|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 15, NUMBER 1
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 3-16
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Confirmation Versus Contestation of Tourism Theories in Tourist Jokes
George S. Wise Professor of Sociology (Emeritus), Department of Sociology and Anthropology, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
Tourism has a playful side, and its apparent lack of seriousness has frequently been the butt of irony, derision, and satire, even by social scientists. Since MacCannell's attack on Boorstin's critique of tourism, social scientists have taken tourism seriously. An ironic critique of tourism became unfashionable. However, tourists are still frequently seen as funny by the general public, and tourism, in its various manifestations, remains a topic of popular humor and critical satire. Jokes about tourists constitute an important aspect of the public's perception of tourism as a social phenomenon, but have yet to be taken seriously by students of tourism; they remain a virtually unexplored topic in tourism research. This article argues that jokes about tourists are not just innocent fun, but can be fruitfully explored as indirectly conforming or contesting some of the more sweeping propositions by theoreticians of tourism about its nature and social functions. To demonstrate the argument, jokes on several specific topics, like the tourists' quest for authenticity and Otherness, the alleged reversal of quotidian life in vacations, and the restitutive role of tourism are examined. This leads to the important conclusion that jokes help to discover and illuminate some aspects of touristic situations, which have been commonly overlooked in the literature.
Key words: Jokes; Tourism theories; Authenticity; Vacations; Tourist photography
Address correspondence to Erik Cohen, 61/149 Senanikhom 1, Pahon Yothin Rd. 32, Bangkok 10230, Thailand. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Impacts of Climate Variability and Potential Climate Change on Tourism Business in Torbay, England and Implications for Adaptation
Katie Jenkins1 and Sarah Nicholls2
1Cambridge Centre for Climate Change
Mitigation Research, Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge,
2Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies (CARRS) and Geography, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
As one of the world's largest and fastest growing industries, tourism's dependence on the natural environment and climate mean that it is extremely vulnerable to, and could be dramatically affected by, climatic variability and change. However, the vulnerability of the tourism industry to climate change is generally poorly understood by stakeholders, and the adoption of appropriate adaptation strategies remains in the early stages. This study investigates the impacts of climate variability and potential climate change, the level of destination vulnerability, and the adoption of adaptation strategies in Torbay, England. Data were obtained from 106 tourism businesses in the area. Results showed that over 60% of tourism businesses in Torbay have already been affected by changing climatic conditions, for the most part increased storm intensity and frequency, and shifts in seasonality. These changes were also perceived as the greatest future threat to businesses. However, businesses often failed to recognize the role that the good environmental performance of their business could play in minimizing the negative impacts of climatic variability and change. The major barriers to implementing any adaptive changes identified by respondents were cost, a lack of government incentives, and lack of knowledge. The provision of additional information regarding the interrelationships between tourism and climate change-to businesses and tourists-was one of the main needs identified by the study. These issues must be addressed if businesses are to change their attitudes and, ultimately, behavior, minimize the negative impacts of climate change, and take best advantage of the potential opportunities offered by this phenomenon.
Key words: Climate variability; Climate change; Tourism; Adaptation; Vulnerability
Address correspondence to Sarah Nicholls, Departments of Community, Agriculture, Recreation & Resource Studies (CARRS) and Geography, 131 Natural Resources Bldg., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1222, USA. Tel: 1 517 432 0319; Fax: 1 517 432 3597; E-mail: email@example.com
Vanua and the People of the Fijian Highlands: Understanding Sense of Place in the Context of Nature-Based Tourism Development
Deborah L. Kerstetter,1 Kelly S. Bricker,2 and Huan Li1
1Department of Recreation, Park, and
Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park,
2Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA
Sense of place meanings were addressed with Fijian Highlanders experiencing nature-based tourism development. Using cultural consensus analysis we found that sense of place was represented through multiple themes, yet Fijian Highlanders did not show a high degree of consensus or homogeneity with respect to sense of place. This lack of homogeneity may be due to a number of factors including, but not limited to, the introduction of a new economic option into the villages, inherent differences between individuals who were born in the village versus those who have moved into the village due to marriage, spatial scale differences, and/or the transitory nature of younger residents. Looking toward the future, the authors explore the potential outcomes of additional research with similar populations and/or methods.
