|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 13, NUMBERS 5/6
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 13, pp. 437-444
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Vacation Flexibility Index: A Measure of Independence in Vacationer Behavior
Kenneth F. Hyde
AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand
Independent travel is generally defined in terms of what it is not: It is not packaged tourism purchased from a travel retailer. Because growing numbers of tourists are choosing to purchase elements of their vacation directly from suppliers, via the Internet, a definition of independent travel based on a traditional view of tourism's channels of distribution appears untenable. An alternative definition of independent travel is proposed, and a measure of independence in vacationer behavior, the Vacation Flexibility Index (VFI), is introduced. Using data on 450 first-time vacationers to New Zealand, VFI measures are shown to vary by travel style segments of the market. VFI measures are also shown to relate to measures on the Novelty Seeking in Tourism scale, and to relate to the advance booking of vacation elements by the tourist. VFI measures are unrelated to the channel of distribution through which the tourist makes vacation bookings. The article concludes with a discussion of the managerial implications of the growing consumer demand for independent vacation travel.
Key words: Vacation tourism; Independent travel; Package tourism; Travel distribution channels; Travel styles
Address correspondence to Kenneth F. Hyde, Senior Lecturer in Marketing, AUT University, Private Bag 92006, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Tel: +64-9-921-9999; Fax: +64-9-921-9990; E-mail: email@example.com
Constructing a Regional Tourism Satellite Account: The Case of Queensland
Tien Duc Pham,1 Larry Dwyer,2 and Ray Spurr2
1School of Tourism and School of Economics,
University of Queensland, Australia
2School of Marketing, University of New South Wales, Australia
This article presents the results of a scoping study to examine the feasibility of constructing Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSAs) for the regions of Queensland, Australia's primary holiday state. The construction of a regional TSA should not be considered as the end of a process but rather as the beginning of an ongoing process to unfold the importance of the tourism sector at a level relevant to policy makers. Regional TSAs may be expected to generate policy-relevant insights so that tourism activity can be adequately nurtured and stimulated at the right time and right place for sustainable regional economic development. This report presents findings regarding the most suitable methodology for the task, given the available data. The construction of a TSA at the regional level is a complex and potentially expensive task, and the aim of this study has been to propose a methodology that will have long-term application and that can be maintained and updated in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Although set in the context of regional Queensland, the discussion is of general interest for regional tourism stakeholders in destinations worldwide.
Key words: Tourism Satellite Account; Regional Queensland; Economic contribution
Address correspondence to Larry Dwyer, Ph.D., Qantas Professor of Travel and Tourism Economics, School of Marketing, Australian School of Business, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052, Australia. Tel: +61 2 9385 2636; Fax: +61 2 9313 6337; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Assessment Model for Cultural Festival Budgets
Woo-Hee Byun,1 Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee,2 and Sang-Hyun Han3
1Department of Tourism Management,
Gyeongju University, Korea
2School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Australia
3Department of Tourism Management, Dong-Eui University, Korea
The purpose of this study is to develop local cultural festivals by providing an effective model for objectively evaluating the tourism events, so that public agencies can allocate the budget in the light of accurate information. It establishes model from analyzing the five cultural festivals in Korea by measuring the evaluation variables and using them as coefficients. This study also provides local governments with objective data to make better decisions when allocating the annual budgets of the cultural festivals. To achieve this, three types of value variables were investigated from industry professionals, Korean/foreign visitors, and local residents. The authors examined the model from the viewpoint of the public officials in charge of budgeting for the festivals. The contribution of this study is that it can be applied to the postevaluation of public tourism projects, and it can also be useful for applying the results to managerial decision making for the future planning of cultural tourism events.
Key words: Cultural tourism events; Budget evaluation model; Fuzzy number; Festivals in Korea
Address correspondence to Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee, Ph.D., School of Tourism, University of Queensland, 11 Salisbury Road, Ipswich, QLD 4305, Australia. Tel: +61 7 3381 1021; Fax: +61 7 3381 1012; E-mail: email@example.com
Exploring Destination Satisfaction: A Case of Kizkalesi, Turkey
Ahmet Bulent Ozturk and Murat Hancer
School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, Oklahoma, USA
This study sought to determine if there were any significant differences on overall destination satisfaction in Turkish tourists with different demographic and travel behavior characteristics. In addition, we analyzed differences in the destination attributes in relation to tourists' demographic and travel behavior characteristics. Study data were collected from 233 Turkish tourists in Kizkalesi, Turkey. We performed factor analysis to reduce the number of destination attributes and to obtain correlated variable composites from the original destination attributes. ANOVA was used to determine significant differences in the overall satisfaction of tourists by demographics and travel behavior characteristics. ANOVA was also used to determine whether individuals' responses to the general destination attributes differed in relation to sociodemographic and travel behavior variables. Results indicated that a significant relationship does exist between overall destination satisfaction and travelers' sociodemographic and trip variables. In addition, we found a significant relationship between specific destination attributes and travelers' demographic and trip variables.
