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Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 559-572
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Cyclical Representation of the UK Conference Sector's Life Cycle: The Use of Refurbishments as Rejuvenation Triggers

Julie Whitfield

School of Services Management, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, UK

Butler's tourism area life cycle (TALC) model is one of the most influential and frequently quoted tourism-related life cycle frameworks. Extensively applied and critiqued, it remains a cornerstone in tourism research. The model classifies the hypothetical temporal development of a destination into a series of stages, these being exploration, involvement, development, consolidation, stagnation and decline, and/or rejuvenation, which when aggregated are represented diagrammatically as a S-shaped curve. This article presents a theoretical extension of the TALC model, based on the decade in which UK conference venues initiated their conference product life cycle, and the use of refurbishments as state changing triggers to rejuvenate the conference product life cycle. This theoretical extension is applied to the four conference venue classifications that together constitute the UK conference sector, namely purpose-built venues, hotels, educational establishments, and visitor attractions. Each of these venue types initiated its life cycle at different times, with individual venues progressing through their life cycle and either stagnating or rejuvenating through the use of refurbishments at differing times throughout the last five decades. Based on these findings, a linear model can be applied to the development of the UK conference sector. However, undertaking refurbishments, and thus the rejuvenation of the conference venues' life cycle, are occurring at differing times, and therefore this article forwards the view that today a cyclical model is more appropriate to the UK conference sector.

Key words: UK conference sector; Cyclical representation; Refurbishment; Rejuvenation; Butler tourism area life cycle (TALC)

Address correspondence to Dr. Julie Whitfield, Events Management Lecturer, School of Services Management, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1202 965158; Fax: +44 (0) 1202 515707; E-mail: jwhitfield@bournemouth.ac.uk

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 573-586
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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An Analysis of the Effects of Cooperative Advertising on Tourism

William B. Mckinney,1 Mary F. Hazeldine,2 and Sudhir K. Chawla3

1Department of Accounting, Economics & Finance, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA
2Department of Management, Marketing & Logistics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA, USA
3Department of Management and Marketing, Angelo State University, San Angelo, TX, USA

A 2 x 2 factorial experimental design was used to test the effect of cooperative advertising on an individual's propensity to visit an area. Cooperative advertising and co-op programs both refer to advertising communication whose sponsorship and cost are shared by more than one party. The term partner refers to either other cities/towns or various types of business entities. For the tourism industry the main object of co-op programs is to create demand for an area as a tourist destination of choice and demand for local goods/services offered by co-op partners. Results showed that visitor preference for cooperative advertisements increased in situations where advertisements were viewed for low effectiveness, that is, the level of advertising or copy effectiveness/believability was low. This was especially true for historical and average city types. Differences in visiting preferences between business and leisure travelers were not supported by the data. It is suggested that small towns embrace cooperative advertising strategies to help attract tourists.

Key words: Tourism; Hospitality; Cooperative advertising

Address correspondence to Mary F. Hazeldine, Associate Dean & Professor of Marketing, Georgia Southern University, P.O. Box 8002, Statesboro, GA 30460-8002, USA. Tel: 912-478-7896; Fax: 912-478-2626; E-mail: hazeldine@georgiasouthern.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 587-603
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Historical Districts: Exploring the Use of Photographs and Slide Experiments

Taketo Naoi,1 David Airey,2 and Shoji Iijima1

1Department of Business and Commerce, Okayama Shoka University, Okayama-ken, Japan
2School of Management, University of Surrey, Surrey, UK

This study explores approaches and methods to investigate visitors' evaluation of historical districts. Personal interviews with use of repertory grid analysis and laddering analysis and slide experiments with photographs were conducted with a sample of students to reveal relationships between various evaluative components. The results of the two sets of methods are examined in a comparative manner to obtain abundant insights into evaluations of historical districts and the efficacy of these methods. The results provide insights into issues raised by past studies. Particularly, they shed light on the complex nature of visitors' evaluation of historical districts, as represented by the mixed effects of the presence of other people, commercialization, and modernity. Personal interviews and slide experiments are found to be mutually complementary in that, while the former illuminate the complex relationships between components of subjects' evaluations, the latter depict these relationships in a more holistic and simple form by uncovering the commonality between the elicited components. The findings of the slide experiments also suggest room for further attempts to elicit evaluative components. Further studies of this kind with different groups of subjects and in different field settings would provide further insights into this complex area.

Key words: Historical district; Repertory grid analysis; Laddering analysis; Slide experiment; Photograph

Address correspondence to Taketo Naoi, Department of Commerce, Faculty of Business and Commerce, Okayama Shoka University, 2-10-1 Tsushima-Kyomachi, Kita-ku Okayama-shi, Okayama-ken, Japan, 700-8601. Tel: +81 (0) 862520642; Fax: +81 (0) 862556947; E-mail: taketonaoi@yahoo.co.jp

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 605-620
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Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Independent Bicycle Tourism: A Whole Tourism Systems Perspective*

Matthew Lamont

Southern Cross University, Lismore, Australia

Leiper's model of whole tourism systems is a useful conceptual framework for generic research into tourism. However, several limitations can be identified regarding its capacity to describe elements that comprise whole tourism systems involving independent bicycle tourism. This article draws on a combination of empirical evidence, existing literature, and critical analysis to demonstrate how two geographic elements of whole tourism systems, transit routes and tourist destination regions, can be reconceptualized to better reflect tourist flows associated with independent bicycle tourism. It is suggested that for independent bicycle tourists, the concept of a destination is multidimensional. Furthermore, two distinct transit routes used by such tourists are identified. An adapted model of whole tourism systems specific to independent bicycle tourism is proposed and implications for theory and practice are discussed as are avenues for future research.

