ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 147-165
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327605
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Scale-Adusted Latent Class Model: Application to Museum Visitation

Paul F. Burke,1 Christine Burton,1 Twan Huybers,2 Towhidul Islam,3 Jordan J. Louviere,1 and Chelsea Wise1

1University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
2University of New South Wales, Australia
3University of Guelph, Canada

Preferences of tourists and visitors are varied in a number of markets, making it difficult for managers to understand how underlying segments might respond to changes in service offerings. Market segments differ in preferences for specific features, as well as how consistently they make their choices. In this article, we illustrate recent developments in choice modeling that allows for simultaneously modeling feature preferences and consistency of choice. We use the Scale-Adjusted Latent Class Model (SALCM) to better understand choices in the context of a research project conducted in collaboration with six major Australian museums involving a sample of 3,685 museum visitors. We identify three preference classes of museum-goers that explain preferences for levels of 26 museum attributes: Life Force (two thirds of visitors), Educated Thinkers, and Wealthy At-Homes. Our results indicate sensitivity to general entry prices, including preference for free entry or entry "by donation." Tours are preferred if smaller, lengthier, and conducted by paid museum staff. Not unexpectedly, the findings suggest that museums should cater for children, with some classes responding positively to providing supervised child areas. Most visitors prefer museums that are dynamic, offer new experiences, and regularly update permanent displays. However, the three classes identified have different overall experience preferences; for example, Educated Thinkers see museums as an educational opportunity, but Wealthy At-Homes prefer entertaining experiences. Incentives for return visits and cross-museum promotional offers are valued by the Life Force class, but have little effect on Educated Thinkers. The SALCM approach may be attractive to other areas of tourism analysis, especially where offerings contain many attributes and potential market segments are difficult to define and understand.

Key words: Museum visitation; Discrete choice experiments; Latent class models; Heterogeneity;Segmentation

Address correspondence to Dr. Twan Huybers, Senior Lecturer, School of Business, University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2600, Australia. Tel: +61 2 6268 8075; Fax: +61 2 6268 8450; Email: t.huybers@adfa.edu.au

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 167-181
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327641
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Linking Urban Forests and Urban Tourism: A Case of Savannah, Georgia

Jinyang Deng,1 Kathryn G. Arano,2 Chad Pierskalla,1 and Joseph Mcneel2

1Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA
2Division of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA

The importance of linking forests and tourism has long been recognized and studied in forest management, community development, and tourism. However, little has been written specifically about urban forests' role in urban tourism development. Based on data collected from Savannah, GA, this article develops a structural equation model to explore the linkages among urban forest appeals, city beauty, tourism experience, tourism satisfaction, and destination loyalty. The results indicate that urban forests can positively and significantly contribute to the enhancement of city beauty and enrichment of tourist experience, which, in turn, positively and significantly contributes to tourism satisfaction, which can significantly lead to destination loyalty. This study also finds that urban forests not only function as a main attractor for most visitors, but also serve to complement other tourism attractions (i.e., historical sites) in the city.

Key words: Aesthetics; Destination competitiveness; Image; Planning; Urban forests; Urban tourism

Address correspondence to Jinyang Deng, Assistant Professor, Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program, West Virginia University, 325 Percival Hall, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA. Tel: (304) 293-6818; E-mail: jinyang.deng@mail.wvu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 183-196
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327687
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Distance Matters: An Assessment of International Tourism Demand in Spain

José Manuel Ordóñez,1 Maria Del Carmen Ordóñez,2 and José Luis Torres1

1Department of Economic Theory, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain
2Department of Applied Economics, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain

This article studies international tourist flows to Spain using data panel techniques. Most standard models only include income and relative cost of living as the main explanatory variables of the international tourism demand. By contrast, we show that geographic distance, interpreted as a proxy for the cross-sectional variation in travel cost among origin countries, is a very important variable in determining international tourism flows to Spain. The inclusion of this variable dramatically increases the explanatory power of the model and hardly changes the estimated value of income and price elasticities, which are consistent with those obtained in the literature.

