Process*
Xiang (Robert) Li1 and James F. Petrick2
1School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University
of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA
2Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA
As a quality management and improvement technique, benchmarking has been extensively practiced and researched across different industries. This study attempts to establish a methodology for conducting destination benchmarking analyses via DMO websites, and to discuss the implementation of the benchmarking process. Nominal Group Technique (NGT), with the assistance of a number of American state tourism offices, was utilized to develop the benchmarking procedures. A series of measures were hence developed, in the format of a two-phase survey. With the use of this external/performance benchmarking process, the participating states have been able to obtain vital information regarding both their website users and their competitors'. The present study, from the practitioners' perspective, created a managerial tool for Internet-based destination benchmarking in terms of a set of measures and metrics. It also exemplified successful efforts to combine academic and practitioners' interest and strengths into one project.
Key words: Destination benchmarking; DMO websites; Methodological process
Address correspondence to Xiang (Robert) Li, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208, USA. Tel: (803) 777-2764; E-mail: email@example.com
*An earlier draft of this article was presented at the 2005 TTRA Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.
State Tourism Funding: Equity, Consensus, and Accountability Models
Rich Harrill and Betsy Bender
University of South Carolina, Department of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, Columbia, SC, USA
This article uses narrative, case study analysis to investigate three major alternative models to state tourism funding that emerged in the 1990s. Although many academics and researchers are familiar with these models, few know the specifics of how they arose, how they work, and their implications for the tourism industry. The alternative models reviewed in this article include industry self-assessment (CalTour), public-private partnership (Visit Florida), tourism-related tax revenues (Missouri Division of Tourism), and an attempted hybrid model (Rhode Island Tourism Advisory Council). Based on these models, the article suggests new hybrid models will appear based on the best characteristics of the initial models: equity, consensus, and accountability, respectively. Given the dearth of academic study tourism funding, the article concludes with suggestions for future research.
Key words: Tourism funding; Tourism organization; Tourism models; State tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Rich Harrill, International Tourism Research Institute, Hotel, Restaurant & Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: (803) 777-7682; Fax: (803) 777-1224; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Problems, Policies, and Marketing Practices of Virginia Wineries
Ken W. McCleary1 and Kyuho Lee2
1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia
Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429, USA
2Department of Management and International Business, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723, USA
The wine industry has had rapid growth worldwide over the last couple of decades. This growth has been particularly rapid in the State of Virginia over the last few years. While the impact of revenue and employment generated from the sale of wine is of obvious benefit to an area's economy, the potential generation of dollars from tourists whose major or secondary purpose for visiting an area is to visit wineries is also of great importance for many wine-producing areas. With the wine industry consisting of products with over 100,000 different brands, it is difficult for smaller wineries, particularly in wine areas less popular than California or Bordeaux, to gain market exposure and access. Therefore, many wineries rely on cellar door sales generated primarily from tasting rooms and tours, and on localized distribution. Winery tourism thus serves an important role not only in generating tourism revenue, but also in building brand recognition and consummating on-the-spot sales. This article reports the distribution methods and tasting room policies of Virginia wineries and provides a summary of what Virginia wineries consider to be their biggest problems.
Key words: Virginia wineries; Wine tourism; Wine tours and tastings
Address correspondence to Ken W. McCleary, Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, 353 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
The Image of Central Asia Countries: Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan
Mersin Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Y.O., Mersin, Turkiye
The Central Asian (CA) countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have been unable to consistently achieve their tourism goals and potentials since their independence (from the Soviet Union) in the 1990s. CA countries have a very small share of the international tourism market. One of the possible reasons for this may be attributed to the nature of "no-image" or "existing poor image" of CA countries in the perceptions of world travelers. The main purpose of this study is to assess the nature of the existing image of CA countries as tourist destinations and also examine respondents' possible travel motives to visit such destinations. A self-administered survey was used to collect data. The findings indicate that the overall perceptions of CA countries center on hospitable environment, authenticity of experience, richness in local attractions, and hospitality and the like. Tourist attributes, effective personal communication channels, the facilitation of tourist movements and experiences are considered significant predictors of the likelihood for respondents to travel to CA countries. This study concludes with appropriate management and policy strategies for potential tourists, tour operators, travel agents, and the four CA countries.
Key words: Image; Competitive advantage; Comparative advantage; Central Asia countries
Address correspondence to Kemal Kantarci, Ph.D., Mersin Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Y.O., Karaduvar Mah. Eski Köy Hizmetleri Egitim Tesisleri Mesbayaný, Mersin, Turkiye. Tel: +903242376201; Fax: +90324 2376360; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*Visiting researcher, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Destination Image and Visit Intention: Examining the Moderating Role of Motivation
Woomi Phillips1 and Soocheong (Shawn) Jang2
1Department of Hotel, Restaurant, Institution Management
& Dietetics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-1404, USA
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-0327, USA
Destination image for a specific destination and travel motivation provide important information for understanding tourist behaviors and behavioral intentions. This study examined the influences of cognitive and affective destination images on tourist visit intention. It also attempted to identify the moderating role of tourist motivation within the image and intention context, investigating whether the extent of the image effects on visit intention varies depending on the level of tourist motivation. To achieve the objectives, this study used hierarchical regressions. The results confirmed that both cognitive and affective destination images have significant influence on tourist visit intention. The findings also indicated that tourist motivation plays as a partial moderator only on the relationship between affective image (arousing) and visit intention, whereas motivation has no moderating role in the relationship between cognitive image and visit intention.
Key words: Destination image; Motivation; Visit intention; Hierarchical regression
Address correspondence to WooMi Phillips, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Hotel, Restaurant, Institution Management & Dietetics, Kansas State University, 118A Justin Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-1404, USA. Tel: 1-785-532-2211; Fax: 1-785-532-5522; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Trends in Alaskan Cruising
Bruce E. Marti
Department of Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
This study analyzes and interprets both spatial and economic data regarding the Alaskan cruise market between 1994 and 2003. Eight research questions guide the research effort toward providing a better understanding of variations occurring in ship size, ship age, number of passengers, cruise line participation, embarkation and debarkation ports, ports-of-call, visits to scenic sites, and passenger fares. The status, trends, and future prospect for Alaskan cruising, based on substantial growth identified, bode well for the Alaskan geographic cruise market.
Key words: Alaska; Tourism; Geography; Cruise shipping; Embarkation and debarkation ports; Ports-of-call; Scenic areas and sites; Fares
Address correspondence to Bruce E. Marti, Professor,
Department of Marine Affairs, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
02881, USA. Tel: 401 874-4040; Fax: 401 874-2156; E-mail: email@example.com