ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 329-340
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Determinants of the Length of Stay in Latin American Tourism Destinations

Carlos Pestana Barros,1 Antónia Correia,2 and Geoffrey Crouch3

1Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (ISEG), Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
2Faculty of Economics, University of the Algarve, Faro, Portugal
3School of Businesss, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia

Economic theory generally treats the duration of a vacation as a constraint on demand imposed by available time. In contrast, in this article, we show that the length of stay is a determinant of destination demand more than a demand constraint that is largely explained by the cost of travel, and moderated by the perceived characteristics of the destination, publicity, and the sociodemographic profile of the tourist. We estimate a heterogeneous survival model to measure the relationship between vacation length and covariates. The empirical application was carried out in Portugal on a sample of individuals traveling to Latin America on charter flights. The article discusses the policy implications of the research findings.

Key words: Duration models; Survival models; Consumer heterogeneity; Tourism; Latin America

Address correspondence to Carlos Pestana Barros, Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestão (ISEG), Technical University of Lisbon, Department of Economics, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon, Portugal. E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.pt

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 341-354
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Seniors' Travel Constraints: Stepwise Logistic Regression Analysis

Gyan P. Nyaupane,1 James T. Mccabe,2, and Kathleen L. Andereck1

1School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
2Department of Social Work, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

The purpose of this article is twofold: (1) to identify the factors that are perceived as constraints to leisure travel for seniors compared to other age groups, and (2) to investigate whether the constraints based on age interact with other sociodemographic variables for past travel behavior and intention to visit in the future. The data for this study were collected from a sample drawn from travel magazine subscribers and those who requested travel information. Two mail surveys and a Web survey yielded a total of 1,405 completed responses. Analysis was conducted using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Analysis indicated that younger age groups (59 years old or younger) were more likely to be constrained by time and money, whereas seniors (75 years and older) were constrained by health issues. Logistic regression analysis showed that the role of age and income as constraint was perceived differently for the past and future intension to visit. For the future visit, age was perceived as a constraining factor, whereas for the past visit, the role of age was moderated by income. This confirms that leisure travel constraints are not homogenous. The study suggests that the travel industry and organizations that provide services to seniors need to facilitate leisure travel opportunities by increasing affordability and making them accessible to those with declining health.

Key words: Seniors; Travel; Leisure; Constraints

Address correspondence to Gyan P. Nyaupane, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Avenue, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. Tel: 602-496-0166; E-mail: Gyan.nyaupane@asu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 355-372
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Decision-Aid for Ecotourism: A Case Study of a Community-Run Project in Ecuador

Christos Zografos

Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Spain

For indigenous communities around the world, ecotourism is not only a means of protecting valuable and threatened ecological and cultural resources but also a viable economic opportunity for maintaining livelihoods. Consequently, communities need to know to what extent ecotourism is the economic activity that best satisfies their needs, given available resources and other existing alternatives. Such information can strengthen community control and ownership of resources, an important objective of community-run ecotourism projects. In collaboration with community members and an indigenous NGO, a decision-aid model based on multicriteria decision support approaches was set up to assess the potential of ecotourism to satisfy economic, social, and environmental priorities of a community situated in the Amazon rainforest of Ecuador. The study considered existing resources and combinations of ecotourism with other available economic alternatives. Representatives from a number of stakeholder and user groups were approached to obtain their views on the relative importance of priorities for community well-being. Weights of importance assigned by those representatives were integrated in the model to find out how stakeholder and user group perceptions influenced their preferences over livelihood alternatives. Results suggest that three out of four groups favored a combination of ecotourism with conservation. Sensitivity analysis helped identify economic incentives that could be used to obtain agreement between stakeholder and user groups as regards resource use scenarios. It is suggested that this information could be further employed to seek consensus between group views on the role of ecotourism for sustainable community development.

Keywords: Ecotourism; Decision-aid; Sustainability

Address correspondence to Christos Zografos, Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Edifici Ciències, Torre Àrea 9, 4a planta, C5-438, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. Tel: +34 93 581 29 74; Fax: +34 93 581 33 31; E-mail: christos.zografos@uab.cat

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 373-386
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Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Attractions and Satisfaction of Amboseli National Park, Kenya

Moses Makonjio Okello,1 Danielle E. D'amour,1 and Stephanie Grace Manka2

1School for Field Studies, Kenya
2University of Missouri at Columbia, USA

Tourism is a lucrative but fragile business. Most tourism in Kenya is wildlife based and wildlife conservation is greatly funded by the revenue generated from tourism. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate tourist satisfaction and expectations in order to ensure and maximize ecotourism as an economic asset to support wildlife and manage protected areas wisely. Currently, marketing for East Africa involves seeking specific species like the big five. This study investigated tourism satisfaction in two lodges in Amboseli National Park. Questionnaires were designed to determine levels of satisfaction, animals heavily sought after, opinions on cultural attractions, and Mt. Kilimanjaro. Sixty-six percent of tourists were highly satisfied in Amboseli and 99% would recommend the park to other tourists. Tourists were looking for a variety of wildlife rather than one specific species. Highly ranked animals included the black rhinoceros, African elephant, cheetah, African lion, and Maasai giraffe. Most people thought Mt. Kilimanjaro was an attraction for the park and about half expressed interest in the local Maasai culture. While large mammal species collectively brought satisfaction to tourists, the species were not necessarily members of the big five. Results indicated the big five were not important as a tourist attraction. Instead, tourists were interested in a variety of attractions including culture and landscapes.