Key words: Destination satisfaction; Kizkalesi; Turkey; Demographics; Travel behavior characteristics
Address correspondence to Murat Hancer, Ph.D., Associate Professor, School of Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Oklahoma State University, 210 HESW, Stillwater, OK 74078-6173, USA. Tel: 405-744-8645; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Understanding Preferences and Characteristics of Japanese Tourists to Hawaii
Jerome Agrusa1 and Samuel Seongseop Kim2
1Travel Industry Management, Hawaii
Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA
2Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Sejong University, Seoul, Korea
Japanese tourists are the largest and most important international segment of tourists to Hawaii. Over the past few years, the number of Japanese tourists to Hawaii has declined significantly. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in attitudinal and behavioral characteristics, and preferences of Japanese tourists in Hawaii according to key sociodemographic variables. The results of this study conclude that sociodemographic variables show significant differences in attitudinal or behavioral characteristics. For example, compared with those with a high school diploma or lower level of education, respondents with a higher level of education were likely to have greater interest in Hawaiian culture. Those who had some college education or a higher level of education showed a greater preference for swimming and taking a cruise tour than respondents with a lower level of education. The results of this study are likely to be beneficial for understanding Japanese tourists and establishing marketing policies to enhance their satisfaction and raise their intention to revisit Hawaii. The findings of this study could be helpful for all stakeholders, including local tour operators, the Japanese Tourism Board (JTB), and Hawaii's tourism officials.
Key words: Japanese tourists; Hawaii; Preference; Segmentation
Address correspondence to Jerome Agrusa, Ph.D., CHE, Professor, Travel Industry Management, Hawaii Pacific University, 1164 Bishop Street, Suite 912, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. Tel: (808) 544-9341; Fax: (808) 544-9396; E-mail: email@example.com
Youth Travelers' Lodging and Dining Preferences
Thouraya Gherissi Labben,1 Joseph S. Chen,2 and Colin Johnson3
1Lausanne Hospitality Research, Ecole
ho^telie`re de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
2Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, Indiana University at Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA
3Department of Hospitality Management, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USA
This exploratory study attempts to understand restaurant and accommodation preferences among young guests (operationally defined as between the ages of 15 and 25) visiting Switzerland on different travel budgets. The study first divides the target population into four categories of visitors: low, medium, medium-high, and high budget. It then evaluates the guests' preferences regarding restaurants and lodging facilities. All four categories perceive attractive prices as the most important attribute in choosing a restaurant. Travelers with high budget also consider speed of service as a pivotal factor. Independently of their budgets, youth guests want their accommodation to be clean and comfortable. Relevant marketing implications and suggestions for future studies are drawn in the conclusion section.
Key words: Youth travelers; Lodging preferences; Dining preferences; Travel expenditures
Address correspondence to Joseph S. Chen, Ph.D., CHA, Associate Professor, Tourism Management Program, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Studies, Indiana University at Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
The Physical Carrying Capacity at the Cultural Heritage Site of Petra
Khalid Magablih1 and Abdulla Al-Shorman2
1Department of Tourism, Yarmouk University,
2Department of Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
This study aims at estimating the physical carrying capacity at Petra and offering alternatives to the current situation, which negatively affects the physical and ecological environments of the site. The study utilized data from the Ministry of Tourism, the Central Bank of Jordan, and Jordan Tourism Board for the years 1999 to 2005. The carrying capacity was estimated based on specific formulas after Boullon. The results show that the calculated carrying capacity (16,200 visitors per month) exceeds the acceptable limits except in January. It is also visible that the number of monthly visitors is about the calculated carrying capacity during the season of Arab tourism in Jordan, which is the largest market segment. The study recommends controlling the seasonality of tourism in Petra, using the Siq as an entry point with a single direction flow for tourists, and adopting a promotional policy that ensures the balanced distribution of tourists around the year.
