|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 5, NUMBERS 2-4, 2000
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 5, pp. 69-76, 2000
1083-5423/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Assessing the Role of Consumers in the Measurement of Destination Competitiveness and Sustainability
J. R. Brent Ritchie,1 Geoffrey I. Crouch,2 and Simon Hudson3
1World Tourism Centre, University of Calgary, 2500 University
Dr. NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
2Latrobe University, School of Tourism and Hospitality, Melbourne, Victoria 3038, Australia
3Tourism Management Group, Faculty of Management, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
This article seeks to address the development of conceptual and operational measures for each of the variables in a competitiveness/sustainability (C/S) model. As the task of developing operational measures of C/S gets under way, it is evident that the measures needed to be developed from the two very different, yet highly complementary, perspectives, namely 1) the industry/managerial standards of performance, and 2) the perceptions of the marketplace.
Key words: Destination competitiveness; Sustainability
Address correspondence to Dr. J. R. Brent Ritchie.
Destination Images and Consumer Confidence in Destination Attribute Ratings
Richard R. Perdue
Tourism Management, College of Business and Administration, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0419
The purpose of this article is to propose consumer confidence as an intervening variable conditioning the effects of experience and knowledge on tourists' ratings of destination images. Specifically, this research proposes that experience and knowledge influence both destination attribute assessments and the tourists' confidence in making those assessments. Further, tourist confidence also moderates the influence of image on destination choice. In a study of ski vacation destination images, consumer confidence and enduring involvement in skiing were correlated with significantly more positive destination images. As confidence increased, the strength of the association between image and choice also increased.
Key words: Destination images; Information processing; Skiing; Consumer confidence
Address correspondence to Richard R. Perdue. E-mail: Richard.Perdue@Colorado.edu
Investigating Cognitive Distance and Long-Haul Destinations
School of Marketing and Management and CTHMR, Griffith University, Gold Coast. PMB 50, GCMC. 4217, Australia
This study investigated the relationship of cognitive distance, actual distance, and the allocation of long-haul destinations within US tourists' choice sets. Data were collected on perceptions of Australia and Italy as destinations. Findings suggest that the perceived distance to Australia is significantly different from Italy (even though the destinations are both 14 hours from the test market), it is overestimated, and that the error is significant. The findings also indicate that there is inconsistency among the factors that influence the accuracy of distance estimates. It was concluded that the inferences drawn from domestic tourism on the relationship between cognitive distance, actual distance, and choice set allocation will not necessarily hold true for long-haul destinations and that further research is needed in this area.
Key words: Cognitive distance; Long-haul destinations; Choice sets; Tourist decision making
Address correspondence to Tracey Harrison-Hill. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Impact of Seemingly Minor Methodological Changes on Estimates of Travel and Correcting Bias
Jay Beaman,1 Jeff Beaman,1 Joseph T. O'leary,2 and Stephen Smith3
1Auctor Consulting Associates, Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
2Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, Forest Products Building, West Lafayette, IN 47907
3Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
In 1998, evidence was developed suggesting that an observed 15% decline in travel could be the result of methodological changes in the Canadian Travel Surveys (CTS) from 1994 to 1996 and 1997. Theory and a computational approach, applicable to large surveys where there is salience-based reporting of events, are introduced and used to correct the 1996 and 1997 CTS estimates for recall of low salience trips. Corrected estimates, rather than showing a decline in travel, show a near zero change in travel from 1994 to 1997, which corresponds to perceptions within the tourism industry.
Key words: Bias; Bias correction; Bias estimation; Survey; Salience
Address correspondence to Joseph T. O'Leary. E-mail: JTO@fnr.purdue.edu
A Review of Choice Modeling Research in Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure
Geoffrey I. Crouch1 and Jordan J. Louviere2
1School of Tourism and Hospitality, Faculty of Law and Management,
La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia
2University of Sydney, Australia
Choice modeling (CM) offers powerful methodologies for the analysis of consumer choice, and the growing application of this approach in tourism, hospitality, and leisure (THL) holds the promise of major advances in knowledge if such studies are well designed and executed. This article reviews methodological developments in CM and the state of CM research in THL through a review of 43 CM studies. The article emphasizes the theoretical and methodological advantages of Discrete Choice Analysis based on Random Utility Theory combined with state-of-the-art experimental design procedures for the gathering of Stated Preference data.
