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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 3-13
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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How International is the International Academy for the Study of Tourism?

Graham M. S. Dann

Department of Tourism, Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway

When the International Academy for the Study of Tourism (IAST) was first launched at its charter meeting in 1988, its central stated mission was to foster tourism research internationally. This otherwise subjective insider study attempts to evaluate this goal longitudinally by applying a series of objective indicators to the composition and primary activity of IAST during the past 19 years. In particular, it examines what changes have taken place over these two decades with respect to the source of ordinary membership and of the executive committee, the location of biennial meetings, as well as the editorship and contributor profiles of its six official publications. Regarding the last, an additional chapter-by-chapter linguistic analysis of accompanying references is undertaken, which seeks to establish whether or not there are significant patterns of ethnocentrism. The overall account thus highlights areas of over-representation as well as pointing to spheres of underrepresentation. Looking toward the future, the article explores the implications of a continuation of such trends for the organization as a whole.

Key words: International Academy for the Study of Tourism; Members; Executive; Publications; Citations

Address correspondence to Graham M. S. Dann, Department of Tourism, Finnmark University College, Alta, Norway. E-mail: dann_graham@yahoo.co.uk

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 15-27
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Indigenous Tourism

Tom Hinch1 and Richard Butler2

1Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK

Indigenous peoples have been seen as a tourist attraction for many years, but they have little control over the tourism activities that are generated nor do they reap many of the potential benefits. However, in conjunction with recent gains in other spheres of their existence such as their success in traditional land claims and more general empowerment in the realm of their sociopolitical standing, they have begun to take more active roles in the tourism economy. Since the publication of Tourism and Indigenous Peoples by Butler and Hinch over a decade ago, indigenous tourism activity has continued to grow, as have the debates about its merit. At the most fundamental level, these debates pit tourism as an agent for indigenous peoples' economic independence and cultural rejuvenation against arguments of hegemonic subjugation and cultural degradation. For indigenous people, the essence of their competitive tourism advantage lies in their unique cultures. This article reviews the conceptual foundation of indigenous tourism as first articulated by Butler and Hinch in 1996 and then focuses on specific themes and issues identified in Butler and Hinch in 2007 that relate to the present and future nature of indigenous tourism. It draws heavily on the introductory and concluding chapters of that volume, and the case studies contained within it. After briefly discussing the problems of definitions and empowerment, the article examines the topic from the standpoint of a number of key issues and themes: image, vulnerability, education and training, knowledge, linkages, ownership and control, ideology, and relationships. The conclusions argue that the prospect for indigenous tourism is uncertain, despite its many positive attributes. It is likely to remain a niche form of tourism, mostly small in scale, dependent on mainstream tourism elements for access to and from markets, but of increasing importance to many indigenous communities as a supplementary form of income and, perhaps, and as one form of economic and cultural empowerment.

Key words: Indigenous tourism; Issues; Themes; Empowerment; Indigenous peoples

Address correspondence to Richard Butler, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0LG UK. E-mail: r.butler2@btinternet.com

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 29-36
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In the Beginning: The Making of a Book About Some Beginnings of Tourism Study
(Dennison J. Nash, Editor, The Study of Tourism: Anthropological and Sociological Beginnings, 2007)

Dennison Nash

Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA

This venture in reflexivity attempts to trace the production of an edited book that deals with the early history of the field of tourism research as seen through the personal histories of its founders. In a kind of ethnographic study of an unexpectedly new and unusual productive process that involved a series of problems (e.g., culture shock) and opportunities (e.g., for creativity) experienced by the editor and other participants in the study, an insider's view of some researchers' constructive activity in laying out the emergence and development of a new field of science was obtained.