Key words: Carrying capacity; Petra, Jordan; Cultural heritage; Tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Khlaid Magablih, Department of Tourism, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan. E-mail: email@example.com
Beyond Tiers: A Network Approach to Tourism Distribution
Douglas G. Pearce
Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
Tourism distribution research to date has essentially taken a tier-by-tier approach to questions of channel structure and channel relationships rather than a nodal network approach. This article provides a new perspective by extending existing notions of distribution channels through a more explicit articulation of tourism distribution in network terms. It is based on a review of the literature and is informed by the experience of undertaking a major 5-year project on tourism distribution in New Zealand. Concepts and examples of tourism distribution networks are outlined; limitations in existing distribution research reviewed; ways to take network analysis forward are suggested and illustrated with examples; and the management implications for firms and destination management organizations are outlined. Steps to operationalize a network approach to tourism distribution include identifying the focal actors, considering the form of network and the structural dimensions to be analyzed, developing typologies and exploring network relationships.
Key words: Channels; Destination management; Distribution; Networks; Intermediaries; Suppliers
Address correspondence to Douglas G. Pearce, Victoria Management School, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand. Tel: +64 4 463 5715 (DDI); Fax: +64 4 463 5180; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Resident Typologies Within the Integrative Paradigm of Sustaincentric Tourism Development
Ercan Sirakaya-Turk,1 Linda Ingram,2 and Rich Harrill1
1Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management,
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
2Recreation, Park & Tourism Science, College Station, TX, USA
The purpose of this study was to examine residents' attitudes toward sustainable tourism in Turkey and determine whether resident's attitudes vary according to host typologies using SUS-TAS. SUSTAS, used here as a tool for identifying resident typologies, allowed the identification of three host community typologies. Data was collected from 1,857 randomly selected households in a large city in Izmir, Turkey. A comparative analysis was then performed between Strong Sustainers, Moderate Sustainers, and Weak Sustainers, resulting in significant differences between these resident groups regarding a select few behavioral and demographic variables. Practical and theoretical implications have been discussed within the framework of sustaincentric theory.
Key words: Resident typologies; Resident attitudes; SUS-TAS; Sustainable tourism; Attitude scale
Address correspondence to Ercan Sirakaya-Turk, Ph.D., Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA. Tel: 803-777-3327; E-mail email@example.com
Residents' View of Expected Tourism Impact, Attitude, and Behavioral Intention
I-Yin Yen1 and Deborah Kerstetter2
1I-Shou University, Taiwan
2Recreation, Park & Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
We examined the relationships between expected tourism impacts, attitudes toward local tourism development, and behavioral intention to support local tourism development using data collected from residents of Penghu, Taiwan. The results indicated that expected tourism impacts are perceived to be multidimensional, attitudes differ towards current and future tourism development, and support for and objection to tourism development are separate constructs. Further, the effects of beliefs (i.e., tourism impacts) on attitudes and intentions are not as straightforward as previous research has suggested. Study limitations, implications, and recommendation for future research are discussed.
Key words: Expected tourism impacts; Residents' tourism attitude; Summary evaluation; Behavioral intention; Taiwan
Address correspondence to Deborah Kerstetter, Recreation, Park & Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 801 Ford Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Tel: (814) 863-8988; Fax: (814) 867-1751; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism Information Trust as a Bridge Between Information Value and Satisfaction: An Exploratory Study
Liang Tang and Soocheong (Shawn) Jang
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Online travel information embraces a variety of sources that represent different views and orientations. How do potential travelers decide whether or not to believe the information and, further, use it for their trips? This research proposes a theoretical model of potential tourists' level of trust regarding online tourism information, empirically investigates factors that produce trust (utilitarian value and hedonic value), and identifies beneficial consequences of trust (satisfaction). Structural Equation Modeling was employed to fulfill these research aims. The findings confirm that both the utilitarian and hedonic value attributes of travel information significantly contribute to the generation of trust. Travelers' trust was found to depend upon their satisfaction with online information. This study suggests that tourism information providers should not only limit their views to communicating marketing information and positioning strategies via the websites, but also need to think more about what information "buyers" need and want.