Key words: Culture; Cultural consensus analysis; Fijian Highlanders; Sense of place
Address correspondence to Deborah L. Kerstetter, Recreation, Park, and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 801 Ford Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Tel: (814) 863-8988; Fax: (814) 867-1751; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Social Responsibility as an Innovative Approach for Enhancing Competitiveness of Tourism Business Sector in Egypt
Mohammed I. Eraqi
Tourism Studies Department, Faculty of Tourism & Hotels, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt
The purpose of this article is to improve the understanding of the manner in which tourism companies deal with key stakeholders in relation to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Egypt, focusing in particular on how tourism business sector companies can handle critical issues related to CSR and utilize these experiences in enforcing their regular social responsibility for gaining more competitive edges in the global tourism markets. The article methodology is based on collecting data from the Egyptian tourism companies through questionnaire forms. Statistical Means, Z test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to measure the social responsibility criteria in the Egyptian tourism business sector and to interpret the research outcomes. The research results explained that tourism business sector managers' attitudes towards CSR criteria are positive. They actually have defined policies regarding CSR and practice activities regarding CSR issues. However, CSR should be managed by a combination of handling unexpected episodes that threaten existing social responsibility and the long-term reduction of gaps between stakeholder expectations and the tourism business sector performance. Furthermore, CSR implies building and maintaining relationships with society through interplay between actors, resources, and activities for improving the competitiveness of tourism business sector companies in Egypt.
Key words: Social responsibility; Tourism; Competitiveness; Indicators; Measurements; Egypt
Address correspondence to Dr. Mohammed I. Eraqi, 110/4B/Bitco, 32 AL-Ahram Street, Giza, Egypt. Tel: 20233846243, Mobile: 0183514571; E-mail: email@example.com
Estimating Elasticity of Demand for Tourism in Dubai
Cedwyn Fernandes and Ajit V. Karnik
Department of Economics, Middlesex University, Dubai, UAE
This study estimates the elasticity of demand for inbound tourism from 24 countries to Dubai with a view to understand the factors that influence this demand. The variables tourist arrivals, real per capita income, relative prices, and accommodation costs were tested for panel unit roots, and panel cointegration was employed to determine the specification of the models to be used. These models were estimated employing Fixed Effects and Random Effects approaches. The choice between Fixed and Random Effects models was made using the Hausman Test. Determinants of the elasticity of demand for the entire panel are consistent with theory. Within the subgroups there are differences. Arab countries and countries of the Indian subcontinent have an income elasticity of demand ?1. Tourists from the developed countries seem to be the most sensitive to relative prices and the cost of accommodation is significant only for tourists from the Arab and Indian subcontinent countries. Income elasticity of tourism especially from Arab countries and countries of the Indian subcontinent is high, indicating that marketers should tailor their strategies accordingly. Accommodation costs have negative impact on demand, highlighting the need for more budget hotels. Relative increase in prices has a negative impact on tourism demand, highlighting the need to control domestic inflation.
Key words: Tourism elasticity of demand; Dubai tourism demand; Dubai tourism
Address correspondence to Cedwyn Fernandes, Associate Professor in Economics, Middlesex University, P.O. Box 50067, Dubai, UAE. Tel: +9714 3693972; Fax: +9714 3672956; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Investigating the Temporal Dynamics of Tourist Movement: An Application of Circular Statistics
Prem Chhetri,1 Jonathan Corcoran,2 and Colin Arrowsmith3
1School of Business IT and Logistics,
RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
2School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
3School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
This article explores temporal variability, referred to as temporal dynamics, in the movement patterns of tourists. Circular statistics were used to compute circular mean times and dispersions for different groups of tourists using data collected with Global Positioning Systems receivers at Port Campbell national Park in Victoria, Australia over a 2-day period. The results indicate that there is a tendency for tourists to visit the site around noon. The differences in the circular mean times computed for different regions and for different types of tourist are not significant. Nonetheless, kernel density estimation plots enabled variability, exhibited in terms of peak time and modality in patterns of visitor use, to be detected.
Key words: Circular statistics; Temporal dynamics; Visitor monitoring; Global positioning systems; Nature-based tourist destinations
Address correspondence to Prem Chhetri, School of Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3000. Tel: 03 9925 1392; Fax: 9925 5960; E-mail: email@example.com
Child Labor in the Tourism Industry in Jordan
Khalid Magablih1 and Mahmood Naamneh2
1Department of Tourism, Faculty of
Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
2Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
This study seeks to investigate the sociocultural dimensions of child labor in the tourism sector in Jordan. It focuses primarily on the causes, conditions, and consequences of such rising, yet alarming, phenomenon in the Jordanian society. An extensive scholarly work has been done on child labor in an attempt to realize the magnitude, causes, and impact of the problem. Nonetheless, child labor in tourism has not received adequate attention from scholars, professionals, or officials. Tourism has recently become an important realm that pulls in a significant number of children. Poverty and disenchantment with the educational system are considered major factors behind child labor in Jordan.