Key words: Reflexivity; Personal histories; Culture shock; Creativity

Address correspondence to Dennison Nash, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. E-mail: Dennison.Nash@uconn.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 37-48
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The Relationship Between Positive Psychology and Tourist Behavior Studies

Philip L. Pearce

Foundation Professor of Tourism, School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia

Positive psychology is an area of study that seeks to highlight the role of positive emotions, character strengths, and positive institutions serving human happiness and well-being. There has been a rapid rise in prominence of this area of psychology since the year 2000 and tourism studies have not yet made as many connections to the new study area as might be expected. This article reviews the basic concerns in positive psychology and highlights two areas of study in tourist behavior-specifically, the study of optimism and the assessment of positive emotions of visitors during their experience-to illustrate some of the potential in establishing connections. Further possibilities to build fresh insights for tourist behavior studies are noted, including a richer scrutiny of the underlying dimensions of the experience economy and broader appraisals of tourists' satisfaction. It is argued further that the direction of influence need not be uniformly one way. For example, tourism research can offer insights into the operation of mindfulness and the assessment of authenticity in different ways from that conceived of by psychologists working in more constrained experimental settings. Further, the scope and scale of attention to positive psychology themes in tourism settings may also have important consequences for the integration and wellbeing of tourism researchers into broader, very active, and increasingly well-respected academic communities.

Key words: Positive psychology; Happiness; Well-being; Positive emotions; Optimism

Address correspondence to Philip L. Pearce, Foundation Professor of Tourism, School of Business, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia 4811. E-mail: philip.pearce@jcu.edu.au

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 49-63
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An Assessment of the Outcomes of a Chinese-Language Interpretive Tour Experience at a Heritage Tourism Attraction

Pieter Van Dijk and Betty Weiler

Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Victoria, Australia

This study uses the first translated version of an established and validated instrument to assess the impacts of an interpretive tour experience on Chinese visitors to a heritage tourism attraction in Australia. The study makes a significant methodological contribution by way of testing the reliability of this instrument in a Chinese cultural context. In addition to its methodological contribution, the study represents the first known published research evaluating the impacts of Chinese-language interpretive tours on inbound visitors from China. Based on results from 285 self-completed surveys, the instrument reliably assessed that visitors' perceptions of their interpretive experience were average to very good on cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs. Notwithstanding the fact that work still needs to continue in refining one of the ten indicators, the instrument provides practitioners and researchers with a reliable and valid tool for assessing the outcomes of heritage interpretation in two very different cultural contexts.

Key words: Chinese tour groups; Heritage tourism attractions; Interpretation; Visitor outcomes

Address correspondence to Professor Betty Weiler, Director, Tourism Research Unit, Monash University, Berwick Campus, PO Box 1071, Narre Warren, Victoria, Australia 3805. Tel: (03) 9904 7104; Fax: (03) 9904 7225; E-mail: betty.weiler@buseco.monash.edu.au

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 65-83
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Destination Branding Input-Output Analysis: A Method of Evaluating Productivity

Asli D. A. Tasci and Basak Denizci

School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

In the turbulent and competitive marketplace, branding by differentiation is accepted as a strategy for competitive advantage of destinations. However, the process of differentiation poses both challenges and opportunities for destination marketing authorities due to the intangible nature of destination products. In order to avoid threats and take advantage of opportunities, destination marketing has to be applied in its true meaning, namely, research, development, and integrated marketing communications. However, destination marketing authorities also have to make sure that resources used for marketing a destination result in measurable outputs. This article proposes a branding input-output analysis to define the productivity of destination branding activities. To provide a concrete basis for destination marketing authorities, models and formulas are generated along with practical implications and future research suggestions.

Key words: Destination branding; Return on brand investment; Integrated marketing communication; Branding input-output analysis; IMC; ROI; ROBI

Address correspondence to Asli D. A. Tasci, PhD, Assistant Professor, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Fax: +852 2362-9362; E-mail: adatasci@yahoo.com

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 85-101
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourists' Attitudes Toward the Use of Animals in Tourist Attractions

Amir Shani1 and Abraham Pizam2

1Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Eilat Campus, Eilat, Israel
2Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA

To identify tourists' opinions and attitudes on the use of animals in tourist attractions, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted with three focus groups of tourists who visited Orlando, Florida. The findings indicated that the participants' ethical perceptions of animal-based tourist attractions were made up of three hierarchically ordered layers: (1) general justifications for operating such venues, (2) a belief in the driving forces leading to an ethical operation, and (3) the specific conditions required for the ethical operation of animal-based tourist attractions. The results and their meanings are discussed as a framework for future research in this field.

Key words: Animals; Animal-based tourist attractions; Ethical perceptions

Address correspondence to Abraham Pizam, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819, USA. Tel: 407-903-8010; Fax: 407-903-8105; E-mail: apizam@mail.ucf.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 103-113
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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What Are the Effects of Dyadic Relationships on Organizational Commitment?