Key words: Choice modeling; Discrete choice analysis; Conjoint analysis; Random utility theory; Experimental design; Revealed preference; Stated preference
Address correspondence to Geoffrey I. Crouch. E-mail: G.Crouch@latrobe.edu.au
Qualitative Comparative Analysis of Travel and Tourism Purchase-Consumption Systems
Robert L. King1 and Arch G. Woodside2
1University of Hawaii at Hilo, School of Business, 200 W.
Kawili St., Hilo, HI 96720-4091
2Carroll School of Management, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467-3808
A purchase-consumption system (PCS) is the sequence of mental and observable steps a consumer undertakes to buy and use several products for which some of the products purchased lead to a purchase sequence involving other products. Some researchers recommend the use of qualitative comparative analysis (i.e., the use of Boolean algebra) to create possible typologies and then to compare these typologies to empirical realities. Possible types of streams of trip decisions from combinations of five destination options with six travel mode options and four accommodation categories, three accommodation brands, five within-area route options, and four in-destination area visit options result in 7200 possible decision paths. The central PCS proposition is that several decisions within a customer's PCS are dependent on prior purchases of products that trigger these later purchases. In this article, four additional propositions are presented for examination in future research. To examine the propositions and the usefulness of the PCS framework for tourism research, qualitative, long interviews of visitors to an island tourism destination (the Big Island of Hawaii) were conducted. The results include strong empirical support for the five propositions. Several suggestions for future research are offered.
Key words: Tourist behavior; Purchase-consumption system; Hawaii
Representing and Predicting Tourist Choice Behavior: A Rule-Based Vs. a Utility-Based Approach
Manon Van Middelkoop, Aloys Borgers, Theo Arentze, and Harry Timmermans
Eindhoven University of Technology, Urban Planning Group, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
As an alternative to the more traditional utility-based models, this article proposes and tests a rule-based approach to modeling tourist choice behavior. The CHAID tree-induction algorithm is used to formulate and test tourists' decision rules for the choice of season. The article shows that a set of 100 exclusive and exhaustive decision rules equals the predictive performance of a MNL model involving 255 parameters. Moreover, it is shown that the number of parameters of a MNL model can be reduced without decreasing the predictive performance by using CHAID preprocessed condition states. Overall, however, none of the models clearly outperforms the other models.
Key words: Rule-based approaches; Utility-based approaches; CHAID MNL models; Choice behavior
Address correspondence to Harry Timmermans. E-mail: H.J.P.Timmermans@bwk.tue.nl
Two Means to the Same End: Hierarchical Value Maps in Tourism--Comparing the Association Pattern Technique with Direct Importance Ratings
Andreas H. Zins
Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Augasse 2-6, A-1090, Vienna, Austria
Gaining insight into the consumer's value-creating processes and structures is a crucial and complex task for marketing managers. In service industries this exercise becomes more difficult because there are fewer tangible product elements to act as substitutional cues for the consumer to anticipate the favorable or unfavorable overall value of alternatives. The means-end chain approach has been proven to be a valuable instrument to uncover how product attributes are linked to the consumer's personality. This research technique, though rarely applied in the field of tourism, promises to shed light onto spots of cognitive processes that are still in the gray zone of the abundant service quality and motivational approaches. Therefore, this study investigates the relationships between product attributes, consequences from pleasure travel experiences, and personal values. Comparing the hierarchical value maps derived from correlation analyses (CA) and the association pattern technique (APT), it can be demonstrated that: (1) the latter methodology is not only suited for standardized ``mass'' interviewing, but highlights (2) a dense net of associations reflecting the traveler's cognitive value map in a more consistent way than correlations from direct importance ratings.
Key words: Means-end chains; Association pattern technique; Hierarchical value maps; Pleasure travel
Address correspondence to Andreas H. Zins. E-mail: email@example.com
Information Sourcing by Swiss Travelers: A Market Segmentation Approach
Thomas Bieger and Christian Laesser
Institute for Public Services and Tourism, University of St. Gallen, Varnbüelstrasse 19, CH-9000 St. Gallen, Switzerland
This article presents a market segmentation established on the basis of a collection of information. The study illustrates the important role of information in tourism. A successful strategy consists of providing convenience and building up a relationship of trust between the tourist company and the tourist. In this regard, convenience is determined by quality of admission, availability of information, and a customer-tailored presentation of information. A reliable source of information is not only provided by private relations (friends and relatives) but also more and more by employees of travel agencies and tourist information companies. One key goal of each information strategy lies in an optimal matching between human-oriented and technical-oriented sources of information.