Key words: Information trust; Utilitarian value; Hedonic value; Satisfaction; Structural equation modeling
Address correspondence to SooCheong (Shawn) Jang, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA. Tel: 1-765-496-3610; Fax: 1-765-494-0327; E-mail: email@example.com
Management and Policy Implications of Coastal Tourism Forecasts
Anthony W. Dixon, Chi-Ok Oh, and Jason Draper
Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA
One of the fastest growing segments of the world's tourism industry is coastal tourism. As interest in coastal tourism intensifies, the increasing demand on coastal resources will require local governments and private businesses to obtain information on future tourism demand. However, management agencies often fail to incorporate forecasting results into the strategic planning process. The purpose of this article is to present comprehensive forecasting information of coastal tourism demand using various tourism-related time series variables, and provide public and private agencies with a framework for integrating coastal demand forecasts into the strategic planning process. Two different quantitative forecasting techniques were used to project future coastal tourism demand in South Carolina: Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) methods for short-term and midterm forecasts and Naive 1 method for long-term forecasts. Short-term forecast results suggest accommodation taxes in coastal counties will steadily increase over the next several years, while midterm forecasts of coastal tourism-related employment indicates a significant increase in labor force requirements. Long-term forecasts imply visitation to and demand of beaches and coastal resources will continue to intensify. In the coming years, tourism-related businesses in coastal destinations will be challenged to provide satisfactory experiences due to a small labor pool of quality workers. Failure to incorporate forecasts in the strategic planning process may result in the degradation of tourism resources, resulting in a reduction of tourist visitation. Integrating accurate forecasts into the strategic planning process are essential to improving the likelihood of sustainable development at tourism destinations.
Key words: Coastal tourism; Policy development; Management implications; Tourism demand; Forecasting
Address correspondence to Anthony W. Dixon at his current address: Division of Exercise Science, Sport, and Recreation, Marshall University, Gullickson Hall 104C, One John Marshall Drive, Huntington, WV 25755-2450, USA. Tel: 304-696-2927; Fax: 304-696-6221; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Are Local Residents Fickle Minded? Influence of Moral Beliefs on Perceived Gambling Impacts
School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
This study examines the influence of moral beliefs on casino-style gambling impact perceptions. The subjects under investigation are the local population of the State of Iowa (USA). Results suggest that there is a significant relationship between moral values and the local resident attitudes toward gambling. Moral values predict quite a bit of variance in perceptions and they serve as a catalyst for negative perceptions. Overall, the results indicate that the Iowans are not fickle minded but they are a heterogeneous group of residents and their perceptions reflect their values.
Key words: Moral beliefs; Morality; Impact perceptions; Local residents; Casino gambling
Address correspondence to Deepak Chhabra, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Mail Code 4020 411, N. Central Ave., Ste. 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: 1-602-496-0172; Fax: 1-602-496-0853; E-mail: email@example.com
Skiers' Sense of Snow: Tourist Skills and Winter Holiday Attribute Preferences
Jens Kr. Steen Jacobsen,1 Jon Martin Denstadli,2 and Arne Rideng2
1Norwegian School of Hotel Management,
University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway
2Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway
Winter sports holidaymaking is an essential part of tourism, but skiers and their preferences and perceptions have not been much researched in academic contexts. This article presents certain factors influencing alpine skiers' destination choices and incorporates an examination of how these holidaymakers regard various attributes in relation to their destination choice. The study encompasses three types of destination aspects: ski attributes, price attributes, and destination/facility attributes. Alpine ski holidaymaking is here regarded as a skilled activity, and the skiers' destination choices and the related information sources are analyzed in relation to their winter holiday expertise, operationalized here as skiing skill level.
Key words: Skiing; Holiday; Attribute; Destination choice; Skill; Activity
Address correspondence to Jens Kr. Steen Jacobsen, Norwegian School of Hotel Management, University of Stavanger, NO 4036 Stavanger, Norway. Tel: +4722573800; Fax: +4722609200; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Influence of Natural Disasters on Travel Risk Perception
Kwang-Soo Park and Yvette Reisinger
School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA
This study explores the impact of natural disasters on travel risk perception. A sample of 354 respondents was surveyed as to their perceptions of the influence of natural disasters and travel risk on international travel. Tsunamis, hurricanes, and floods as well as terrorism, crime, health, and natural disaster risks were perceived to have the biggest influence on international travel. A Principal Components Analysis identified two groups of natural disasters, "Snow and fire" and "Wind and water," and perceived "Sociocultural and psychological" and "Physical" travel risk. The simple and multiple regression analyses identified strong relationships between the perceived influence of natural disasters and travel risk perception. Implications of the study results are discussed and recommendations for future research presented.
