|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 14, NUMBER 6
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 14, pp. 721-736
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Reflections From Utilizing Reflexive Photography to Develop Rural Tourism in Indonesia
Ignatius Cahyanto, Lori Pennington-Gray, and Brijesh Thapa
Center for Tourism Research and Development, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
Interest in the use of reflexive photography as a method of social research has gained attention in a variety of fields in recent years. Reflexive photography has been used in numerous studies across disciplines to extract information from research participants. A few studies have applied reflexive photography in tourism settings. However, there are some issues of application in tourism research. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of reflexive photography as a method within the context of a rural village in Indonesia. The study was conducted in Sambi village during June-July, 2007. Data were gathered using reflexive photography with 28 participants. Four main issues related to the utilization of reflexive photography are discussed: (1) the importance of absent objects, (2) the strength of meaning, (3) the use of technology by locals, and (4) the timing of the study. The study concluded that reflexive photography can be an alternative tool in local participatory decision-making in tourism development, especially in rural communities. However, due to the unique nature of the method, it is imperative to understand the issues and appropriately plan the utilization to maximize the outcomes. Recommendations for future uses of this method in tourism research are discussed.
Key words: Reflexive photography; Tourism; Meaning; Community; Indonesia
Address correspondence to Ignatius Cahyanto, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, University of Florida, PO Box 118209, Gainesville, FL 32611-8209, USA. Tel: 352-392-4042; Fax: 352-392-7588; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chinese Leisure Tourists: Perceptions and Satisfaction With Australia
Ying Wang1 and Michael C. G. Davidson2
1Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel
and Sport Management, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Australia
2Centre for Tourism, Sport and Service Innovation Research, Griffith Business School, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Australia
Since the mid-1990s there has been a dramatic increase in the number of Chinese visitors to Australia, making China a significant inbound market. This study sought to ascertain how Chinese visitors' perception of Australia changed as a result of their visit. It also examined Chinese visitors' satisfaction across a range of tourism experiences. Research data was collected from 380 Chinese visitors and it was found that "food," "shopping," and "tour itinerary" were areas where Australia underperformed on satisfaction. A gap between pre- and posttrip perceptions was detected and it was found that meeting visitors expectation of quality, variety, and accessibility-related aspects was particularly important in achieving greater satisfaction. The research findings offer Australian tourism operators and marketers an insight into the Chinese visitor's trip experience and satisfaction.
Key words: Destination perception; Visitor satisfaction; Chinese market; Australia
Address correspondence to Ying Wang, Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel and Sport Management, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, QLD 4222, Australia. Tel: +61 (0)7 55528591; Fax: +61 (0)7 55528507; E-mail: email@example.com
Monitoring Visitor Flows in Destinations: The Case of Multiple-Use Hiking Trails in Grand Canyon National Park
Zvi Schwartz, William Stewart, and Erik A. Backlund
Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA
Monitoring trail traffic in popular destinations plays essential roles in governing management actions and assessing effectiveness of operations. In varying degrees, the amount of visitor use is often a key factor linked to extent and type of impacts, maintenance schedules, budget and resource allocations, and when compiled across a period of time, is used to inform planning scenarios and forecast future demand. This study uses direct observation of visitor volume to calibrate counts from infrared technology on multiple-use trails at Grand Canyon National Park during May to October 2004. A calibration procedure was developed to better reflect variability in the proportion of exiting day hikers across time of the day and the trail of use within Grand Canyon National Park. The calibrated exit proportion models had good fits with low mean absolute deviations where the larger the traffic volume the better fit. This finding was replicated across the trails of study, albeit using an explicit calibration model developed for each trail.
Key words: Park planning; Time and motion study; Visitor counts; Calibration technique
Address correspondence to Zvi Schwartz, Department of Recreation, Sport, and Tourism, University of Illinois, 104 Huff Hall, 1206 S. Fourth Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA. Tel: 217-333-1710; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Valuing Brand Equity of a Geographic Region
Tim Brailsford,1 Stephen Dash,2 Marion Hutchinson,3 Ravi Pappu,1 and Brent W. Ritchie4
1UQ Business School, University of
Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
2Investment Banking, JP Morgan Australia Limited, Australia
3School of Accountancy, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
4School of Tourism, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
There is much anecdotal evidence and academic argument that the location of a business influences its value. That is, some businesses appear to be worth more than others because of their location. This is particularly so in the tourism industry. Within the domain of the destination literature, many factors can be posited on why business valuation varies, ranging from access to markets, availability of labor, climate, and surrounding services. Given that business value is such a fundamental principle that underpins the viability of the tourist industry through its relationship with pricing, business acquisition, and investment, it is surprising that scant research has sought to quantify the relative premium associated with geographic locations. This study proposes a novel way in which to estimate geographic brand premium. Specifically, the approach translates valuation techniques from financial economics to quantify the incremental value derived from businesses operating in a particular geographic region, and produces a geographic brand premium. The article applies the technique to a well-known tourist destination in Australia, and the results are consistent with a positive value of brand equity in the key industries and are of a plausible order of magnitude. The article carries strong implications for business and tourism operators in terms of valuation, pricing, and investment, but more generally, the approach is potentially useful to local authorities and business associations when deciding how much resource and effort should be devoted to brand protection.