Key words: Bicycle tourism; Whole tourism systems; Special interest tourism

Address correspondence to Matthew Lamont, Associate Lecturer, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW 2480, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6626 9428; Fax: +61 2 6620 3565; E-mail: matthew.lamont@scu.edu.au

*Parts of this article have been published in the proceedings of the 2008 New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference, Lincoln University, Hanmer Springs, December 3-5.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 621-636
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Destination Attractiveness: Attractions, Facilities, and People as Predictors

Sebastian Vengesayi,1 Felix T. Mavondo,2 and Yvette Reisinger3

1School of Management, Faculty of Business, University of Tasmania, Hobart Campus, Tasmania, Australia
2Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne, Australia
3School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

This article examines the influence of tourist attractions, destination support services, and people related factors on the attractiveness of a tourism destination. A sample consists of 275 tourists visiting major tourism destinations. Through moderated regression of models the study identifies the main contributors to destination attractiveness. Destination attractions are found to be the core determinants of the attractiveness; destination support facilities and services, and people-related factors are the secondary determinants. Support facilities and services and people-related factors explain equivalent variances suggesting they are complementary rather than substitutes.

Key words: Destination attractiveness; Attractions; Support services; People

Address correspondence to Yvette Reisinger, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University, 1810 N. 13th Street, Speakman Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122. Tel: 215-204-7139; Fax: 215-204-8705; E-mail: yvette.reisinger@temple.edu.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 637-650
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Expectation Maximization Algorithm Cluster Analysis for UK National Trust Visitors

Shuang Cang

School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Poole, Dorset, UK

This article aims to investigate the segmenting of UK National Trust (NT) visitors based on behavior and motivation for the visit. The main focus of the article is to apply the more powerful, robust, and stable expectation maximization (EM) algorithm cluster analysis method together with PCA (without varimax rotation), which is rarely used in a tourism context, to the NT data set. This study identifies four clusters of NT visitors, and also identifies the most important items (questions) in the classification of NT visitors, which is the satisfaction with the NT service. The intracluster inequality, which means the diversity of the cluster, is also analyzed. Each cluster has its own characteristics and the results of cluster analysis will be useful for future NT marketing management to maximize the benefit to the NT. The diversity of each cluster is also discussed.

Key words: UK National Trust; Cluster analysis; Principal components analysis; K-Means; Expectation maximization algorithm

Address correspondence to Dr. Shuang Cang, Senior Lecturer, School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Dorset House, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1202 966758; E-mail: scang@bournemouth.ac.uk

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 651-663
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ant Colony Optimization Approach for Estimating Tourism Receipts and Expenditures: The Case of Turkey

M. Duran Toksari1 and Murat Toksari2

1Industrial Engineering Department, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey
2The Department of Business, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey

The present study develops two forms to estimate tourism receipts and expenditures to Turkey based on ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. ACO approach is first used to estimate tourism receipts and expenditures. Tourism has become one of the largest and most rapidly growing sectors in the world economy during the second half of the 20th century. So forecasting correctly tourism receipts and expenditures is vital for economics. ACO is a multiagent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve an optimization problem. Ant Colony Optimization Tourism Receipt Estimation (ACOTRE) model uses the gross national product (GNP), balance of receipt ??expenditure, rate of tourism receipts in the export earnings, and average expenditure per foreigner. Furthermore, Ant Colony Optimization Tourism Expenditure Estimation (ACOTEE) model uses the GNP, balance of receipt ??expenditure, rate of tourism expenditure in the import earnings, and average expenditure per citizen. Linear and quadratic forms of both ACOTRE and ACOTEE are proposed and quadratic models of both provided better fit solution. The proposed models can be used as an alternative solution for estimating tourism receipts to any country. The ACOTRE and ACOTEE models plan the tourism receipts to Turkey until 2025 under some scenarios.

Key words: Forecasting; Ant colony optimization; Modeling; Tourism forecast; Turkey

Address correspondence to M. Duran Toksari, Engineering Faculty, Industrial Engineering Department, Erciyes University,38039, Kayseri, Turkey. Tel: +90 352 4374901; Fax: +90 352 4375784; E-mail: dtoksari@erciyes.edu.tr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 665-675
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

How Do We Get Baby Boomers and Future Seniors on Motorcoaches?

