ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 1-15
1083-5423/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Opinion Filters in Recreation Research: The Effect of Including "No Opinion" and "Not Notice" Response Categories in Questionnaires

Troy E. Hall

Resource Recreation and Tourism, University of Idaho, Moscow

The effects of varying survey question wording and format have rarely been explored in the context of recreation or tourism. This study used a split-ballot experimental design to test the effects of offering (n = 135) or omitting (n = 132) "no opinion" or "not notice" options (filters) from response frameworks for questions in a study of river boaters dealing with the effect of conditions on experiences, support for management policies, and environmental and political attitudes. Rather than leaving items blank, respondents answered according to whichever categories were provided; this led to shifts of up to 56% between the offered and omitted forms in the proportion of respondents who indicated a "no opinion" or "not notice" (nonsubstantive) answer. The magnitude of effect ranged from an average of 5% for items about management to 25% for items about the effect of conditions on experiences. Less involved respondents exhibited larger effects. Nevertheless, among those giving substantive responses, mean responses did not differ between the offered versus omitted form, suggesting that "floaters" (those affected by the inclusion of an opinion filter) actually hold opinions similar to other respondents. Thus, although researchers should be careful in crafting visitor surveys, including "no opinion" options in questions, especially those pertaining to personal values and opinions about management policies, may not be critical in recreation and tourism studies.

Key words: Survey research; Format effects; Context effects; Nonattitudes

Address correspondence to Troy E. Hall, Resource Recreation and Tourism, PO Box 441139, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-1139. Tel: (208) 885-9455.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 17-27
1083-5423/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Application of Travel Cost Model to Measure Economic Value of Recreation and Tourism Resources

Kwang-Ick Cho,1 Injae Lee,2 and Turgut Var2

1Department of Leisure and Tourism Studies, Catholic University of Daegu, Korea
2Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

The primary objective of this study is to explore the applicability of the Travel Cost Model (TCM) to user-oriented and resource-based areas. The whole recreation experience demand models and tourism resource demand models were derived for the user-oriented resources and the resource-based resources using the TCM. The total benefits of the visitors were also analyzed. The results revealed that the TCM was also a good method for the evaluation of recreation experiences in the user-oriented and resource-based resources. The results also provided the demand elasticity of price of the two resources. The results of this study suggest the usefulness of the TCM in analyzing cost and benefits of public goods and in making decisions on the development and investment of nonmarket goods. This study also demonstrated public policy alternatives for decisions of price policy at national parks. Using this valuation method, resource managers in the public and private sectors can estimate the acceptable prices and their impacts on visitation and total income. They also can acquire important information on the effective use and operations of resources, and on pricing policies by the locations of recreation and tourism resources.

Key words: Travel Cost Model (TCM); Economic valuation; Demand modeling; User-oriented area; Resource-based area

Address correspondence to Kwang-ick Cho, Department of Leisure and Tourism Studies, Catholic University of Daegu, 330 Kumrak 1-ri Hayang-up Kyongsan-si Kyongbuk, 712-702, Korea. E-mail: kicho@cuth.cataegu.ac.kr

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 29-40
1083-5423/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Examining the Sources of Differential Support for Tourism Industry in Two Ghanaian Cities

Ercan Sirakaya,1 Victor Teye,2 and Sevil F. Sönmez2

1Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 308 Francis Hall, College Station, TX 77843-2261
2Department of Recreation Management and Tourism, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 874905, 131 Moeur Building, Tempe, AZ 85287-4905

The current article examines residents' support for tourism in the Central Region of Ghana in Africa using social exchange theory as the guiding framework. Using pooled data from the two Ghanaian communities of Cape Coast and Elmina, this article tested a research hypothesis that support for tourism varies between the two Ghanaian communities due to their differing socioeconomic bases. Findings of this study suggest differences in the levels of support for tourism (the hospitality industry and tourism infrastructure/attractions) among the residents of the two Ghanaian communities. Results of regression analyses suggest that support for the hospitality industry and support for the infrastructure and tourism attraction development were influenced by partially different reasons in both communities. The higher support for tourism in Cape Coast might be attributable to its status as the region's capital. Cape Coast, on the other hand, has a relatively more diversified economy including entities such as government offices, a university, several leading secondary schools, retail activities, and hotels; some of this diversification may be viewed as positive and directly attributed to the tourism development in the town.

Key words: Social Exchange Theory; Cape Coast; Elmina; Ghana; Africa; Residents' attitudes; Tourism development; Tourism policy

Address correspondence to Ercan Sirakaya, Ph.D. Tel: 979-862-8819; Fax: 979-845-0446; E-mail: esirakay@rpts.tamu.edu

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 41-52
1083-5423/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

An Investigation of a Loyalty Typology and the Multidestination Loyalty of International Travelers*

Seyhmus Baloglu

University of Nevada Las Vegas, Department of Tourism and Convention Administration, 4505 Maryland Parkway Box 456023, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6023

Conceptualization and measurement of loyalty based on behavioral and attitudinal dimensions have resulted in a loyalty typology including four levels: high, latent, spurious, and low. This study investigates the usefulness of this typology for international tourist destination behavior with respect to behavioral (actual visit and intentional loyalty) and attitudinal (cognition and affect) dimensions. This study also extends previous loyalty research in travel and tourism by taking multidestination loyalty into consideration. The results revealed four distinct loyalty levels: high loyalty, latent loyalty, and low loyalty, which included two distinct levels (natural switchers and experiential switchers), whereas the spurious loyalty group was not supported. The findings provide implications for conceptualizing destination loyalty in terms of multidestination loyalty and international travel behavior. The distinct behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of four loyalty types coupled with demographic and information source differences provide important practical implications of segmentation and communication strategy for international tourist destinations.

Key words: Loyalty; Typology; Multidestination; Segmentation; Mediterranean

Address correspondence to Seyhmus Baloglu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor. Tel: (702) 895-3720; Fax: (702) 895-4870; E-mail: baloglu@ccmail.nevada.edu

*The paper was presented at the Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure Track of the 1999 AMA SERVSIG Services Research Conference, New Orleans, April 10-12, 1999.

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 53-60
1083-5423/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Tourist Destination Slogans as Unique Selling Propositions: The Case of African Tourism

Tekle Shanka

School of Marketing, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, GPO BOX U1987 Perth, Western Australia 6845

This study was undertaken to evaluate the unique selling propositions (USP) of tourist destination slogans used by a number of African countries. Of the 14 slogans obtained from 10 African countries promoting tourism, only three were perceived as effective. While the thrust of creating slogans is to position destinations as distinct from other competing destinations in the region, the slogans in this study were perceived to be similar. As results of the factor analysis show, the 14 slogans tended to fit into three categories: warmth, hospitality, and natural. Responses of 58 tourism industry specialists and tourism management/marketing students were analyzed and reported with implication to tourism destination marketers.

Key words: Slogan; Tourism; Tourists; Destinations; Unique selling proposition; Africa

Address correspondence to Tekle Shanka, Ph.D. Tel: (+61 8) 9266 2839; Fax: (+61 8) 9266 3937; E-mail: shankat@cbs.curtin.edu.au