Key words: Brand equity; Brand valuation; Market-based valuation; Branding geographic regions
Address correspondence to Marion R. Hutchinson, School of Accountancy, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia. Tel: 61 7 3138 2739; Fax: 61 7 3138 1812; E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism Productivity: Incentives and Obstacles to Fostering Growth
Institute for Economic Research (IRE), University of Lugano (USI), Lugano, Switzerland
This article intends firstly to estimate tourism productivity in 208 countries in the years 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2004. Secondly, it analyzes if the differential of productivity across countries could be due to some structural characteristics of the countries themselves. The study uses a stochastic production frontier approach and a technical efficiency model to analyze the determinants of efficiency across countries. Private capital and labor result to be more influential than public capital on the number of arrivals. The results suggest that the tertiary school enrolment, the level of communication technologies, and the country openness to international trade all significantly contribute to efficiency.
Key words: Tourism productivity; Economic growth; Labor; Public capital; Private capital
Address correspondence to Stefania Lionetti, Research Fellow, Institute for Economic Research (IRE), University of Lugano (USI), via Maderno 24, CP 4361, CH-6904 Lugano, Switzerland. Tel: +41-(0)58-666-4790; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Influence of Gender on Travel Risk Perceptions, Safety, and Travel Intentions
Yvette Reisinger1 and John C. Crotts2
1School of Tourism and Hospitality
Management, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, Philadelphia,
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC, USA
This study replicates and extends the work of Reisinger and Mavondo, who explored the influence of national culture on travel risk and safety perceptions, anxiety, and travel intentions. The current study differs in that it adds gender as a key explanatory variable alone and in combination with national culture to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the influences on risk perceptions and future travel intent. Respondents (290 females and 239 males) from different nationalities (Asia, Australia, Europe, UK, US) were surveyed as to their cultural orientations, travel risk and safety perceptions, anxieties, and future intentions to travel. Female respondents perceived traveling internationally as involved higher risk, were more anxious, felt less safe, and intended to travel less internationally than male respondents regardless of their cultural orientation. However, in the male sample the long-/short-term cultural orientations of respondents were the most significant predictors of travel risk and safety perceptions. In both groups, terrorism and sociocultural risk emerged as the most significant determinants of travel anxieties and perceptions of safety. In the female group, intentions to travel internationally again were determined by anxiety, whereas in the male group they were determined by perceived safety. Implications of the study results are discussed.
Key words: Gender; Safety perceptions; Risk perceptions; Travel intentions
Address correspondence to Yvette Reisinger, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Fox School of Business and Management, Temple University, 1810 North 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA. Tel: 215-204-7139; Fax: 215-204-8705; E-mail: email@example.com
Evaluating Popular City Destinations' Websites: A Framework for Website Assessment
Gökce Özdemir1 and Osman Gök2
1Department of Tourism and Hotel Management,
Yasar University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
2Department of International Trade and Finance, Yasar University, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
Information gathering has fundamental effects on travel-related decision-making process. When destinations use the Internet effectively, they possibly enjoy more successful destination marketing processes, more concentrated branding and promotion efforts, as well as a diversified destination image. Websites of city destinations can contain various features, including attractions, accommodation and transportation information, downloadable materials, maps, etc. A website design that is rich in content may attract prospective visitors, stimulate repeat visit intentions, and extend the duration of stay. This study primarily aims to analyze the features that are relevant to the contents of city destinations' websites and to generate a framework for website evaluation of city destinations. The Internet provides opportunities for virtually endless creative and diverse applications; however, most city destinations' websites do not adequately engage in such efforts, and they are almost identical with regard to the types of applications used for the content presentation.
Key words: Destination marketing; City destinations; Destination website
Address correspondence to Gökce Özdemir, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yasar University, Universite cad. No: 35, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey. Tel: +90 232 411 5000; Fax: +90 232 411 5020; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Travel Meta-Search: Opportunity or Threat?
Natasa Christodoulidou,1 Daniel J. Connolly,2 and Pearl Brewer3
1College of Business Administration
and Public Policy, California State University-Dominguez Hills, Carson,
2School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA
3William F. Harrah College of Hotel Administration, University of Nevada-Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV, USA
In the world of travel distribution, the Internet serves as a disruptive technology. It gives rise to new tools and methods to transact business and provides consumers with greater access to information and better means to comparison shop. One such set of tools gaining in popularity is travel (meta) search engines, which simultaneously search multiple travel-related websites for travel accommodations, availability, and pricing information and then link consumers with travel suppliers or online travel agencies (OTAs) to finalize the booking process. These tools hold great potential to further alter the distribution landscape and shift the balance of power in the relationship between buyers and travel suppliers. Using institutional theory and coercive isomorphism as the theoretical underpinnings, this multiple case study explores the impact of travel meta-search engines and the potential strategic threats they introduce. It attempts to understand the phenomenon of travel search engines looking from the perspectives of online travel agencies.