Kam Hung1 and James F. Petrick2

1School of Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, BC, Canada
2Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

The world population is aging. The large number of baby boomers and their substantial consumption power suggests a potential market for tourism businesses. This study investigated how the industry has responded to the change of market. A case study was conducted with the Bus Owners Association of Québec (APAQ) in Québec, Canada to reveal some of the practices that the organization has implemented in order to get baby boomers on motorcoaches. Results of the study suggest that marketers need to closely monitor the changing profile of baby boomers and constantly renovate tourism products/services in order to respond to emerging customers' needs. Based on the case study and past literature, marketing implications on how to effectively target baby boomers and future seniors are suggested.

Key words: Baby boomers; Aging; Motorcoach; Tourism; Marketing mix; Marketing strategies

Address correspondence to Kam Hung, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Tourism, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, P.O. Box 3010, Kamloops, BC, Canada V2C 5N3. E-mail: khung@tru.ca

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 677-689
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Sex Tourism in Northern Cyprus: Investigating the Current Situation

Aril Cansel,1 Erdogan H. Ekiz,2 and Ali Bavik3

1Faculty of Communications, Cyprus Interntation University, Nicosia, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
2Department of Tourism and Hospitality, International College, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3Department of Tourism, Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand

Tourism and sex have commonalities in providing services that satisfy basic physiological and psychological needs of human beings. Traveling to different places for relaxation, excitement and/or fun seeking and related services are long been considered as areas of research in tourism marketing. In this sense, this article deals with controversial side of tourism, sex tourism, by investigating the current situation in an unrecognized country on a Mediterranean island. This article argues that, although it is not been spoken out loud by the government officials and tourism scholars, "sex tourism," by being the fourth "S" after sea, sun, and sand, has the potential to put Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) on the international tourism map, again. Results of several interviews with "involved parties" and review of the published work suggested that ongoing body trade in Northern Cyprus is a "civilized one" where sex workers are willingly work and consider this as their "summer jobs."

Key words: Sex tourism; Night clubs; Sex workers; Northern Cyprus

Address correspondence to Erdogan H. Ekiz, Lecturer, Department of Tourism and Hospitality, International College I-Shou University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Syuecheng Road, Dashu Twonship, Iaohsiung County 840, R.O.C. Taiwan. Tel: (886) 7657 7711, ext. 8812; Fax: (886) 7657 7056; E-mail: erdogan@isu.edu.tw

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 691-697
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
The Role of Large Mammals and Protected Areas to Tourist Satisfaction in the Northern Circuit, Tanzania

Moses Makonjio Okello and Katie Grasty

The School for Field Studies, Centre for Wildlife Management Studies, Karatu-Arusha, Tanzania

The quality of a tourist trip through diversifying attractions and tourist experiences enhances destination loyalty and tourism satisfaction. The Northern Circuit of Tanzania contains six parks that bring many tourists to the country. Information was gathered about tourist satisfaction and attractions in for each protected area in the area. Tourists were most satisfied with Ngorongoro Conservation Area followed by Serengeti and Lake Manyara because of the high density, diversity, and visibility of large mammals. The large mammals mostly sought by tourists were large mammals rather than only members of the Big Five. Kilimanjaro and Arusha had a relatively low popularity compared to Ngorongoro, Serengeti and Lake Manyara parks. It is recommended that the unique contribution of each of the protected areas be highlighted for each protected area in a joint tourism planning and marketing endeavor.

Key words: Local communities; Northern circuit; Tourist satisfaction; Wildlife conservation

Address correspondence to Moses Makonjio Okello, The School for Field Studies, Centre for Wildlife Management Studies, P.O. Box 372, Karatu-Arusha, Tanzania. E-mail: moses_okello@yahoo.com or mokello@fieldstudies.org

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 701-716
1083-5423/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism as an Interpretive and Mediating Influence: A Review of the Authority of Guidebooks in Protected Areas

Stephen L. Wearing and Amy E. Whenman

School of Leisure, Sport, and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, Lindfield, Australia

This short review seeks to present the outcomes of a study that examined the potential effectiveness of guidebooks as a form of interpretation in reducing environmental impacts in a national park. In it, Wearing and Whenman provide a review based on information gained from interviews with 29 trekkers undertaking the Overland Track in Tasmania, Australia. Results from the interviews where correlated with the literature and indicate that trekkers are more likely to use guidebooks at the planning stage of a trek in order to make decisions about what area to visit, what equipment to take, transport, and accommodation. The guidebooks used by trekkers in this inquiry were found to have only a small amount of information on minimal impact messages and such messages were found to be poorly structured. As a result, guidebooks were found to have little influence in mediating responsible environmental behavior in protected areas. The study recommends that well-structured minimal impact messages be incorporated into guidebooks using the Elaboration Likelihood Model of attitude change and persuasion to direct the process. Readers of Tourism Analysis are encouraged to reflect upon how the guidebooks available in their own tourism/tourist arenas strongly influence or undersuspectingly mediate what is there.

Key words: Guidebooks; Tourists; Protected areas; Minimal impact messages; Attitudes; Persuasion; Behavior change

Address correspondence to Stephen Wearing, Associate Professor, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 222 Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia. Tel: +61 2 9514 5432; E-mail: stephen.wearing@uts.edu.au