Key words: Jordan; Child labor; Tourism; Sociocultural; Poverty; Globalization
Address correspondence to Dr. Khalid Magablih, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, Faculty of Archaeology & Anthropology, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
The Pay for In-Flight Food and Drinks Policy and Its Impact on Travelers' Experience
Center for Peace Through Tourism Research, Tourism Management, Stenden University, The Netherlands
Information about customer satisfaction and service quality in the hospitality and tourism industry is hardly visible in the academic literature, mainly due to the proprietary nature of the data. Similar information in the airline industry literature is even less visible, even though policies change. One of the most recent policies in the airline industry is the pay for in-flight food and drinks. This article offers information about the policy, and empirically examines its impact on travelers' experience. A sample of 217 cases was used for the analysis. Randomly selected travelers were queried about their experience with paying for in-flight food and drinks and related issues, such as intention to pay, pay arrangement, and desired mode of payment. Generally, most travelers did not support the policy, and those who have had the experience found it cumbersome. On the other hand, overall quality on board, including food and service, was perceived rather positive. Subsequent recommendations for airline companies were offered.
Key words: In-flight food; Policy; Airline industry; Travel and tourism; Customer satisfaction
Address correspondence to Dr. Omar Moufakkir, Director International Center for Peace through Tourism Research, Tourism Management, Stenden University, The Netherlands. Tel: (31)58 2441301; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Application of Mcclelland's Need Theory to the Casual Dining Industry
Catherine R. Curtis1 and Randall S. Upchurch2
1Rosen College of Hospitality Management,
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
2Hospitality & Tourism Management, College of Management, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA
It should be understood that to date there has been a plethora of motivational research addressing employee needs, expectations, and motivational systems that have by-and-large expounded upon the merits of various motivational theories; however, the work by McClelland is devoid in the hospitality literature and especially so concerning restaurant personnel. This latter observation is interesting in that McClelland's Need Theory is considered seminal in the broader context of understanding human behavior on personal and professional levels. In applying McClelland's theory, the present research study sought to determine if front of the house restaurant workers were motivated by (a) need for achievement, (b) need for affiliation, (c) need for power, or a combination thereof. For the purpose of this study, data were collected from three free-standing units for a national branded restaurant chain located in the southeastern US. The exploratory factor analysis results indicates that these front of the house personnel are strongly motivated by two of McClelland's postulates; those being the Need for Achievement (nAch) and the Need for Affiliation (nAff).
Key words: Motivation; Need for affiliation; Need for achievement; Need for power; Restaurant employees
Address correspondence to Randall S. Upchurch, Ph.D., Chair, Hospitality & Tourism Management, University of Wisconsin-Stout, College of Management, 415 10th Avenue, HE 443, Menomonie, WI 54751-0790, USA. Tel: (715) 232-1407; Fax: (715) 232-2588; E-mail: email@example.com
Evaluating Tourism Community Preferences
Timothy Tyrrell, Cody Morris Paris, and Mallory Casson
Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University
of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA
School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
A short online survey of Kingman Arizona residents included two approaches for determining the relative importance of social, cultural, environmental, and economic attributes to community quality of life. A simple multiattribute choice approach gave noticeably different results from a standard independent attribute ranking approach and lead researchers to recommend socially oriented tourism development projects over economically oriented ones.
Key words: Community preferences; Multiattribute surveys; Quality of life
Address correspondence to Timothy Tyrrell, Ph.D., School of Community Resources and Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Ave., Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004-0690, USA. Tel: (602) 496-0156; Fax:(602) 496-0953; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Economic Geography of Remote Tourism: The Problem of Connection Seeking
Doris Schmallegger,1 Dean Carson,2 and Pascal Tremblay2
1School of Business, James Cook University,
2School for Social and Policy Research, Darwin, Australia
The current literature on peripheral tourism appears conceptually weak for its inability to distinguish between different types of "peripheral" destinations. This review article argues that "remote" destinations have intrinsically different characteristics compared to peripheral ones and require different theoretical approaches to better explain the dynamics of tourism in remote areas. The review builds on theoretical models from the fields of economic geography and political economy, which have been largely absent from peripheral research in Tourism Studies in the past. In particular, the Canadian "staples thesis" is seen by these authors to offer some valuable insights into the unique patterns of economic development and core-periphery relationships in remote areas. They argue that while peripheral areas usually have entrenched relationships with a clearly defined core, remote areas are characterized by "disconnectedness" and face substantial challenges in establishing viable connections with other places. This review article thereby suggests that understanding the processes and implications of connection seeking is critical if tourism is to provide an effective tool for economic development in remote areas.
Key words: Remote; Peripheral; Tourism; Economic development; Staples thesis; Core-periphery; Disconnectedness
Address correspondence to Doris Schmallegger, School of Business, James Cook University, P.O. Box 6811, QLD-4870, Cairns,Australia. E-mail: email@example.com