|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 13, NUMBER 3
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 221-232
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Tsunami Waves and the Paradisiac Cycle: The Changing Image of the Andaman Coastal Region of Thailand
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
A linear temporal model has been underlying the pretsunami image of the tourist region along the Thai coast of the Andaman Sea, according to which a "pristine tourist paradise" turns, under the onslaught of tourism, irredeemably into "paradise lost." The region suffered catastrophic destruction in the tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004. The article explores the unexpected reemergence of a paradisiac image of the beaches and islands of the region, as nature recovered, unhindered by tourists, from the impact of the disaster. Departing from Hoffman's assertion that a cyclical model underlies disaster symbolism, this article claims, that in the wake of the tsunami, the linear model of the tourist image of the region was replaced by an underlying cyclical model, consisting of a series of stages: the discovery of a "prisine paradise," its despoliation, destruction, rebirth, regulation, and eventual redespoliation (and possible repeated destruction and rediscovery). While this model represents schematically the dynamics of the tourist image of the affected region, its wider applicability remains to be examined.
Key words: Andaman Sea; Beaches disaster; Paradise; Touristic image; Tsunami
Address correspondence to Erik Cohen, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Emotional Labor and Tourism-Based Visitor Interactions: Job Characteristics as Determinants of Emotion Regulation
Pieter A. Van Dijk and Andrea Kirk
Department of Management, Monash University, Australia
Emotional labor is experienced by tourism employees when interacting with visitors to tourism sites through the demonstration of emotions designated to be appropriate by the employing organization. While the performance of emotional labor has become a key requirement of the job for many tourism employees, little is currently known about the factors involved in the employee's decision to engage in the emotion regulation activities of either deep or surface acting in order to meet this job demand. What is known is that the decision to engage in deep acting results in more positive outcomes for the employee (lower levels of burnout) and potentially the organization (enhanced customer satisfaction). This study examines the role of key job-environment characteristics in the decision of tourism employees to engage in either deep or surface acting in the performance of emotional labor. These key job-environment characteristics consist of variations in the frequency, variety, intensity, and duration of visitor/customer service interactions. The sample for the present research consisted of 181 visitor/customer service personnel participants recruited from two tourism-based organizations. The results indicated that the frequency of interaction predicted the performance of surface acting and the combination of the frequency and variety of emotional display significantly predicted the performance of deep acting. Contrary to expectations, the intensity and duration of emotional display did not explain any variance in deep acting. The findings have implications for the work design of tourism-based roles where the performance of emotional labor is required to fulfill organizational expectations.
Key words: Emotional labor; Deep acting; Surface acting; Job-environment characteristics; Authenticity; Visitor experience
Address correspondence to Dr. Pieter A. Van Dijk, Department of Management Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, P.O. Box 1071 Narre Warren, Vic, Australia 3805. Tel: +61 3 99047153; Fax: +61 3 99047130; E-mail: email@example.com
Spatial Dimensions of the Orlando Destination Region
Shaul Krakover1 and Youcheng Wang2
1Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion
University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
2Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
This article aims to empirically examine the concept of a destination region using a case study approach. Two conflicting hypotheses are considered for the spatial structure of tourism in Orlando's destination region: the bubble pattern vis-à-vis a dispersed pattern. Locational concentration and the industrial mix of Orlando's tourist-related firms are examined by analyzing data revealing their location and business specialization. Findings reveal the concentration of the accommodation and dining firms near the theme parks area in a bubble-like pattern. Conversely, smaller scale attractions, convention services, and visitor and professional services tend to locate in high proportions outside of the core area. Implications are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Key words: Destination region; Industrial mix; Bubble; Agglomeration; Convention and visitor bureau
Address correspondence to Shaul Krakover, Department of Geography and Environmental Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Role of the US-Mexico Border as a Destination: Student Traveler Perceptions
Dallen J. Timothy1 and Culum Canally2
1School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State
University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
2Department of Geography, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
This article explores the dynamics of the US-Mexico border as a tourist destination for American university students. It examines international borders as tourist destinations and then highlights the results of a study among students who have visited Mexican border-towns along the US border. Based on nearly 300 questionnaires, the reasons for visiting the border were identified and a factor analysis conducted to understand better the relationships at play between borderland characteristics and tourist motives. The factor analysis resulted in the classification of border visitors as consumers, excitement seekers and learners.
Key words: Mexico; United States; Border; Student travel; Motivations
Address correspondence to Dallen J. Timothy, School of Community Resources and Development, 411 N. Central Ave., Suite 550, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. E-mail: Dallen.Timothy@asu.edu
Characteristics of Members of Hotel Frequent-Guest Programs: Implications for the Hospitality Industry
Rex S. Toh, Frederick Dekay, and Peter Raven
Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA, USA
This study, based on a current sample of 304 hotel guests, examines the demographic, behavioral, and attitudinal characteristics of hotel frequent-guest program members. Based on our findings and our search of the literature, we present the marketing and operational implications for the hospitality industry. We recommend that frequent-guest programs be targeted not only toward male business travelers, but also to women who now make up one third of hotel frequent-guest program members and are a growing segment of the travel market. Because the larger hotel chains have greater geographical coverage, they have the inherent advantage, but smaller chains can be competitive by giving more generous awards that never expire and are instantly redeemable. We also recommend that hotels partner with airlines so that members can earn hotel points by flying, and conversely can opt for airline miles by staying in hotels. Also, because frequent-guest program members tend to make their own travel arrangements, often online without the help of corporate travel planners and travel agents, hotels should promote directly to members. Finally, because business travelers are very averse to the confiscation of their awards by their corporations, like the airlines, hotels should not allow corporations to register as corporate members.
