ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM ANALYSIS

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 2

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 103-116
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Aircraft Contrails Contribute to Climate Change: Whole Tourism Systems Are Appropriate Contexts for Research on Sustainable Tourism

Neil Leiper,1 R. W. Braithwaite,2 and Mieke Witsel2

1Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand
2Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia

Environmental activists and concerned scientists have suggested since the 1970s that jet aircrafts' contrails, also known as vapor trails, might be having undesirable effects on the environment. In 2001, an unusual but scientifically rigorous research project, testing this hypothesis, found that contrails do have an environment impact. On busy routes the effects are significant and serious, similar to the effects of greenhouse gases, resulting in climate change. The present article discusses implications of this for sustainable tourism and ecotourism. Almost all research to date on these linked topics has focused exclusively on destinations. Knowledge about the effects of contrails adds weight to the evidence and belief that sustainable tourism and ecotourism cannot be achieved by attempts to sustain destinations if other elements in whole tourism systems are being damaged by tourism. A comprehensive understanding of tourism's environmental impacts and research on sustainability requires, as the unit of analysis, whole tourism systems.

Key words: Aircraft pollution; Contrails; Whole tourism systems; Environmental impacts; Sustainable tourism; Ecotourism

Address correspondence to Neil Leiper, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. E-mail: neil.leiper@gmail.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 117-130
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Impact of Weather Variability on Golfing Activity and Implications of Climate Change

Sarah Nicholls,1 Donald F. Holecek,2 and Jeonghee Noh2

1Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
2Department of Hotel Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea

Despite the obvious influence of weather conditions on golfing activity, the relationships between participation in golf and specific weather variations have rarely been considered in the empirical literature. Given the increasing evidence to support global climate change, quantification of historical relationships between participation and weather conditions is a vital prerequisite to modeling the potential implications of changing weather patterns for participation in outdoor activities such as golf. The purpose of this article was to determine the influence of weather variations on daily golfing activity at three golf courses in Michigan. Multiple regression analysis revealed that variations in maximum temperature and precipitation had statistically significant influences on daily golfing activity in all the models developed. Fluctuations in other variables, including minimum temperature, public holidays, consumer confidence, and the price of gas, also emerged as significant, but not consistently so across all the models. The results presented highlight both the problems and opportunities associated with modeling the relationships between outdoor activity participation and weather conditions. While the models constructed do identify interesting relationships between the variables tested, they also illuminate the difficulties in accounting for the myriad of influences on outdoor activity participation in a quantitative setting. Nevertheless, the analyses should be of immense utility to outdoor recreation and tourism planners and managers for both the short- and long-term planning and management of their enterprises. Models of present-day relationships between activity participation and variability in climatic, economic, and other relevant factors could aid in short-term decisions regarding issues such as purchasing and staffing requirements. When combined with scenarios of future climatic, economic, and other conditions, they could also be used to inform choices regarding the expansion of existing facilities and diversification into new geographic and/or activity domains.

Key words: Weather variability; Climate change; Golf; Michigan

Address correspondence to Sarah Nicholls, Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies, and Geography, Michigan State University, 131 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222 USA. Tel: +1 517 432 0319; Fax: +1 517 432 3597; E-mail: nicho210@msu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 131-142
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Visitor Value Perception of a Heritage Tourism Site Development: A Case Study

Ruth Taylor1 and Tekle Shanka2

1School of Management, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
2School of Marketing, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia

Successful tourism attraction site development includes the ability to design and deliver unique, authentic products, services, and experiences for visitors. Value perception is an important strategic imperative for management and a decision imperative for visitors in that it represents both short-term and long-term benefits and sacrifices to both attraction and visitor. This research study discusses visitor value perception, and investigates the expectations of visitors to a proposed development associated with a prime tourism attraction site development. A total of 960 useable questionnaires were analyzed to provide the findings of this study. It was identified that while a range of product offerings were available at the site, the core identity valued by visitors was that of heritage. The research project found that overall the proposed development of the tunnels project was thought to enhance this element of the site, while allowing additional services to be developed in the form of an adventure experience. Results are discussed and implications for the project development are identified.

Key words: Value perception; Attraction site development; Visitor expectations

Address correspondence to Ruth Taylor, School of Management, Curtin University of Technology, GPO BOX U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia. Tel: (+61 8) 9266-2287; Fax: (+61 8) 9266-7897; E-mail: Ruth.Taylor@cbs.curtin.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 143-155
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Estimating the Determinants of Tourist Spending: A Comparison of Four Models

Metin Kozak,1 Ummuhan Gokovali,2 and Ozan Bahar2

1School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Mugla University, Mugla, Turkey
2Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics, Mugla University, Mugla, Turkey

Although the issue of tourist spending estimation has long been of considerable interest to many researchers, there has been no consensus yet about its definition as the dependent variable. This study attempts to estimate determinants of tourist spending by utilizing a self-generated survey data and the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method. The distinction of this study is that it develops four different models to test the accuracy of the determinants of tourist spending and it considers not only the demand side but also the supply side. Dependent variables for different models are defined as total vacation spending (MODEL#1), daily spending per group (MODEL#2), daily spending per person (MODEL#3), and total spending per person (MODEL#4). The analysis was accomplished through the use of dummy variables such as sociodemographics and vacation-taking behavior of tourists, as suggested in the literature. All four estimation results indicated that some of the explanatory variables are consistent determinants of tourist spending, regardless of the type of models defined. Moreover, this study compares and contrasts the findings to suggest the best acceptable model for estimating the determinants of tourist spending. Both managerial and theoretical implications are also discussed.