Ahmet Aktas, Aylin Aktas Alan, and Yakin Ekin

Akdeniz University, Faculty of Business, Alanya, Turkey

The purpose of the study is to investigate the quality of the relationship between leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and subordinates' organizational commitment. It aims to maximize organizational success by establishing positive interactions between subordinates and managers. A survey was completed by 147 full-time employees in five-star hotels in the region of Kundu, Antalya, Turkey. Collected data were entered in SPSS 11.0 in order to perform statistical analysis. Factor, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were carried out. The study suggests that improving the quality of LMX will increase subordinates' sense of commitment. Development and maintenance of a mature dyadic relationship will benefit not only supervisors and subordinates but also the organization as a whole in the achievement of organizational growth and success. The results are limited within the sampled subordinates' views in five-star hotels. Due to the low season, time and budget constraints, and implementation of questionnaires to certain departments might be evaluated in the limitations of the study. This study examined LMX quality measurement in the tourism industry. Moreover, it encompasses an attempt to measure organizational commitment of subordinates spontaneously. By doing so, it is the first application that handles these two topics together in Turkey.

Key words: Leader-member exchange; Organizational commitment; Tourism industry

Address correspondence to Ahmet Aktas, Akdeniz Üniversitesi, Alanya Isletme Fakültesi, Merkez Mahallesi, Sigorta Caddesi Kestel, Alanya, Turkey. Tel: +90 242 518 20 37; Fax: +90 242 518 20 51; E-mail: aktas@akdeniz.edu.tr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 115-125
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Measurement of the Destination Evaluation Supporting Factors and Their Effects on Behavioral Intention of Visitors: Antalya Region of Turkey

A. Akin Aksu,1 Meltem Caber,2 and Tahir Albayrak2

1School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Akdeniz University, Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey
2Akdeniz University Manavgat Vocational School, Manavgat, Antalya, Turkey

In this study, the authors tried to identify the basic destination attributes that affect visiting tourists most, by ignoring their pre-visit expectations and using a performance-only approach. Considering one year's tourism data of the Antalya region, five different structured questionnaires (in English, German, Russian, Dutch, and French) were given to a sample of visiting tourists. In all, 4,493 out of 13,461 questionnaires were returned, representing a 33.37% rate of return. According to the results of exploratory factor analysis, five factors (health and hygiene, shopping, information, local transportation, and accommodation) contributed to the differentation of the destination attributes. In addition to these, in order to understand the interrelationships between destinations evaluation supporting factors and behavioral intentions of the visitors, structural equation modeling technique was used by the authors.

Key words: Destination evaluation; Behavioral intention; Destination attributes; Structural equation modeling

Address correspondence to A. Akin Aksu, Akdeniz University, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, (07058) Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: 00 90 242 310 20 22; Fax: 00 90 242 227 46 70; E-mail: aaksu@akdeniz.edu.tr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 127-135
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Research Note
Turkish Visitors to Italy: Notes on the Cultural Package Tourist

Özlem Ünal

Urban Planner, Montecampano - Amelia (TR), Italy

This research analyzes characteristics and economic aspects of culture-oriented package tourism focusing on Turkish visitors traveling to Italy. Data references the package tour arrangements covering 2,278 visitors traveling in 82 package groups. This information was gathered via random sampling in 2003. Although the number of travelers in each group ranged from 8 to 54, the average group size was 27.78. Seven- and four-night packages were the standard packages having 57.95% and 31.96% shares, respectively, followed by three-night packages at 4.08%. Results show that the mean total cost of holiday per person was €260.00 (US$308.20) and mean total cost per person per night was €45.37 (US$53.78). Study results also indicate that if the number of nights stayed increased, the mean cost of package per person per night decreased. The overall findings contribute toward a better understanding of the Turkish package tourism characteristics and show that package tourism generates economies of scale that keep the prices relatively low and allow more people - especially from developing countries, in this case being Turkey - to be involved in international tourism. Finally, the paper suggests future research.

