ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM ANALYSIS

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 12, NUMBERS 5/6

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 345-358
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The Structure of Destination Brands: Leveraging Values

Juergen Gnoth

Department of Marketing, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

This theoretical contribution details how a destination's capital is comprised of the values and meanings as expressed in the cultural, social, natural, and economic dimensions of people's lives. Unlike in product brands, these values and meanings form a living and constantly evolving relational system existing among people. On this basis, selection criteria for the functional, experiential, and symbolic dimensions of destination brands are developed. The final model is designed to link the performance of the brand to its capital so that brand development becomes an integral part of sustainable destination management that can be appreciated by tourism operators. The major threat to destination brands is the disregard of the effects of aggregation and time in the commoditization of destination values.

Key words: Destination; Brand; Place; Capital; Values; Time; Commoditization

Address correspondence to Juergen Gnoth, Department of Marketing, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: (+64)3-479 8446; Fax: (64)3-479 8172; E-mail: jgnoth@business.otago.ac.nz




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 359-369
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The Alps: Challenges and Potentials of a Brand Management

Harald Pechlaner,1 Frieda Raich,2 and Anita Zehrer2*

1Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, 85071 Eichstaett, Germany
2Institute for Management and Tourism, European Academy of Bozen-Bolzano, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy

A tourist destination can be defined as a spatially encompassed unit comprising individual products, complex activities, and experience opportunities. To succeed in the international tourism market any destination has to create a brand concept, which serves as an umbrella and shows the identity, personality, and distinctiveness of the destination. The European Alps are one of the most important recreation areas of Europe with about 370 million arrivals. Millions of people in the urban areas around the Alps (e.g., Milan, Munich, etc.) spend their holidays in this destination. In this respect, the Alps are highly renowned and to a certain extent reflect a complex brand. The authors chose the Alps as it is an excellent example for umbrella branding that appears as typical
in tourism. The article aims at analyzing the values and attributes entrepreneurs of four-star hotels in the Alpine regions of Tyrol, South Tyrol, and Trentino are attributing to the Alps and communicating in their marketing strategy. The survey shows that there largely is consensus on how accommodation providers perceive the Alpine destination.

Key words: Brand value; Alps; Brand positioning; Brand strategy

Address correspondence to Prof. Dr. Harald Pechlaner, Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, Foundation Professorship of Tourism, Pater-Philipp-Jeningen-Platz 2, 85071 Eichstaett, Germany. Tel: +49 8421 908039; Fax: +49 8421 932186; E-mail: harald.pechlaner@ku-eichstaett.de

*Current address: Tourism Business Studies, Management Center Innsbruck (MCI), 6020 Innsbruck, Austria.




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 371-385
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Building a Place Brand: A Case Study of Surrey Hills

Outi Niininen,1 Sameer Hosany,2 Yuksel Ekinci,2 and David Airey2

1Department of Accounting and Management, School of Business, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086, Australia
2School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK

Although branding of goods has received increased attention in both the academic and practitioner communities, research on place brand-building process has been sparse. This study seeks to address this lacuna and proposes a four-component place brand-building framework. namely: determining a brand vision, communicating the brand vision, managing partnerships, and measuring brand performance. The validity of this conceptual framework is assessed using Surrey Hills as a case study. Drawing on the findings of the case study, important challenges are identified that face emerging work on place brands. Some of the emerging issues include control, funding, and stakeholder commitment.

Key words: Place branding; Destination branding; Brand building process; Local involvement; Tourism stakeholders

Address correspondence to Outi Niininen, Department of Accounting and Management, School of Business, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 (3) 9479 1229; Fax: +61 (3) 9479 5971; E-mail: o.niininen@latrobe.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 387-396
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The "Sleeping Giant": Leisure Tourism Branding of a Business Tourism Destination

Margaret J. Daniels

Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA

The development of leisure tourism in Fairfax County, Virginia (USA) has been hampered by the perception that the county's expansion is geared towards business and residential growth rather than the development and promotion of primary tourist attractions. The purpose of this case study is to examine the history and movement toward leisure tourism branding of Fairfax County as well as the formation of specific brand elements using an economic development perspective. Based on interviews with county tourism agency representatives, a three-stage process was delineated for leisure brand development: 1) the presence, commitment and cooperation of key stakeholders; 2) a stable source of income to initiate and support branding strategies; and 3) the creation and
promotion of branding elements. Destinations facing similar branding issues can benefit from the theory and strategies highlighted in this case study.