Key words: Institutional theory; Coercive isomorphism; Electronic commerce; Global distribution channels; Internet distribution channels; Travel meta-search; Travel intermediaries; Online travel agencies (OTAs); Hotel booking; Lodging accommodations; Case study method
Address correspondence to Natasa Christodoulidou, Assistant Professor of Marketing and Hospitality Management, College of Business Administration and Public Policy, California State University-Dominguez Hills, 1000 E. Victoria Street, Carson, CA 90747-0005, USA. Tel: (702) 292-3952; E-mail: email@example.com
Managerial Perspective on Regional Marketing Activities of Destination Management Organizations (DMOs)
Ruhet Genç1 and Ige Pirnar2
1Faculty of Economics and Administrative
Studies, Department of International Logistics and Transportation, Beykent
University, Ayazaga Campus, Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey
2Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Yasar University, Selcuk Yasar Campus, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey
Destination management is an important competitive marketing method for global tourism destinations. Especially, when cooperated with image and brand management, it helps destinations to stand out from today's severe crowd of competition. The successful and efficient destination management companies usually play a major role in marketing their destinations, but there exists a conflict in literature on the level of involvement in related marketing activities. Though managing an autonomous organization having its' own budget and freedom in decision making seems to be the best solution to meet the rapidly changing trends and needs of global tourists, it needs to be analyzed within the organizations' managerial level. The aim of this article is to determine the perspectives of DMO managers from the most important two destinations in Turkey, which is a very popular country that is usually in the first 10 in the international tourism market. The destinations chosen are Istanbul and Izmir, which by using destination management within the last 10 years were able to become popular global brands in the world market by increasing their share rapidly.
Key words: Destination management; Management organizations; Tourism; Destination marketing
Address correspondence to Dr. Ruhet Genc¸, Chairman, Beykent University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Studies, Department of International Logistics and Transportation, Ayazaga Campus, Sisli, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Residents' Attitudes Toward Casino Gambling in Kyrenia, North Cyprus: In Search of Theoretical Explanation?
Habib Alipour1 and Edwin M. Vughaingmeh2
1School of Tourism & Hospitality
Management, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Turkey
2Travel Consultant, CAMSA TOURS, Douala, Cameroon
This study attempts to explore the residents' perception of casino gambling tourism in the coastal resort city of Kyrenia in north Cyprus (TRNC). After the closure of casinos in Turkey in the 1990s, Kyrenia became a spatial choice by the gambling industry and with the cooperation of the government in north Cyprus, the city has become home to the casino gambling tourism that has mushroomed in and around the city. The casino gambling tourism has been perceived as an agent of economic growth by the investors from outside and the indigenous policy makers inside. To explore the residents' attitudes towards gambling in their community, a survey questionnaire was administered to a non-randomly selected sample of residents in Kyrenia, and Spearman's Rho correlation tests were used to explore the relationships between community concerns, socioeconomic concerns, and community attachment as main constructs to evaluate residents' attitudes towards casino gambling. Overall, 32 items were used to explore linkages between the mentioned three constructs/community concerns, and casino gambling-related attitudes. Results indicate that the residents, by overwhelming majority, are negative about casino gambling in their community. Whilst residents are not in favor of banning casino gambling, they perceive casino gambling not as an engine of economic growth, but rather as a political and economic project that has bypassed their concerns and alienated their rights to be involved and to participate in the process. Therefore, the results revealed that residents have not been an equal partner in the process and have remained an outsider to casino gambling-that employed and was implemented as a "growth machine." The results also indicate that the "growth machine" theory stands tall and explains the case of Kyrenia in comparison to the economic dependency, social exchange, and to the community attachment theories. The study also provides an insight into residents' attitudes toward the issue of growth and development within a community as a result of a specific form of tourism-casino gambling.
Key words: Residents' attitudes; Casino gambling; Tourism development; Growth machine thesis; North Cyprus
Address correspondence to Habib Alipour, Associate Professor, Eastern School of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, TRNC, Via Mersin 10, Turkey. Tel: +90 392 630 1392; Fax: +90 392 365 1584; E-mail: email@example.com
Distinctive Features of the Australian Gambling Industry and Problems Faced by Australian Women Gamblers
Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee
School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
The money generated by state and territory governments from various gambling activities in Australia represents about 12% of their individual tax revenues. Gamblers using Australia's 188,000 electronic gaming machines (EGMs) in hotels and clubs spent AU$9.55 billion (US$8.02 billion) in 2003-04. In recent years, the Australian gambling industry has experienced significant changes, particularly in terms of the increased participation of women in the industry. This article highlights those features of the Australian gambling industry that make it unique, including the effects that casinos and EGMs have had on Australian society and, in particular, on Australian women. The article concludes by providing nine recommendations including support groups, clocks, jogger cards, and education, to help reduce problem gambling among Australian women.
Key words: Australia; Electronic gaming machines (EGMs); Women's gambling; Problem gambling
Address correspondence to Timothy J. Lee, Ph.D., Lecturer in Hospitality Management, School of Tourism, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 Australia. Tel: +61 7 3346 7091; Fax: +61 7 3346 8716; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org