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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 425-441
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Supporting Mobility: Evaluating Mobile Technology Advances in Tourism

Alan Clarke,1 Ágnes Raffay,1 Pietro Beritelli,2 and Andreas Wittmer3

1Tourism Department, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary
2Institute for Public Services and Tourism, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
3HSG-Center for Aviation Competence, University of St. Gallen, Switzerland

This is a product of the work undertaken by the Aladdin consortium to develop mobile support systems for tourists and tour guides to meet the demands for relevant, up-to-date information and problem-solving options in real time in the destination. There are many approaches advocated to evaluation and this article considers the implications of hard and soft approaches, over and under evaluating projects, and the issues of inclusion and exclusion of key actors from the evaluation. A framework for the review of the evaluations undertaken within seven completed projects, critically assessing the methods used, is presented leading to a model of best practice, advocating greater clarity in evaluation, emphasizing the importance of transparency, traceability, and triangulation. The process has been informed by the need to be reflexively critical (taking our own processes through a process of critical examination, evaluation, and reflection) and we have been concerned to ensure that Aladdin learns from and builds on those experiences and that our own development processes are transparent, reflexive, and self-critical.

Key words: Evaluation; Methodologies; Techniques; Mobile information; Critical reflection

Address correspondence to Professor Alan Clarke, Tourism Department, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. E-mail: Clarke@turizmus.uni-pannon.hu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 443-455
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Methodological Considerations When Mapping Tourist Movements in a Destination*

Bob Mckercher and Gigi Lau

School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR

The aim of this article is to discuss some of the operational challenges involved in conducting a broad-based study tracking the movements of tourists within a destination. The authors report on their experiences in conducting a study of tourist movements in Hong Kong. In particular, the article discusses the merits of using different emerging digital tracking technologies and trialing the use of tracking through the mobile phone system. The trial failed due primarily to a lack of cooperation from tourists. They found this technology too invasive. The article concludes with a discussion of factors that others may want to consider when considering conducting similar research.

Key words: Tourist movements; Urban; Telephone tracking; Mapping

Address correspondence to Professor Bob McKercher, School of Hotel and Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR. Tel: (852) 2766 6553; E-mail: hmbob@polyu.edu.hk

*An earlier version of this article was published in the Proceedings of the TTRA Europe 2007 Conference.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 457-470
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Cultural Mobility and Acceptance: The Case of Japanese Tourists in Alpine Destinations

Sabine Mueller, Mike Peters, and Klaus Weiermair

Department of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism, School of Management, University of Innsbruck, Austria

The purpose of this article is to identify and evaluate determinants of cultural acceptance among tourists. Specifically the question to be answered is: which variables influence travelers' cultural mobility and which clusters of cultural interest can be identified among specific groups of Japanese long-haul distance travelers to alpine destinations? While the first part of the article provides a literature review focusing on tourists' cultural mobility, the second part of the article presents a case study in form of a survey that was carried out in the winter of 2005/2006 in the Alpine region of St. Anton, Austria and Zermatt, Switzerland. The two winter sport destinations differ appreciably in terms of their characteristics of cultural supply vis-à-vis Japanese long-haul visitors. Japanese tourists had been asked to indicate their travel motives as well as their satisfaction with the supplied tourism products and services offered. In addition, the questionnaire assessed their overall destination activities and their participation in cultural/local events. The authors were able to cluster Japanese long-haul tourists into two groups. To do so, their participation in local cultural events was analyzed and interpreted. The authors present this case study in order to demonstrate the relevance for continued research in the area of cultural and spiritual mobility. Tourism policy implications as well as suggestions for the design of destination authenticity will be presented in the final part of the article.