Key words: Spain; International tourism demand; Panel data estimation; Distance

Address correspondence to José Manuel Ordóñez, Department of Economic Theory, University of Málaga, Campus El Ejido s/n, 29013 Málaga, Spain. Tel: +00-34-952-131254; Fax: +00-34-952-131299; E-mail: jmoh@uma.es

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 197-211
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327722
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Senior Casino Gaming Motivation: Measurement Scale Development

Woomi J. Phillips,1 Soocheong (Shawn) Jang,2 and Deborah D. Canter3

1Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
3Department of Hospitality Management and Dietetics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA

Casino gaming is an emerging leisure activity for the senior population. Finding out what motivates older adults to spend time in casino gaming is fundamental to determining their future casino patronage intention. This study has explored a comprehensive inventory of senior casino gaming motivations and then generated a scale development procedure to find five distinctive senior casino gaming motivation dimensions: winning and thrill, socialization, escape, enjoyment, and curiosity. Ultimately, confirmatory factor estimates supported model unidimensionality, reliability, and validity while the measurement scale was parsimonious and captured various dimensions of senior casino gaming motivation.

Key words: Senior leisure; Casino gaming; Gaming motivation; Motivation scale development

Address correspondence to WooMi J. Phillips, Ph.D., Department of Apparel, Design, and Hospitality Management, North Dakota State University, Department 2610, P.O. Box 6050, Fargo, ND, 58108-6050, USA. Tel: (701) 231-7358; Fax: (701) 231-5273; E-mail: woomi.phillips@ndsu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 213-226
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327768
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Images as Pull Factors of a Tourist Destination: A Factor-Cluster Segmentation Analysis

Girish Prayag

SKEMA Business School, Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France

Images are commonly accepted as important pull factors for the success and development of a tourist destination. Understanding how visitor characteristics influence these factors is critical for destination differentiation and positioning. In this context, the purpose of this study is to segment the international tourists' market to Cape Town on the importance level attached to various pull factors. Using a mixed methodology approach for the development of a survey instrument, 585 visitors were interviewed at various locations in Cape Town. Factor analysis showed the existence of six underlying dimensions in the data while cluster analysis demonstrated the existence of four segments. Demographics as opposed to traveling characteristics seem to define the profile of each cluster. Implications for marketing strategy formulation are provided.

Key words: Destination image; Segmentation; Pull factors; Sociodemographics; Typology; Cape Town

Address correspondence to Girish Prayag, SKEMA Business School, 60, Rue Dostoievski, BP85-06902, Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, France. Tel: +33 (04) 93654553; E-mail: g.prayag@skema.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 227-241
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327803
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Revised Importance-Performance Analysis of Tour Guide Performance in China

Songshan (Sam) Huang

School of Management, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia

This study applied a modified importance-performance analysis (IPA) to evaluate tour guide performance in China from both domestic visitors' and foreign English-speaking visitors' perspectives. Based on data collected in Shanghai, China's largest city, IPA matrices were mapped out. The results suggest that tour guides in China should improve their proficiency in guiding languages, work ethically to introduce reliable shopping to visitors, foster a good sense of humor, and enhance destination knowledge. Tourism authorities in China can refer to findings of this study in developing tour guide training programs and other policy-making practices for tour guides.

Key words: Tour guide; Importance-performance analysis; China

Address correspondence to Songshan (Sam) Huang, School of Management, University of South Australia, Elton Mayo Building EM3-17, City West Campus, North Terrace, Adelaide SA 5000, Australia. Tel: +61 8 8302 9308; Fax: +61 8 8302 0512; E-mail: sam.huang@unisa.edu.au

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 243-252
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327849
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourists' Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions on Destination Attributes: An Empirical Study in Alanya

Ahmet Aktas,1 Aydin Çeviirgen,2 and Boran Toker2

1School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey
2Alanya Faculty of Business, Department of Tourism Management, Akdeniz University, Alanya, Turkey

This study attempts to investigate the tourist's satisfaction as an influence on future behavioral intensions (intention to revisit and recommendation) within a tourism context, specifically with reference to the accommodation services, incoming travel agency services, and destination facilities. The study was conducted in Alanya with a total of 2,200 respondents. The research findings indicated that there were significant relationships among destination attributes, tourist satisfaction, and behavioral intensions. Especially, the dimension of accommodation services was the strongest predictor of the tourist satisfaction, followed by incoming travel agency services and facilities of Alanya. In addition to this, the repeat tourists were more likely than first-time tourists to intend to revisit Alanya in the future.