Keywords: Hotel frequent-guest program members; Loyalty programs
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex Dr. S. Toh, Director of the Marketing Program, Department of Marketing, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, PO Box 222000, Seattle, WA 98122-1090, USA. Tel: (206)-296-6007; Fax: (206)-296-2083; E-mail: email@example.com
A Critical Review of Ecotourism Studies in Thailand
Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Dhurakij Pundit University, Bangkok, Thailand
Ecotourism has emerged as a key foundation of sustainable tourism development. During the past decade, the study of ecotourism in Thailand has increased considerably. Yet, proper guidelines and research directions for ecotourism research in Thailand are still limited. The purpose of this study is to survey and overview ecotourism studies in Thailand during the past decade (1995-2005). The study examines 334 ecotourism-related studies and provides suggestions for ecotourism research direction in Thailand, particularly in the area of limited knowledge or unexplored research areas.
Key words: Ecotourism; Sustainable tourism; Thailand
Address correspondence to Aswin Sangpikul, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Dhurakij Pundit University, 110/1-4 Prachachuen Road, Laksi, Bangkok 10210, Thailand. Tel: 66 2 9547300; Fax: 66 2 9547354; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
From Sales Tool to Site Development: The Evolution of Destination Marketing on the Web
Rich Harrill and Betsy Bender Stringam*
Department of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
The travel industry increasingly uses Web marketing to reach its customers, both actual and potential. This is not surprising given that more than 63 million people used the Web to make their travel plans in 2004. Although considerable attention has been paid to website rankings and effectiveness, researchers know comparatively little about the contexts of how sites were created, nor how they continue to evolve, and the successes and challenges involved in travel-related website creation and maintenance. This article reviews the literature concerning destination management organizations (DMOs) and Web marketing on the international scale. It reviews the evolution of Web development through three CVBs in the US--Greater Pittsburgh Convention and Visitors Bureau, Chattanooga Area Convention and Visitors Bureau, and Durham Convention and Visitors Bureau--that have demonstrated innovation in using the Web as a powerful and successful marketing tool. By using this evolutionary lens as the article's comparative framework, practitioners and researchers may better anticipate technological innovation in Web marketing for destination management organizations. These organizations serve as models for sales, revenues, and site development, respectively. The case studies offer "lessons learned," providing possibilities for adoption and point the way to further research.
Key words: Destination marketing; Destination marketing organization (DMO); Web marketing; Convention and visitors bureau (CVB)
Address correspondence to Dr. Rich Harrill, Director, International Tourism Research Institute, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center, Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: (803)-777-7682; Fax: (803)-777-1224; E-mail: email@example.com
*Current address: School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA.
Addressing Researchers' Quest for Hospitality Data: Mechanism for Collecting Data From Web Resources
John Gerdes, Jr. and Betsy Bender Stringam*
College of Hospitality, Retail, & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
Data collection is always a challenge. Researchers in the hospitality and tourism industry can benefit from the extensive amount of industry related data that are publicly available on the Internet. The issue holding most researchers back is how to efficiently collect such data. This article provides a solution: automated data collection using Web spiders. The coding logic needed to implement a custom Web spider is outlined. Also addressed are the ethical and operational issues associated with Web spiders.
Key words: Web spider; Web mining; Automated data collection; Ethics
Address correspondence to John Gerdes, Jr., Associate Professor, Technology Support & Training Management, College of Hospitality, Retail & Sport Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: (803)-777-8529; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*Current address: School of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA.
Understanding Tourist Revisit Behavior: From a Temporal Perspective
Soocheong (Shawn) Jang1 and Ruomei Feng2
1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue
University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
2Customer Relationship Marketing, Sears Holdings Corp., Hoffman Estates, IL, USA
Despite the importance of tourist retention and loyalty, extant tourism research has provided little explanation as to why an individual tends to return to the same place year after year. Practical experience in the tourism industry shows that time plays a significant role in tourist retention, but the temporal impact on tourist revisit behavior has not been theoretically explored in the tourism literature. To fill this research gap, this research attempts to present a new perspective for understanding destination revisit. This study proposes the Temporal Destination Revisit Behavior (TDRB) concept in comparison to previous tourist typologies across the novelty-familiarity continuum, and suggests meaningful theoretical foundation for destination marketing.
Key words: Tourist revisit behavior; Temporal perspective; Novelty-familiarity continuum
Address correspondence to SooCheong (Shawn) Jang, Ph.D., Associate
Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA. Tel: (765)-496-3610; Fax: (765)-494-0327;