Key words: Cultural mobility; Tourist experiences; Alpine tourism

Address correspondence to Mike Peters, Department of Strategic Management, Marketing and Tourism, School of Management, University of Innsbruck, Austria, Universitätsstrasse 15, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Tel: +435125077085; Fax: +435125072845; E-mail: Mike.peters@uibk.ac.at

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 471-481
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Conceptualizing the Creative Tourist Class: Technology, Mobility, and Tourism Experiences

Ulrike Gretzel and Tazim Jamal

Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Increasing mobilities and an ever greater amount of technologies that support creativity have led to the emergence of a so-called Creative Class in our postmodern society. Creative Class members have distinctive experiences that blur the boundaries between everyday and touristic life. These experiences challenge conventional typologies of the tourist experience and have tremendous implications for tourism research and practice. In this article we discuss first what the Creative Class is, what experiences it has, and how it uses emerging technologies to create, mediate, and reconstruct these experiences. A special emphasis is placed on the relationship the Creative Class has with technology, in particular consumer-generated media. The discussion draws on literature from different fields, stressing the need for an interdisciplinary perspective to analyze and understand the phenomenon. Next, the article proposes that there is indeed an emergence of a creative tourist class with distinct tourism experiences. We then argue that these insights call for a new conceptualization of tourism experiences in general. A tourism experience sphere is presented and described that seeks to overcome some of the limitations of our current conceptualization and understanding of tourists' experiences. The sphere represents a multidimensional space enabling combinations of experience aspects and dimensions (these are illustrative items and not meant to be an exhaustive categorization). The article closes with an agenda for future research regarding tourism experiences, creative tourists, tourism product development, and tourism marketing.

Key words: Creative Class; Experience; Mobilities; Technology; Consumer-generated media

Address correspondence to Ulrike Gretzel, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, TAMU 2261, College Station, TX 77843-2261, USA. Tel: (979) 862-4043; E-mail: ugretzel@tamu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 483-502
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Building a Mobile Tourist Guide Based on Tourists' On-Site Information Needs

Joerg Rasinger, Matthias Fuchs, Thomas Beer, and Wolfram Höpken

eTourism Competence Center, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

Mobile information services are gradually supplementing and may in the future even replace traditional information sources to support tourists during on-site stay. The scope of the article is to identify mobile information services, already in the preprototype phase, types and functionalities of which are most relevant to tourists during their urban destination stay. For this aim a user-centered approach using both focus groups and expert surveys is proposed. In addition, multiple regression based on acceptance data gathered from 705 tourists allows the deduction of potentially accepted mobile information services targeted to the specific destination use. Finally, by drawing on these results, the architectural framework as well as the various building and implementation steps of a mobile tourist guide called innsbruck.mobile are discussed.

Key words: Mobile tourist guide; Preprototyping; Focus groups; Expert surveys; Architectural framework

Address correspondence to Matthias Fuchs, eTourism Competence Center, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. E-mail: matthias.fuchs@etourism-austria.at

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 503-513
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Beyond Ecotourism: The Environmentally Responsible Tourist in the General Travel Experience*

Sara Dolnicar1 and Patrick Long2

1Marketing Research Innovation Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia
2North Carolina Center for Sustainable Tourism, Division of Research and Graduate Studies, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

A shift of attention from the dominant product orientation in environmentally sustainable tourism to a demand orientation has been suggested as a way of minimizing the effects of the inherent trade-offs the tourism industry faces between maximization of profits and investment in environmental sustainability. The success of such an approach depends on the existence of a class of tourists who are not only motivated to take care of the natural surroundings of the host destination, whether they are traveling in an ecotourism or general tourism context, but also represent an economically attractive market segment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is empirical evidence for the existence of such a segment among the wider tourism population and, if so, how can it be characterized and thus marketed to. Willingness to pay is used as a criterion to define this segment, as it implicitly accounts for the trade-off that suggests environmental protection comes at a price. Results from the empirical survey study conducted in Australia indicate that environmentally responsible tourists who are willing to pay for environmental initiatives taken on by their tour operator can be characterized by a distinct profile with respect to travel information seeking, destination preferences, travel behavior, and willingness to pay-indicating that targeting such a segment of tourists in the general tourism context represents an attractive supplementary strategy to traditional supply-sided measures of sustainable destination management.