Key words: Amboseli National Park; Big five; Kenya; Ecotourism; Marketing

Address correspondence to Moses Makonjio Okello, The School for Field Studies, Center for Wildlife Management Studies, P.O. Box 27743-00506, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: mokello@fieldstudies.org or moses_okello@yahoo.com

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 387-400
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Estimation of the Determinants of Expenditures by Festival Visitors

Samuel Seongseop Kim,1 Hagchin Han,2 and Kaye Chon3

1Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Leisure and Tourism Management, Halla University, Woonju, Korea
3School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

A good understanding of the predictors of festival visitor expenditures could serve as a guide for the planning of marketing campaigns for successful festival management. Thus, a main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the sociodemographic and festival experience-related variables of visitors on the volumes and patterns of their expenditure. Rather than using an OLS (ordinary least squares) regression model, which requires the continuity assumption when several zero expenditures exist in a dependent variable, this study uses a tobit model. The results of the tobit analyses indicate that certain variables seem to be more important than others, and reveal variations in the effects of determinants on the estimates of expenditures. In particular, "overnight versus no overnight stay" was found to be a significant predictor for all six categories of expenditure. It was also found that the role of sociodemographic variables such as age, marital status, occupation, and place of residence was minimal, except in the case of specific expenditure categories.

Key words: Festival; Expenditure; Tobit model

Address correspondence to Samuel Seongseop Kim, Ph.D., Associate Profesor, Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Sejong University Seoul, Korea, 143-747. E-mail: sskim@sejong.ac.kr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 401-411
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Destination Image and Tourist Attitude

Woomi Phillips1 and Soocheong (Shawn) Jang2

1Department of Apparel, Design & Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA

Although destination image has been extensively investigated in relation to tourist behaviors, the ways in which perceived image influences tourist attitude toward tourist destination have rarely been examined. This study is intended to fill the research gap by testing how the cognitive image and the affective image of a tourist destination are interrelated and examines how these destination image components influence tourist attitudes toward the destination. The results indicate that cognitive image influences affective image as expected, but cognitive image components do not have direct effects on tourist attitude. Instead, affective image has a direct impact on tourist attitude. Therefore, cognitive image components appear to have only indirect influences on attitude. It was noted that safety and hospitality was the most influential cognitive image component impacting tourist attitude through affective image for Now York City. Theoretical and marketing implications are also discussed.

Key words: Destination image; Cognitive image; Affective image; Tourist attitude

Address correspondence to WooMi J. Phillips, Department of Apparel, Design & Hospitality Management, Department 2610, P.O. Box 6050, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58104-6050, USA. Tel: 1-701-231-7358; Fax: 1-701-231-5273; E-mail: woomi.phillips@ndsu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 413-425
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Roles of Motivation and Activity Factors in Predicting Satisfaction: Exploring the Korean Cultural Festival Market

Kakyom Kim,1 Jonggab Sun,2 and Edward Mahoney3

1Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, Charlotte, NC, USA
2Division of Tourism Studies, College of Economics, and Commerce, Kyungnam University, South Korea
3Department of Community, Agriculture, Recreation and Resource Studies, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

This study aims at identifying various motivation and activity factors of persons attending a national cultural festival in Korea and assessing the roles of motivation and activity factors in predicting satisfaction with the festival. Analyzing 335 responses obtained from a systematic random sampling method, this research identified eight motivation and five activity factors. The structural analysis reveals that motivations of festival attendees have a very strong and positive direct effect on the importance of various festival activities, but not a direct effect on satisfaction. The importance of festival-related activities has a strong and positive direct effect on satisfaction. These findings have implications for planning, positioning, and promoting their festivals and special events.

Key words: Festival market; Motivations; Activities; Satisfaction

Address correspondence to Kakyom Kim, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Hospitality College, Johnson & Wales University, 801 West Trade Street, Charlotte, NC 28202, USA. Tel: (980) 598-1528; Fax: (980) 598-1520; E-mail: Kakyom.Kim@jwu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 427-432
1083-5423/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Foreign Direct Investment and Tourism in SIDS: Evidence From Panel Causality Tests

Roland Craigwell1 and Winston Moore2

1Research Department, Central Bank of Barbados, Barbados
2Department of Economics, University of the West Indies, Barbados

This study applies panel causality methods to investigate the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and tourism in Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The results of the homogenous and instantaneous causality tests suggest that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between the variables. However, this causality is not homogenous for the group of countries. Indeed, heterogeneous causality procedures indicate that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship for only a small set of countries. For the most part, the causal relationship runs from FDI to tourism, implying that FDI provides much needed capacity for SIDS and therefore allows these countries to expand their tourism product.

Key words: Tourism; Foreign direct investment (FDI); Panel causality tests

Address correspondence to Winston Moore, Department of Economics, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados. E-mail: winston.moore@cavehill.uwi.edu