Key words: Information acquisition; Information strategy; Market segmentation
Address correspondence to Christian Laesser. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism as an Escape: Long-Term Travelers in New Zealand
Irena Ateljevic and Stephen Doorne
School of Business and Public Management, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand
The phenomenon of the "long-term, budget" traveler has been conceptualized as a distinctive form of escape from mainstream "institutionalized" tourism flows. A common characteristic of studies focusing on this market has been the tendency to treat these travelers as a homogenous consumer group. In Australia and New Zealand these travelers are commonly referred to as the "backpacker" market. Our discussion reveals heterogeneity within this group, and our discussion of "traditional long-term travelers" and "mainstream backpacker" groups examines the diversity of underlying values influencing travel motivations and their respective forms of consumer behavior.
Key words: Backpackers; Tourist roles
Address correspondence to Dr. Irena Ateljevic. E-mail: email@example.com
Employing Internet Technology to Investigate and Purchase Travel Services: A Comparison of X'ers, Boomers, and Mature Market Segments
Mark A. Bonn,1 H. Leslie Furr,2 and Angela Hausman3
1Department of Hospitality Administration, Florida State
University, 225 William H. Johnson Building, Tallahassee, FL 32306
2Hotel and Restaurant Management, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460
3Lewis College of Business, Management/Marketing Division, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755
Professional surveyors completed 13,923 personal interviews with travelers
during their recent trip to Tampa, FL. Visitors answered queries from a
standard questionnaire regarding their recent trip, including spending
patterns (for food, lodging, and activities), travel mode, and Internet
use. The following five hypotheses were formulated based upon recent research
into Internet use:
H1: Measurable travel characteristics such as length of stay and on-site expenditures are significantly greater for Internet users than Internet nonusers.
H2: Mature tourists are significantly less likely to book travel services on the Internet than Baby Boomers or Generation X'ers.
H3: Non-US tourists are significantly less likely to use the Internet to book travel services on the Internet than US travelers.
H4: Mature tourists are significantly less likely to purchase travel-related goods and services over the Internet than "Baby Boomers'' or "Generation X'ers."
H5: Non-US tourists are significantly less likely to purchase travel goods or services over the Internet than US tourists.
This article investigates three specific consumer age groups: Generation X'ers, Baby Boomers, and Mature Travelers. The groups were further categorized as US residents or non-US residents. The profiles are created for these age group classifications based upon their use of the Internet identified a number of statistically significant differences between these two, six classifications based on age and Internet use. These profiles presented in this article demonstrate the utility of segmenting travelers by their willingness to use Internet technology to purchase goods and services via the Internet, which could contribute to promotional efficiencies for travel destination marketers.
Key words: Internet; Travel products; Destination marketing; Age segments
Address correspondence to Mark A. Bonn. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Determining Leisure Preferences: Demographics or Personality?
Robyn L. McGuiggan
School of Marketing, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia
The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of demographics and personality, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), on leisure attribute preference. Nested regression analysis indicated that some attributes of leisure are better explained by personality (Planning, Follow through, Variety, People, and Team sports), others (Household tasks, Pace of activities, and Modernity) by demographics, and still others (Risk) equally by the two. Neither personality nor demographics was appropriate for determining the level of involvement in activities, nor the length of vacation preferred. In all cases except the Planning scale, using a combination of demographics and personality led to a significant improvement in explanatory power.