Key words: Environmentally responsible tourists; Sustainable tourism; Green tourism; A priori segmentation; Profiling

Address correspondence to Sara Dolnicar, Marketing Research Innovation Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Tel: +61 2 4221 3862; Fax: +61 2 4221 4154; E-mail: sarad@uow.edu.au

*This article is a further improved version of the paper presented at the TTRA Europe Conference in 2007.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 515-520
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Research Note
Motivation Segmentation of Chinese Tourists Visiting the US

Xiangping Li,1 Yueying Xu,2 and Pamela A. Weaver1

1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA
2School fo Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Tangjia, Zhuhai, China

This study attempts to segment Chinese tourists visiting the US based on items representing motivations. A factor-cluster approach was used to analyze the data. Factor analysis resulted in six underlying motivation factors: Relaxation/Escape, Prestige, Knowledge, Job Fulfillment, Entertainment, and Novelty. Based on the six motivation factors, cluster analysis identified three homogeneous groups of respondents. The distinct groups were identified as High Brow Traveler, Enthusiastic Traveler, and Reluctant Traveler. Marketing implications were provided based on the

Key words: Chinese tourists; Motivation; Factor-cluster segmentation

Address correspondence to Xiangping Li, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 353 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. E-mail: lxpwj@vt.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 523-536
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Knowledge Production in Tourism: The Evaluation of Contextual Learning Processes in Destination Studies

Ariane Portegies, Theo De Haan, and Vincent Platenkamp

NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands

In this review article, the reviewers argue that the field of Tourism Management/Tourism Studies requires a more decided contextual approach in order to handle the growing complexity of "knowledge production" in international research and education needs in and around tourism development. Portegies, de Haan, and Platenkamp maintain that-in a network society where different types of society interfere with one another-complex contextual learning processes take place that are not taken into account seriously enough within the education and research milieux of the field. At NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences (in the Netherlands), a curriculum for higher education has emerged through the years that attempts (mainly in Southeast Asia) to incorporate these sorts of learning processes in various cross-cultural environments. Over the years, there, an originally "more instrumental approach" to destination analysis has changed into a contextual one in which participants have become much more sensitive in their capacity to receive and understand the perspectives of found stakeholders at particular international tourism destinations. This contextual approach is now evaluated (within this review article) in comparison to the aforesaid previously dominant instrumental approach to the production of knowledge about destinations. It does so by addressing to the important distinction between mode 1 and 2 knowledge production (after Gibbons et al.) and by adding assessments built around a mode 3 type of knowledge production (following Kunneman), which relates to normative and existential awarenesses. Readers of Tourism Analysis are invited to comment on the observations of Portegies, de Haan, and Platenkamp, in terms of the fit of contextual learning processes in other parts of the world or otherwise with regard to the relevance of mode 1/2/3 sorts of knowledge production to Tourism Management/Tourism Studies. Short critiques of 1,000 words (maximum) on either of these subjects should be sent to the Review Editor of Tourism Analysis at khdeva@btopenworld.com. [Review Editor's abstract]

Key words: Contextual learning process; Changing perspectives; Tourism destinations; Modes 1, 2, and 3 of knowledge production; Vietnam; Cambodia; Bali

Address correspondence to Dr. Vincent Platenkamp, Associate Professor, Centre for Cross-cultural Understanding, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences, Breda, The Netherlands. Tel: 0031(0)76-5332236; Fax: 0031(0)76-5332295; E-mail: Platenkamp.v@nhtv.nl

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 537-555
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tradition and the Declarative Reach of Tourism: Recognizing Transitionality-the Articulation of Dynamic Aboriginal Being.
A Critique of Swain's Overview of Continuity and Adaptation in "Australian" Aboriginal Reality, With Relevance for the Discerning Presentation of Mutable/In-Between Peoples Elsewhere

Keith Hollinshead

Professor of Public Culture, Tourism Studies, University of Bedfordshire, Luton, UK
Visiting Professor, Tourism Studies, University of Western Sydney, NSW, Australia