Key words: Tourist spending; Tourism supply; Tourism demand; Market segmentation

Address correspondence to Metin Kozak, Ph.D., School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Mugla University, 48170 Kötekli, Mugla, Turkey. E-mail: M.Kozak@superonline.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 157-169
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Convention Center Management--Influencing the Attendee Experience: The Case of Charleston Convention Center

Chris Ryan,1 John Crotts,2 and Steven Litvin2

1Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA

This article suggests that convention center management has a direct ability to influence attendee experiences in only limited ways, while possibly having indirect or stakeholder influences in other directions. The issue for such center management is whether the areas in which it holds direct responsibility, such as signposting, décor, and ambience, are of sufficient importance to impact upon the delegate experience given the importance of other variables such as destination attractiveness and program content. The study reports findings from a sample of 256 attendees at a cross section of events at the Charleston Convention Center. The findings suggest that cleanliness of toilets and staff interactions are important to attendees. Overall satisfaction also correlated with ease of finding the car park entrance, the quality of sound systems, overall event layout, the friendliness of staff, and ease of access to downtown Charleston. Some of these factors lie within the direct control of management.

Key words: Convention center management; Conferences; Delegate preferences

Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato Management School, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand. E-mail: caryan@waikato.ac.nz




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 171-180
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Exploring Wine Tourism in New Zealand: The Visitors' Points of Views

Abel D. Alonso,1 Rick A. Fraser,2 and David A. Cohen2

1School of Marketing, Tourism, and Leisure, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia
2Commerce Division, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand

With the remarkable growth of New Zealand's wine industry in the last decade, the concept of wine tourism has been gaining in popularity among different groups of travelers to rural areas. Numerous factors can impact individuals' decision to visit wineries. Many consumer-related studies emphasize the consumers' perceived value of the consumption experience, as well as how to deliver a satisfying experience to consumers. This also applies to wineries seeking to attract visitors and benefit commercially in the process in the form of wine and food sales. This study conducted among New Zealand wineries explores several aspects related to visitors' winery experience. These aspects include the most relevant factors impacting on visitors' decision to travel to wineries, how visitors discover their chosen winery, the value they place on elements of their winery experience, and their overall satisfaction. The findings suggest the critical importance of word-of-mouth advertising in influencing winery choice. The results also indicate that a rather large number of visitors travel to wineries for reasons other than the wine, including their proximity of the winery, passing-by, or on route to another destination. The overall results could have important implications for wineries, particularly in their efforts to market their businesses.

Key words: Wine; Wine tourism; Winery visitors; Reasons for winery visitation; Ways of discovering wineries; Satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dr. Abel Duarte Alonso, School of Marketing, Tourism, and Leisure, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Building 2, Room 378, Joondalup, Western Australia 6027. Tel: (+618)6304 5047; Fax: (+618)6304 5840; E-mail: a.alonso@ecu.edu.au




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 181-188
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Raising International Competitiveness of Tourism in Ethiopia

Tariku Atomsa1 and Klaus Weiermair2

1Department of Development Management, Ethiopian Civil Service College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Tourism and Service Management, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

As of late Ethiopia, one of the world's poorest countries, is attempting to stimulate the growth and development of tourism. This article presents the competitiveness of tourism in Ethiopia using some of the materials from Tariku's Dissertation and available tourism flow data from WTO from key tourism-sending countries to four competing East African tourism-receiving countries, including Ethiopia. Using the Shift-Share method of decomposition of tourism flow the article analyzes competitive advantages and specialization of tourism-receiving regions vis-à-vis sending regions. The article concludes with recommendations regarding the future requirements for tourism growth in Ethiopia.

Key words: International competitiveness in tourism; Shift-Share analysis; Area-wide effect; Region-mix effect; Competitive effect; Allocation effect

Address correspondence to Dr. Tariku Atomsa, Ethiopian Civil Service College, Institute of Public Management & Development Studies, Department of Development Management, P.O. Box 58242, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Tel: +251911100612; E-mail: tariku50@yahoo.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 189-204
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Millennial Students, Movies, and Tourism

Jeeyeon Hahm,1 Randall Upchurch,2 and Youcheng Wang1

1Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
2Center of Distributed Learning, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

This study examines the degree to which the leisure activity of "going to a movie film" influences an individual's image formation process, and therefore desire to visit the portrayed tourist destination. The results of this single case study are twofold. First, demographic differences occur between pretest and posttest measures of destination attributes as the result of exposure to a destination-specific movie, and second, the desire to visit the film locations as expressed in the movie significantly vary by gender, age, and ethnicity.

Key Words: Cohorts; Destination tourism; Image; Millennial generation; Movies

Address correspondence to Randall Upchurch, Center for Distributed Learning, University of Central Florida, 3100 Technology Parkway, Partnership II, Suite 234, Orlando, FL 32826, USA. Tel: 407-823-4913; E-mail: rupchurc@mail.ucf.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 205-213
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RESEARCH NOTE
Sweepstakes Promotions to Build Database for Promoting International Tourism Destinations

Musa Pinar and Ceyhun Ozgur

College of Business Administration, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN, USA

This article discusses the importance of a tourism-oriented database to promote tourism destinations and how sweepstakes promotions can be utilized in developing a sophisticated database for more effective destination marketing. The article presents various ways databases can be utilized by domestic and international destination marketers. Sweepstakes promotions can be effective in promoting international tourism and attracting potential tourists to desired destinations of the sponsoring countries. In addition, they can also be used to develop a sophisticated database from sweepstakes entrants. Such a database could be used to design more effective relationship marketing strategies. Finally, the article presents several managerial implications for building a more effective database from targeted sweepstakes.

Key words: Database in tourism; Database marketing; International tourism; Sweepstakes promotions; Destination marketing

Address correspondence to Musa Pinar, Ph.D., Professor of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383, USA. Tel: (219) 464-5401; Fax: (219) 464-5789; E-mail: Musa.Pinar@valpo.edu