Key words: Personality; Demographics; Leisure choice; Experiential consumption
Address correspondence to Robyn L. McGuiggan. E-mail: Robyn.Mcguiggan@uts.edu.au
A New Psychographic Segmentation Method Using Jungian Mbti Variables in the Tourism Industry
John Y. Gountas and Sandra (Carey) Gountas
Ballart University, Mt. Helen Campus, School of Business, Ballarat, Victoria 3353, Australia
The aim of this article is to identify and discuss the personality methods of tourism segmentation. The existing theories focus on the individual personality traits. They attempt to generalize and predict tourism behavior on the basis of a small number of salient characteristics. The individual parts of the tourist's personality are assumed to be robust enough despite the lack of understanding the general/overall personality type that denotes a different context for each consumer. This research examines the nature of what might be the overall personality type/nature and how this overall picture can be used to subidentify individual characteristics much more coherently. It broadly uses the general concepts of the Jungian Personality types and the MBTI inventory. It reports the findings of the empirical survey with a representative sample of 760 traveling consumers flying to a wide range of popular short- and long-haul holiday destinations. The findings support the hypothesis that there are four distinct personality groups with different preferences that can be used for segmentation purposes. The study attempts to establish the overall context of what is the consumer's orientation towards life, in order to interpret systematically and more consistently the individual differences in behavior. The emerging theory attempts to interpret the variations of consumer's preferences in a more holistic way. The emerging general personality types should be further investigated in order to identify behavioral patterns for each market segment with the inclusion of all the geodemographic and psychographic characteristics.
Key words: Personality research; Personatype segmentation; Tourist typology; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Address correspondence to John Y. Gountas. E-mail: email@example.com
K-Means Vs. Topology Representing Networks: Comparing Ease of Use for Gaining Optimal Results with Reference to Data Input Order
Alexandra Ganglmair and Ben Wooliscroft
Department of Marketing, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
K-Means clustering is the most popular statistical method used for market segmentation, and SPSS is the most popular statistics program in the world. It has been suggested that Neural Networks may offer superior segmentation solutions over K-Means and other classical cluster analyses. This research compares the stability of segmentation solutions of both K-Means and TRN, a recent development in Neural Network algorithms, when input order of data is changed. TRN was found to produce considerably more stable segmentation solutions without extensive use of other subjective analysis techniques, offering decision makers a more consistent picture of their market.
Key words: K-Means clustering; Neural networks; Topology representing networks; Segmentation; Tourism
Address correspondence to Alexandra Ganglmair. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and Ben Wooliscroft. E-mail: email@example.com
Behavioral Market Segmentation Using the Bagged Clustering Approach Based on Binary Guest Survey Data: Exploring and Visualizing Unobserved Heterogeneity
Sara Dolnicar1 and Friedrich Leisch2
1Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna University
of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Augasse 2-6, A-1090,
2Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria
Binary survey data from the Austrian National Guest Survey conducted in the summer season of 1997 were used to identify behavioral market segments on the basis of vacation activity information. The bagged clustering methodology applied overcomes a number of difficulties typically encountered when partitioning clustering algorithms are applied to large binary data sets. Besides rendering more stable results in the sense of reproducibility and making the yet unsolved question of the correct number of clusters to choose less important by a hierarchical step of analysis at the end of the procedure, the bagged clustering approach eases interpretation of segment profiles as classically given by the mean variable values per segment and thus markedly improves the investigation and visualization of unobserved heterogeneity within the field of exploratory market segmentation.
Key words: Behavioral market segmentation; Bagged clustering; Heterogeneity
Address correspondence to Sara Dolnicar. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mastering Unobserved Heterogeneity in Tourist Behavior Research*
Josef A. Mazanec
Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Augasse 2-6, A -1090, Vienna, Austria
According to what the philosophy of science considers to be a scientifically relevant undertaking, tourist behavior research should be based on explicit hypotheses or--even better--on a system of interconnected relationships (a "model"). The models are subject to empirical testing to assess their explanatory and predictive capabilities. As in any other subfield of behavioral science, a sample of tourists used for model testing is often heterogeneous in terms of variable values and association between variables. Therefore, the results gained for bivariate or multivariate relations may be artifacts due to spurious correlations. Heterogeneity is found to appear on different levels of tourist behavior model building. It is easier to control if there are explicit assumptions about moderator variables. Examples are discussed to portray these cases.
Key words: Causal models; Structural equation modeling; Latent class analysis; Tourist behavior; Destination loyalty
Address correspondence to Josef A. Mazanec. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
*Selected issues of a paper presented at the Second Symposium on the Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, Vienna, July 2000.
Consuming Culture: The Case of the Cultural Tour Route
Centre for Tourism and Visitor Management, Nottingham Business School, Burton Street, The Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4BU, UK
This article explores the notion of tourist consumption of cultural landscapes through the medium of the organized tour. It poses that as tourist space is both organized and consumed, it is socially constructed and continually acquires new meanings. The organized tour is often characterized as the epitome of "the destination bubble," a term used to describe the physical and cultural isolation that tourists experience from their environments and social integration to their group. The tour itinerary and seeking knowledge about the destination are of critical importance, but the extent to which cultural tour participants interact with and learn from transient destination images is little understood, and this concern is one of environmental cognition. The technique of route mapping is considered as one avenue of research that deserves greater recognition.