Tourism increasingly has an important role to play not only in the interpretation of distant/removed populations for tourists, and in the fresh projection (i.e., in the enunciation) of populations who have been subjugated or suppressed by another "colonial" or "dominant" population of some kind. In recent years, for instance, a number of Aboriginal groups and communities in Australia have begun to embrace tourism not just for the direct economic gains it might bestow upon them, but because they can use their participation in the industry to explain aspects of their culture to other people. And Aboriginal groups have also become keen to use the projectivity and the performativity of tourism to draw attention to their particular claims for those lands and territories from which they have been dispossessed over the past 200 years, or more. It is therefore important that those who work within tourism in Australia-and, likewise, those who work in other places where a disempowered or developing primal population is now besieged by (or otherwise actively courts) the industry-become conversant with contemporary change within Aboriginal culture. This article thereby seeks to explore the cosmology of certain Aboriginal populations in the northern half of the Australian continent to show how indigenous spirituality (among other things) has gone through, and is still going through, profound modification over the last several decades. The problem is that those who work in Tourism Studies tend to be heavily oriented (after the field-leading writing of MacCannell, Cohen, Graburn, and Wang et al., on matters of "authenticity," per se) to overarching notions of TRADITIONALITY. To some extent, as Thomas has argued in Anthropology, Travel and Government, such objectivist-flavored and essentialist-minded writing has restricted the field's vision over culture, and has held back the field's held awarenesses about the ordinary TRANSITIONALITY of life and cosmology (i.e., about the ongoing dynamics that generate continual change and regular variation within societies in the order of things). To that end, this review article on (Australian) Aboriginal spiritual reverence provides a critique of Swain's recent examination of indigenous religiosity and selfhood. It draws from Bhabha to advance general understanding of the spiritual uncertainties and ambiguities of everyday cultural "being." And it also draws from Horne to advance specific understanding within Tourism Studies (for those who manage/promote/research sites that have an Aboriginal focus or part content) as to how current representational and interpretive work can be rendered more "relevant" and "empowering" for contemporary/emergent/transitional indigenous people. Tourism can beget new healthy vibrant futures. Tourism can articulate stale old knowledge, and can continue to help cripple misunderstood/misrepresented peoples. Tourism certainly matters, cosmologically. Though Swain himself does not focus upon the articulative power of tourism, per se, there are many lessons for Tourism Studies that could be drawn from his examination of the changing state of Aboriginal spirituality today-a thing that so many tourists from the "West" or from "North Atlantic" metropolitan nations wish to see/to visit/to experience (as is already well documented in the literature). Anyone who reads Swain's work closely will realize how difficult it is for outsiders (in the tourism industry and elsewhere) who work with indigenous societies to understand the local/Aboriginal allocation of meaning to things during the world's giddy contemporary moment of increasingly transitionality for supposedly "highly traditional" peoples. Indigenous responses to objects, to practices, and to beliefs introduced from the outside cannot be readily and axiomatically explained through some highly predictable classification system that describes some fixed indigenous cultural order. Objects, practices, and beliefs that are appropriated by indigenous populations ought not be essentialized and thereby seen exclusively as what they originally "were," but should more commonly be recognized for what they in fact "become" after locally creative recontextualization by particular indigenous population(s). All sorts of objects, and practices, and even beliefs, can have a rather different and promiscuous life under the imaginative exchanges which occur as indigenous societies variously and variably transitionalize. Because tourism will be an increasingly common site for such engagements in the difficult-to-read ordinary enactments of the politics of value during the 21st century, it is vital that Tourism Studies cultivates critical interpreters like Swain who have been trained to examine how Aboriginal/indigenous populations indeed deal on the ground with things and with conceptual persuasions introduced to them-and to their mythic imaginal-through tourism.

[A version of this article was first delivered at the Spirituality and Tourism conference held at the University of Lincoln in England in 2006. Readers of Tourism Analysis are invited to send in short (1000 word) statements or critical commentaries on the power/reach/authority of tourism in not just projecting tradition or traditionality but in articulating transitional cultural positions or "unfixed"/"in-between" identities.]

Key words: Restless/halfway populations; Aboriginality; "Australian" Aboriginal being; Abiding Law; Structured locative independence; The old business; Codes-of-being; Spirituality; Darshana; Intelligent tourism; Enunciation; Explanatory logic of tourism; Old sense/new sense; Emergent people(s); Promiscuous "objects"; Dialectics of reification

Address correspondence to Prof. Keith Hollinshead, Professor of Public Culture, Tourism Studies, The Business School, The University of Bedfordshire, Putteridge Bury, Luton LU2 8LE Bedfordshire, UK. E-mail: khdeva@btopenworld.com