Key words: Tourists' satisfaction; Destination attributes; Behavioral intentions; Alanya

Address correspondence to Ahmet Aktas¸, Ph.D., Professor, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: +90 242 310 20 28; Fax: +90 242 227 46 70; E-mail: aktas@akdeniz.edu.tr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 253-261
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327885
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Residents' Attitudes Towards Tourism Impacts: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran

Fariborz Aref

Department of Social & Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia

This article investigates the residents' attitudes toward tourism impacts in Shiraz, Iran. The study demonstrates that there are broadly similar attitudes towards tourism impacts among the local leaders and residents. According to the results, the favorable attitudes are found to be linked with its sociocultural impacts, while environmental and economic matters are found to be the least favorable in terms of the perceived impacts of tourism. The t-test analysis of the study indicates that there is no significant difference between the leaders' attitudes in both districts of Shiraz. Results drawn from focus group discussion with the local residents also show that the residents have positive attitudes toward tourism impacts on their communities.

Key words: Resident attitudes; Community perceptions; Tourism impacts; International tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Fariborz Aref, Postdoctoral Researcher, Department of Social & Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, Putra University, Malaysia. Tel: +60389467966; E-mail: fariborz@putra.ump.edu.my

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 263-267
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327920
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Why Do Students Study Abroad? Exploring Motivations Beyond Earning Academic Credits

Gyan P. Nyaupane, Cody Morris Paris, and Victor Teye

School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA

The purpose of this study was to examine motivations of college students' participation in study abroad programs. The study is based on surveys conducted with a group of university students who participated in a study abroad program to either the South Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji) or Europe (Austria and the Netherlands). The study results suggested four motivation domains: international travel, escape, social, and academic. Of the four motivational dimensions, the strongest was international travel, followed by academic, social, and escape. The implications of the findings to the student travel industry and study abroad programs are discussed.

Key words: Motivation; Study abroad; Students travel; Education

Address correspondence to Gyan P. Nyaupane, Ph.D., School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, 411 N. Central Avenue, Suite 550, Phoenix, AZ 85004, USA. Tel: 602-496-0166; Fax: 602-496-0953; E-mail: gyan@asu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 269-272
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863327966
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
How Do the Demographic Changes Influence the Labor Force in the Hospitality Industry?

Ruhet Genc

Department of International Logistics and Transportation, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey

The new era brings forth economic, social, and demographic transformations and challenges regarding the labor market in the hospitality industry. This research note aims to trace the impact of demographic changes on hospitality labor market and to identify problem areas. The problem areas identified in the hospitality labor market are labor shortages, skills shortages, high labor turnover, and lack of unionization. Potential solutions for addressing these labor problems are suggested.

Key words: Hospitality; Labor; Tourism; Demography; Globalization

Address correspondence to Ruhet Genc, Ph.D., Department of International Logistics and Transportation, Beykent University, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: rgenc@beykent.edu.tr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 15, pp. 273-278
1083-5423/10 $60.00 + .00
DOI: 10.3727/108354210X12724863553686
Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Research Note
Cultural Awareness and the Global Hospitality Business

Muchazondida Mkono

Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe

In the contemporary hospitality business, cultural awareness has become an important source of competitive advantage. With the proliferation of multinational hospitality firms, there is cutthroat competition: it is a "survival of the fittest" game. Hospitality firms can outsmart and outperform each other based on how well they know the cultures of their present and potential markets, as well as the cultural backgrounds of their staff members. A "one size fits all" approach has proved redundant in contemporary international business. This article discusses the role of cultural awareness in business success and sustainability of the hospitality business. A case study on Hilton's "Wa No Kutsurogi" brand is presented to enable the author to comment on, and draw parallels between, theory and practice from an empirical standpoint. It is argued that consumption of hospitality products (food and accommodation) is a culture-driven activity, and only those products that interact with customers' "cultures" at an emotional level will appeal to them. The article suggests that culture should be understood in a broad sense: there are several levels and dimensions to culture. The discussion emphasizes the need to customize hospitality products in accordance with the cultural dynamics of niche markets.

Key words: Intercultural communications; Hospitality training; Tourism marketing and development; Emerging markets

Address correspondence to Muchazondida Mkono, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Midlands State University, P Bag 9055, Gweru, Zimbabwe. E-mail: mkonom@msu.ac.zw