Key words: Brand development; Leisure tourism; Local and regional economic development

Address correspondence to Margaret J. Daniels, Ph.D., Tourism and Events Management, School of Recreation, Health and Tourism, George Mason University, 10900 University Blvd., MS 4E5, Manassas, VA 20110-2203, USA. Tel: 703-993-4279; Fax: 703-993-2025; E-mail: mdaniels@gmu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 397-407
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Pottery, Pride, and Prejudice: Assessing Resident Images for City Branding

Linda Phillips1 and Peter Schofield2

1Faculty of Business & Law, Staffordshire University, Stoke on Trent, UK
2Management and Management Sciences Research Institute, University of Salford, Salford, UK

An exploratory study of resident perceptions of Stoke-on-Trent was undertaken to examine the city's image from the community perspective-a key component of its brand identity. The community is also a key market segment for day trip tourism, which is playing an important role in the city region's regeneration. Four dimensions of residents' images of the city were delineated; they explained nearly two thirds of the variance in the data. Three of the dimensions, together with community pride, were found to be significant predictors of residents' willingness to recommend Stoke-on-Trent to others. Residents' image dimensions were significantly differentiated on the basis of age and marital status, but not on the basis of gender, socioeconomic class, or the presence of children in families. No significant differences in pride and willingness to recommend the city to others were found in relation to socioeconomic variables with the exception of marital status on residents' willingness to recommend the city. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations for further research are made.

Key words: Resident community; City images; Pride; Place branding; Stoke-on-Trent, UK

Address correspondence to Linda Phillips, Faculty of Business & Law, Staffordshire University, Brindley Building, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 2DF, UK. E-mail: l.a.phillips@staffs.ac.uk




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 409-417
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Brand Cairns: An Insider (Resident) Stakeholder Perspective

Bill Merrilees, Dale Miller, Carmel Herington, and Christine Smith

Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Queensland 9726, Australia

Usually destination branding is looked at from the visitor's perspective. However, previous literature does not adequately address the perceptions that residents have of their own place of residence. The residents are a major stakeholder in tourism and their perspective has been overlooked, other
than their views about tourists. To analyze this perspective, a structural model is developed to explain the formation of residents' attitude to their city brand (Brand Cairns) and further the path to explaining intentions of residents to act as "occasional tourists" in their own city. The statistical tests demonstrate the validity of the structural model.

Key words: City branding; Residents; Recreational demand; Community attributes; Occasional tourism

Address correspondence to Professor Bill Merrilees, Head, Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: +61 (0)7 55529034; Fax: +61 (0)7 55529039; E-mail: bill.merrilees@griffith.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 419-432
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Destination Brand Personality: Visitor Perceptions of a Regional Tourism Destination

Laurie Murphy, Pierre Benckendorff, and Gianna Moscardo

School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville Q, Australia

Despite a growing body of work on destination branding in general, particularly at a country or nation level, there has been little investigation of whether or not tourists do attribute brand personality characteristics to tourism destinations and whether or not tourists' perceived self-image and the "brand personality" of destinations are related. The aim of the study presented in this article was to explore the relationships among four key constructs proposed for destination branding and choice process: tourist travel motivations, destination brand personality, self-congruity, and visitation. The study involved a survey of tourists' perceptions of a branded regional tourism destination-the Whitsundays-in Queensland, Australia. Data were collected from a total of 277 participants yielding a response rate of 62%. The results provided general support for the proposal that tourists ascribe personality characteristics to destination. Furthermore, the study found that there is a level of congruity between tourists' self-image and their perceptions of the destination brand personality.