Key words: Cultural landscapes; Destination bubble; Organized tours; Route mapping; Tour routes
Address correspondence to Tove Oliver. E-mail: email@example.com
Evaluating Castlefield Urban Heritage Park from the Consumer Perspective: Destination Attribute Importance, Visitor Perception, and Satisfaction
School of Leisure, Hospitality and Food Management, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU, UK
The objective of the research was to evaluate, from the consumer perspective, Castlefield Urban Heritage Park--a day trip destination in Manchester--in order to inform the destination's product development strategy. An attitude scale comprising attributes considered by consumers to be important for day trip destination choice was developed and used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of Castlefield by analyzing subjects' ratings of each attribute's importance and how much of each one the destination was thought to have. The results from both quantitative analysis of importance versus perception, principal components and visitor satisfaction and associated variables, and qualitative analysis consisting of a comparison of two a posteriori segments based on satisfaction levels showed that although Castlefield was perceived to have may strengths, it has weaknesses in key areas that are important for day trip destination choice. Satisfied visitors (approximately 30% of the sample) particularly liked the heritage and educational value of the destination, but these features were not considered to be important by the majority of subjects. It is recommended that Castlefield's product development strategy should address the perceived weaknesses while attempting to retain the interests of the segment that the destination is currently satisfying.
Key words: Day trips; Attitude; Satisfaction; Castlefield; Heritage consumers
Address correspondence to Peter Schofield. E-mail: P.Schofield@salford.ac.uk
A Critical Review of Approaches to Measure Satisfaction with Tourist Destinations
Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey
This article highlights the fact that the measurement of satisfaction is important in carrying out destination performance research due to the close relationship between the level of tourist satisfaction and future behavior. While much has been done in customer satisfaction-dissatisfaction research, it is sometimes unclear which model is most applicable and suited to a particular situation. In line with the overview of major attempts to measure customer satisfaction and the examination of previous research findings primarily focused on tourist destinations, this article suggests that the measurement and management of tourist satisfaction within the context of destination marketing should consider the methodological weaknesses of past research and the possibility of their improvement.
Key words: Tourist satisfaction; Destination management; Destination marketing
Address correspondence to Metin Kozak. E-mail: M.Kozak@superonline.com
A Review of Comparison Standards Used in Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction Studies: Emerging Issues for Hospitality and Tourism Research
Yuksel Ekinci,1 Michael Riley,1 and Joseph S. Chen2
1School of Management Studies for the Service Sector, University
of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 351 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429
This article reviews the literature on comparison standards in service quality and satisfaction research. We identify various comparison standards, which include expectations, desires, equity, and experiences employed, and critically review their application. We draw out issues that arise and put forward ways in which these can be explored in the future.
Key words: Comparison standards; Service quality; Customer satisfaction; Expectations
Address correspondence to Yuksel Ekinci. Fax: (44) 1483 259387; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Antecedents and Consequences of Vacationers' Dis/Satisfaction: Tales From the Field
University of Namur, Department of Business Administration, Rempart de la Vierge, 8, B-5000 Namur, Belgium
In this article, vacationers' postexperience processes are revisited from an interpretive perspective. Propositions regarding the antecedents and consequences of dis/satisfaction are generated based on the grounded analysis of empirical material about the vacation decision-making process of 25 Belgian households. On one hand, dis/satisfaction judgments appear to result from the intervention of emotions or from comparison, attribution, and distribution processes. On the other hand, it is shown that satisfaction (dissatisfaction) does not always lead to repeat purchase (behavioral change) but may sometimes result in attitudinal and behavioral change (repeat purchase). Different theories are used to comment on those emerging findings. This multidimensional nature of vacationers' dis/satisfaction challenges the prevalence of the classical disconfirmation model as a basis for both understanding and measuring dis/satisfaction.
Key words: Consumer behavior; Tourist satisfaction; Vacation decision making; Interpretivism
Address correspondence to Dr. Alain Decrop. E-mail: email@example.com