Key words: Package tourism; Cultural tourism; Turkish visitors, Italy

Address correspondence to Dr. Özlem Ünal, Urban Planner, Strada di Passo Carini 10 c, Montecampano-Amelia (TR) Italy. Tel: 0039 07441926072; Fax: 0039 0270033246; E-mail: unalozlem68@yahoo.com

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 139-152
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The "Worldmaking" Prodigy of Tourism: The Reach and Power of Tourism in the Dynamics of Change and Transformation

Keith Hollinshead

Department of Tourism Studies, The Luton Business School, University of Bedfordshire, UK

This review article is the second of a pair of articles that introduce the field of Tourism Studies/Tourism Management (hereafter Tourism Studies) to the concept of "worldmaking" as an operational construct to help critically describe the creative/inventive role and function of tourism in the making of culture and place. In the first article - the companion manuscript, which appeared in the preceding issue of Tourism Analysis - the recent work of Meethan in Tourism in Global Society: Place, Culture, and Consumption (hereafter "Tourism as Global Society") was used as a conceptual catalyst to help make the case for deeper and more frequent critical and interpretive inspections of the power and reach of tourism in significantly and variously contributing to the making/demaking/remaking of peoples, places, and pasts, rather than just serving as a reproducing authority cum agency, which just mirrors what is already there in each location. While Tourism Studies was found (by Meethan) to be an as yet rather contained theoretical field, the concept of worldmaking was put forward in the first article as a thinking tool to assist critical understanding of the everyday articulation and the everyplace effectivity of tourism as a particular strong and pervasive producer of political meanings (or contested versions) of locality. In this follow-up article, an attempt is made to encourage more commonplace reflective and reflexive examinations of the creative and inventive manufacture capacity of tourism - as it works, or is worked upon, in collaboration with other formative and educative vehicles in society - to produce particular vistas of place and space, or to otherwise reconfigure the held visions of meaning and of becoming by populations. Such is the very prodigy of tourism (such are the potential prodigies of tourism!!), with all the immense myriad cultural, social, psychic, and political - as well as economic and environmental - ramifications that are entailed by that sort of sometimes-grand-and-magnificent/sometimes-petty-and-quotidian mediation of locality and heritage. While the article concludes by codifying (and damning!) a number of clichés that litter much hastily-derived contemporary commentary on and about tourism - as drawn from the insight-loaded sociological work of Meethan - this second article is composed under the judgment that too many commentators in Tourism Studies (itself) are prone to reifying tourism as an almost undifferentiated industrial force of globalization. Such a judgment suggests that too many who work within Tourism Studies uncritically depict tourism as an almost-inevitable set of almost-neat impacts or almost-neat processes that affect places in almost-unstoppable and repeatable fashions across the globe. Such recurring (if generally implied rather than exhaustively shown) commentaries in the field of Tourism Studies are inclined to far too frequently envision local or involved populations merely as being nothing more than passive agents of "tourism" - that is, as a sort of fodder for the unrelenting growth of the expansionist and almost-predictable industry. Running through both of these companion articles on the worldmaking role and function of tourism, therefore, is the view that the creative authority and inventive agency of tourism is something that can be (or is being) used positively by groups and communities - in accordance with their own perspective, of course - at all levels of society to express new/corrective/fresh enunciative visions for local places. It can also be (and is being) used negatively - again, in perspectival regard - to silence, suppress, or subjugate other unwanted interpretations of place, space, or local inheritance. Such is the declarative and clearly pungently political force of tourism as it is deployed in worldmaking fashion in concert with (or at times, wholly against) other coproductive and co-generative narrative-issuing mediating forces in and across society. The two companion articles were first presented as one overall keynote delivery at the second Critical Tourism Studies Conference in Split, Croatia, in 2007. An earlier version of the combined/aggregate presentation may be found in a 400-page work by Ateljevic, Pritchard, and Morgan within the Elsevier Advances in <i>Tourism Research series: The Critical Turn in Tourism Studies: Innovative Research Methods<i>.

Key words: Worldmaking; Mediating vision; The imaginal reach of tourism; Invented reality; Coproduction; Compossibility

Address correspondence to Professor Keith Hollinshead, Department of Tourism Studies, The Luton Business School, University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Luton LU2 8HE Bedfordshire, England. Tel: 01582: 482555; Fax: 01582: 482689; E-mail: khdeva@btopenworld.com