Key words: Destination branding; Destination image; Regional tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Laurie Murphy, School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville Q, Australia 4811. Tel: 61 7 47814347; Fax: 61 7 47814019; E-mail: Laurie.Murphy@jcu.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 433-446
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Host Image and Destination Personality

Yuksel Ekinci,1 E. Sirakaya-Turk,2 and Seyhmus Baloglu3

1Hospitality Management, School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
2School of Hotel, Restaurant & Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
3Tourism and Convention Department, Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vega, NV 89154-6023, USA

The purpose of this research was to develop a path analytical model to test multiple direct and indirect relationships involving tourists' perception of host image, destination personality, and behavioral intentions. Specifically, the study tested hypotheses that host image has a positive impact on destination personality that in return will have a positive effect on intent to return and word of mouth. To assess the mediating role of the destination personality, direct effects of host image on intent to return and word of mouth were also investigated. The data were collected from a sample of 365 German travelers to the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The findings of the study indicate that destination personality has three dimensions: conviviality, sincerity, and excitement, and tourists do use these concepts to form symbolic meanings of destinations. These dimensions have a positive influence on intent to return and word of mouth, whereas host image has a positive impact on the destination personality dimensions. The influences of host image on each destination personality dimension show variations in terms of significance and strength of the relationship. Although host image has a positive effect on intent to return, its overall contribution to the explained variance is small. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed within the context of destination branding theory.

Key words: Destination personality; Destination branding; Host images; Branding

Address correspondence to Yuksel Ekinci, Ph.D., Senior Lecturer in Hospitality Management, School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Tel: +44(0) 1483 686376; Fax: +44(0) 1483 686301; E-mail: y.ekinci@surrey.ac.uk




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 447-461
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Different Tourists-Different Perceptions of Different Places: Accounting for Tourists' Perceptual Heterogeneity in Destination Image Measurement

Sara Dolnicar1 and Twan Huybers2

1School of Marketing & Management, University of Wollongong, 2522 Wollongong, NSW Australia
2School of Business, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia

We suggest that differences between tourists be evaluated as part of any destination image study. In doing so, one can avoid the potential pitfall of deriving one single destination image by averaging over individuals with possibly very different perceptions. A typology of destination image measurement approaches is presented that provides a framework for the evaluation of past destination image studies and shows directions for future developments of destination image measurement. The perceptions-based market segmentation (PBMS) framework and indices derived from this approach are proposed as one possible way to explore differences in destination images between tourist groups. An empirical data set is used to illustrate the proposed approach. The data consist of perception statements of 575 respondents who evaluated six Australian tourism destinations along four dimensions.

Key words: Image perception; Destination image management; Perceptions-based market segmentation

Address correspondence to Sara Dolnicar, School of Marketing & Management, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, 2522 Wollongong, NSW Australia. Tel: +61 2 4221 3862; Fax: +61 2 4221 4154; E-mail: sara_dolnicar@uow.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 463-471
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Towards a Competitive Destination Brand in a Mass Market

Liping A. Cai,1,2 Henry (Haichun) Qiu,1 and Guoxin Li3

1South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
2Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
3School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, China

This study examined the attribute-based image of China's Heilongjiang Province as perceived by international tourists, and assessed the viability of the destination's brand statement, "Heilongjiang: Cool Province of China." The correspondence analysis revealed that in the minds of international tourists, Heilongjiang was uniquely associated with the image of "snow and ice" and "border sightseeing." No other competing destinations were as distinctively identified with these two attributes. However, when the trip purpose was introduced into the analysis, it was found that the strength of the association of the destination with these two attributes differed between the business and leisure segments. The business segment perceived the attribute of "nature scenery" as the most distinctive of the destination, followed by the attribute of "people and culture." The findings suggested that while the destination's brand statement was in line with the perceptions of its international market in general, the perceptual differences between the business and leisure segments warranted prioritization of communication strategies specific to each segment. The findings were discussed in the context of building a competitive destination brands versus marketing China as a homogenous destination. Given the mass tourism nature of China's market, a local branding approach was recommended, especially for those destinations that are on the margins and traditionally left out of popular sightseeing routes.

