|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 4, NUMBERS 3/4, 1999
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 4, pp. 137-143, 1999
1083-5423/00 $10.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
How Far Is Far Enough? Operationalizing the Concept of "Usual Environment" in Tourism Definitions
Stephen L. J. Smith
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 Canada
The World Tourism Organization defines tourism as the activities of persons traveling to and staying in a place outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year and for leisure, business, and other purposes. A core component of this definition, "usual environment," makes explicit the notion that tourism does not include routine travel or travel close to home. Despite the importance of "usual environment" in its definition of tourism, the WTO does not specify how the concept should be operationalized. Instead, statistical agencies are free to decide how this concept should be defined within their own social, political, or economic context. This article reviews some of the potential methods for defining "usual environment," and observes that a distance threshold offers significant advantages. The question then becomes, "what is an appropriate threshold to use for defining tourism?" The history of the Canadian threshold of 80 km is briefly described, with the point being made that the threshold came about more as a matter of compromise than empirical analysis. A recent proposal to change the threshold prompted a review of the merits of the current threshold. The empirical implications of halving the threshold to 40 km or doubling it to 160 km are identified using a domestic household travel survey. The results indicate that cutting the threshold would introduce a large number of low-value, routine trips that do not appear to conform to the spirit of the WTO definition.
Key words: Tourism definition; Tourism statistics; Usual environment; Distance threshold; Tourism surveys
Address correspondence to Stephen L. J. Smith. Tel: (519) 888 4045; Fax: (519) 746 6776; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A New Tool for Investigating the Effect of Weather on Visitor Numbers
Denny Meyer1 and Keith Dewar2
1Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences and 2Department of International Business and Management, Massey University at Albany, Private Bag 102904, NSMC, Auckland, New Zealand
Although the topic of global warming is being well researched, little work has been done to determine the likely effect of global warming on tourism. Such analyses are difficult because stronger holiday effects, business cycle effects, and political or economic uncertainties, such as the Asian Crisis of 1997, generally mask the effects of weather on tourism. In this article we develop a tool that can be used to understand the relationship between weather and tourism. We illustrate this tool by investigating the effect of rainfall on the daily visitor numbers for the Franz Josef Glacier visitor center in New Zealand's Westlands National Park. It is found that a transfer model is useful for identifying the form of an appropriate model and a dynamic linear model is useful for monitoring changes in the model coefficients over time. It is suggested that both these models be added to the tool kit of researchers trying to understand the effect of global warming and short-term rainfall patterns on tourism and tourist behavior.
Key words: Global warming; Tourism models; Dynamic linear model; Transfer model
Address correspondence to Denny Meyer. Tel: 64-9-443-9799, ext. 9495; Fax: 64-9-441-8181; E-mail: D.H.Meyer@massey.ac.nz
A Marketing Analysis of Sweden's Storsjöyran Musical Festival
Bill Faulkner, Elizabeth Fredline, Maria Larson, and Renata Tomljenovic
Centre for Tourism & Hotel Management Research, Faculty of Commerce and Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia
Like events in general, festivals have been recognized as an increasingly important element of destination marketing. Not only do they add to the critical mass of attractions available at the destination, but also they provide promotional opportunities through the exposure they receive in various forms of the media. This study focuses on the former aspect by examining the characteristics and reactions of those attending the Storsjöyran Music Festival in northern Sweden, and is aimed at providing insights into consumer marketing considerations. An examination of associations between motivational tendencies influencing festival attendance, demographic characteristics, repeat visitation patterns, and satisfaction levels is carried out. However, relationships between satisfaction levels and repeat visit intentions are compounded by the residential location factor, as nonlocals are less inclined to make a repeat visitation despite relatively high levels of satisfaction. There are two main conclusions that have a bearing on management and marketing considerations. First, there appear to be two distinct markets for the event. One is comprised of visitors from outside the region, dominated by young singles who see the event as an opportunity to party. The other market is mainly drawn from the local population and comprises mainly slightly older couples and families who are attracted by the excitement and novelty of the event. Second, despite these contrasts, there are overlapping sets of motivations driving these two primary markets.