Key words: Natural disasters; Travel risk perception; International travel
Address correspondence to Dr. Yvette Reisinger, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, 1700 N. Broad Street Suite 201E, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: 215-204-7139; Fax: 215-204-8705; E-mail: email@example.com
Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Tourism and Economic Development
Diaram Ramjee Singh
Department of Management Studies, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica
For several decades many small island developing states (SIDS) have come to rely on tourism as the primary agent of economic development. Although in many instances the industry has emerged as one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors, much of the anticipated developmental benefits that tourism was expected to deliver have failed to materialize. This has influenced several tourism researchers to question the presumed link between tourism and economic development. This article seeks to explore whether such a link exists and if so what is the extent of the industry's contribution among SIDS. To answer these questions the study will rely on evidence obtained from a simple cross-sectional regression model as well as on estimates of the tourism income multipliers that were generated for several of these island states.
Key words: Small islands developing states (SIDS); Import content; Multiplier; Tourist spending; Leakage rate; Economic development
Address correspondence to Diaram Ramjee Singh, Department of Management Studies, Universityof the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica. Tel (876) 977-3775 or 977-3808; Fax: (876) 977-3829; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism and the Social Production of Culture and Place: Critical Conceptualizations on the Projection of Location
Department of Tourism Studies, The Luton Business School, University of Bedfordshire, Bedfordshire, UK
In 2001 Meethan produced a short but dense examination of tourism as a global phenomenon, investigating the political economy of tourism per medium of the so-called problem of cultural commodification. This article now attempts to distill Meethan's much-needed commentary on the complexities of the production of place, culture, and consumption, and critiques his argument that-at the turn of the century, when he was writing-Tourism Studies was (and still is?) a severely undertheorized field in terms of the function that tourism plays in the dynamics of change and transformation of space and place under the contemporary conditions of globalization. Thereafter, this article (and a companion review article in the next issue) seeks to amplify Meethan's outlook on the cultural economy of tourism by showing how tourism is potentially-if not already-a lead vehicle in the valuation/revaluation of local places and, indeed, in the valuation/revaluation of held inheritances, cultures, and cosmologies. To that end, the two articles in tandem introduce the concept of "worldmaking" to describe the creative and collaborative essentializing/normalizing/naturalizing imperatives that ordinarily and routinely run through the representational repertoire of tourism in each place. In this light, an attempt is made to showing how Meethan's thinking on the social production of "locality," "space," and "culture" variously supports or advances the recent insights of Buck, Kirshenblatt-Gimblet, Fjellman, Thomas, and others, on the inventive, corrective, and highly powerful role tourism plays in such everyday worldmaking activities, where many of these commentators on the power and authority of tourism tend to offer their observations from research positions roosted in "other fields" beyond what is commonly taken to be Tourism Studies. While this and the companion (next issue) review article collectively offer general support for Meethan's judgment on the adolescence of conceptuality in Tourism Studies on matters of cultural production, they do point out that there are indeed a number of generally lone-wolf investigators within the domain of Tourism Studies (such as Crang, Crouch, Jamal, Jennings, Morgan, Pritchard, and Tribe) who are, in their different ways, indeed scrutinizing the making, demaking, and remaking of our local/global iconographies and identifications of place and culture. That is, the point is registered in the two artciles that while the field of Tourism Studies indeed continues to be dominated by its managerialist and noncritical prescriptivisms, it does already have its pioneering and protean individual "critical explorers" of the ways in which the world is imagined and made through the agency and authority of tourism. The articles therefore collectively endeavor to provide a clearer breakdown of what these day-by-day, place-by-place, and sometimes confirmatory/sometimes corrective/sometimes freshly inventive worldmaking projections of local lived reality in fact consist of. They thus seeks to collectively advance the ripening of such worldmaking cognitions in many more fertile "conceptual communities" of within-field ruminators in tandem with beyond-the-field researchers across the globe.
Key words: Tourism Studies theory; Globalization/glocalization; Production/consumption; Collaborative representation; Authority; Meethan; Worldmaking
Address correspondence to Professor Keith Hollinshead, Department of Tourism Studies, The Luton Business School, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Luton L.U.2. 8.H.E., Bedfordshire, UK. Tel: 01582: 482555; Fax: 01582: 482689, E-mail: email@example.com