Key words: China; Competitive brand; Destination image; Market segments

Address correspondence to Liping A. Cai, Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 700 West State St., Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. E-mail: liping@purdue.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 473-483
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A Managerial Approach to Positioning and Branding: Eponymous or Efficient

K. W. Kendall and Dogan Gursoy

School of Hospitality Business Management, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4742, USA

The purpose of this research is to examine the relative positioning of eight Mediterranean destinations using seven attributes that measure objective destination competitiveness. These attributes can be used to develop a brand identity for each destination. Using the data provided by the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC) on those seven competitiveness indicators for each destination, a positioning map was generated using a correspondence analysis technique. The positioning map revealed the closely competitive destinations, how competitiveness indicators cluster together, and competitive strengths and weaknesses of each destination. The key contribution of this research is the use of cost-saving secondary data that are more under the control of the manager, especially in a government organization. Some of the critical advantages of the approach presented include: low cost of data, times savings, managerial control, and ease of analysis and interpretation. The destination manager knows where to go to solve the branding concerns in the market place.

Key words: Destination positioning branding; Mediterranean countries; Competitiveness; Efficient managerial control and usefulness

Address correspondence to K. W. Kendall, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Washington State University, School of Hospitality Business Management, 467 Todd Hall, PO Box 644742, Pullman, WA 99164-4742, USA. Tel: (509) 335-0916; Fax: (509) 335-3857; E-mail: kendall@ wsu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 485-492
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RESEARCH NOTE
Perceptions of the Last Privately Funded Olympic Games: The Atlanta Case

Brian J. Mihalik1 and Melih Madanoglu2

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429, USA
2Division of Resort & Hospitality Management, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, USA

Ritchie and Aitken in 1984 defined hallmark or mega-events as one-time or recurring events, which enhance the awareness and appeal of a tourist destination. The Olympic Games is one type of mega-event and has worldwide appeal. This article reports a snapshot of the data collected immediately prior to the 1996 Summer Olympic Games (July 1996) and investigates whether any differences exist among residents' perceptions regarding perceived benefits of hosting the last privately funded Summer Olympics based on their demographic characteristics. The results indicated that residents with different demographic characteristics had homogenous perceptions regarding the perceived benefits of hosting the 1996 Summer Olympics immediately prior to the beginning of the event. This has implications to future publicly funded Olympic Games.

Key words: Mega-events; Olympics; Benefits; Demographics

Address correspondence to Brian J. Mihalik, Ed.D., Associate Dean of the Graduate School and Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 237 Graduate Life Center, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429, USA. Tel: 1-540-231-5645; Fax: 1-540-231-1670; E-mail: bmihalik@vt.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 12, pp. 493-498
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RESEARCH NOTE
Heritage Attractions and the Case of the Dutch Windmills

Omar Moufakkir

Tourism Management, CHN-University Netherlands, 8900 CG Leeuwarden, The Netherlands

There are windmills in several countries in Europe; however, it is the Netherlands that is known as the country of windmills, because it has the largest concentration of windmills in the world. As heritage buildings, windmills contribute to national pride and to the tourism marketing images of the country. However, the number of windmills has been decreasing. The decrease has traditionally been the result of natural catastrophes. Today, windmills are facing other challenges. The problem with most windmills, as is the case with other backdrop heritage attractions, is that most of them do not have a direct use value. It has been a tradition that governments and associations fund windmills for their preservation as heritage objects, but governments downsizing for heritage has become a norm, especially when the economy is in recession. The purpose of this article was to learn more about the Dutch windmills. Two face-to-face unstructured in-depth interviews with a former windmill association president had set the ground for a telephone survey to collect information from millers. This resulted in information about (a) windmill ownership, insurance, and taxes, (b) windmill business, (c) millers and motivation, (d) windmill visitors, and (e) millers' opinion about the future of windmills.

Key words: Tourism attractions; Heritage; Windmills; The Netherlands

Address correspondence to Omar Moufakkir, Ph.D., Tourism Management, CHN-University Netherlands, Regerslaan 8, Postbus 1298, 8900 CG Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Tel: (031) 58-2441301; E-mail: o.moufakkir@chn.nl