Key words: Festivals; Motivation; Satisfaction; Factor analysis; Cluster analysis
Address correspondence to Bill Faulkner. E-mail: B.Faulkner@mailbox.gu.edu.au
Charles Changuk Lee1 and Lawrence Allen2
1School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Temple University,
Pearson Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19122
2College of HEHD, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29631
Tourists develop emotional associations with destinations they visit. However, very limited research has been conducted to determine the emotional associations or meanings tourists attach to the places they visit and experience. The purpose of this study was to begin to understand tourists' emotional attachment by attempting to predict tourist attachment to coastal destinations in South Carolina. Using a systematic random sampling process, 1008 residents of the Greater Seneca-Clemson area in South Carolina were selected. The results of this study, with a response rate of 48.5%, suggested a strong predictive model for destination attachment - with an explanatory power of 51% for the city of Charleston and 50% for the Myrtle Beach/Grand Strand area. A significant predictive model was found for Hilton Head Island; however, because of the small number of respondents visiting this tourism destination, none of the predictor variables were found to make an independent contribution to the model. The study revealed that tourist attachment to both the Myrtle Beach/Grand Strand area and the City of Charleston was highly related to traditional travel-related variables such as destination attractiveness and the perception of traveling to a destination as a family tradition. In addition, there were factors contributing to tourist attachment unique to the type of destination. Implications for destination marketing and future research were also discussed.
Key words: Place attachment; Tourist attachment; Destination attractiveness; Travel as a family tradition
Address correspondence to Dr. Charles Changuk Lee. Tel: (215) 204-8706; Fax: (215) 204-8705; E-mail: email@example.com
The Role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Tourism Planning and Rural Economic Development
Basil Savitsky,1 Jeffery Allen,2 and Kenneth F. Backman2
1Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306
2The Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0125
This article provides an introductory overview of GIS, an introduction to Global Positioning Systems (GPS) as a field data collection approach, and a prognosis on the Internet as a source for geographic data. Assessment conflict resolution, change detection, impact assessment, and optimal site/corridor selection are techniques that can now be performed in a timely and affordable fashion using computer maps. Interest in the success of GIS in natural resource management, compounded with the availability of public domain data for transportation infrastructure, demography, and land use and land cover, is leading to a growing awareness of the efficacy of GIS for rural economic development. Two case studies are offered as examples of the application of GIS in tourism planning and on the Internet. The first case is from a study done for six counties in South Carolina using the Gunn Model for tourism planning. The addition of nine map layers was used to identify areas of potential tourism development based on heuristics using natural resource attractions, social and cultural resource attractions, and the combination of all tourism resources. The second case study describes FASTMap, a program for on-line interactive access to a variety of GIS data for the state of South Carolina.
Key words: Geographic information systems (GIS); Global positioning systems (GPS); Tourism planning; Rural development.
Address correspondence to Kenneth F. Backman. Tel: (864) 656-0208; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Future for Tourism in French Polynesia?
Department of Geography, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
This article will demonstrate that although French Polynesia is a small participant in the global economy, it has developed sociospatial relations that interpenetrate with the global scale. Regulation theory has been used because it is concerned with those sociospatial relations that construct scale and thus lead to scale interpenetration. French Polynesia has articulated a dynamic constellation of relations, which has provided it with a high standard of living while it has protected it from mass tourism and avoided commodification of its culture. French Polynesia has manipulated its representation as a paradise to control tourism development locally. It has at the same time leveraged financial support from France, an OECD and EU member, for several decades, on the basis of its continued though varying local "comparative advantage." This support has reduced the urgency of local economic self-sufficiency. French Polynesia is further increasing scale interpenetration by participating in the creation of a regional network within the Pacific to improve its accessibility at different scales and to stimulate economic growth. It will continue to target a wealthy, paradise-seeking tourism niche market for which it already has the image, the landscapes, and much of the superstructure.
Key words: Global image; Scale interpenetration; Remoteness; Commodification
Address correspondence to Dr. Anne-Marie d'Hauteserre. Tel: 64-7 838-4466, ext. 8270; E-mail: email@example.com
Service Sector and Tourism as a Remedy for Unemployment
Orhan Icoz and Ige Pirnar Tavmergen
Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Business, Department of Tourism Management, Kaynaklar Campus, Buca-Izmir, 35160, Turkey
The objective of this article is to examine the scope and nature of unemployment in European countries and understand how tourism and service sectors help reduce unemployment. The article consists of two parts. The first part of the study provides some general statistics on unemployment figures and trends in European countries and statistics associated with employment in the tourism industry. In the second part, measures to increase the employment rate and tourism as a remedy for unemployment problem are discussed. The article concludes with suggestions for possible applicable strategies that can be of help in reducing unemployment problems.
Key words: European countries; Unemployment; Tourism and service sectors; Employment
Address correspondence to Orhan Icoz, Ph.D. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org