|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 6, NUMBERS 3/4
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 6, pp. 171-183
1083-5423/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Considerations for Temporal Aggregation: Applications to the US In-Flight Survey Data
Yeong-Hyeon Hwang,1 Raymond Youcheng Wang,1 Jay Beaman,2 Daniel R. Fesenmaier,1 and Joseph T. O'leary3
1National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Department
of Leisure Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign,
2Auctor Consulting Associates, Ltd., 465 Andra Court, Cheyenne, WY 82009
3Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
Data collection and analysis continue to be important for the travel industry to be aware of and responsive to their markets. One of the important limitations with most tourism data is that the number of interviews available can be too small to allow conclusions to be reached with the confidence desired. Many times, data are temporally aggregated to reach sufficient sample size. However, studies have shown that temporal aggregation does not always bring about plausible estimates. Thus, it is necessary to consider the pros and cons of temporal aggregation when one wants to put data aggregation into practice. The main objective of this article is to examine the considerations necessary to successfully apply temporal data aggregation within the context of the US In-Flight Survey (IFS) data. This article raises and addresses important issues related to temporal data aggregation from several perspectives.
Key words: Temporal aggregation; Travel variability; Demand estimates; Reliability; US In-Flight Survey
Address correspondence to Yeong-Hyeon Hwang, National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Department of Leisure Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Proposal for the Development of Tourism in the Forested Landscapes of Tierra Del Fuego, Patagonia, Argentina
Francisco A. Carabelli
Patagonian Andes Forest Research and Extension Centre (CIEFAP), P.O. Box 14 PC. 9200, Esquel, Chubut Province, Argentina
During the short summer stay of most tourists in Tierra del Fuego, activities concentrate in Ushuaia's city and its surroundings, partially free of vegetation due to fires and forest exploitations. In addition, the lack of perception of forests as recreation places in Argentina makes this situation worse. This study attempts to propose alternatives that would make accessible for tourism a variety of forest landscapes, showing that they can represent an option to "traditional" tourism. To reach this goal, a study was developed over an area located in the transition zone between the steppe and the forests, in the central hilly region at the north side of Fagnano Lake. An approach to evaluate the aptitude of the landscape for recreation, using the slope steepness as an expression of relief, the density of water flows, the lake surfaces, and the vegetation, was carried out. Interviews with tourists, including questions about the main activities related to natural resources, the reasons for visiting Tierra del Fuego, and their opinion regarding fueguian landscapes, were accomplished. The main results refer to the valuation of the aptitude of the landscapes with native forests for tourism purposes and the development of a proposal linking this aspect with the answers of the tourists to establish complexes in these natural landscapes for the practice of a respectful natural tourism. It is concluded that it would be feasible to enable new areas representative of the most attractive environments to strengthen a specific and durable tourism development in Tierra del Fuego.
Key words: Tierra del Fuego; Tourism; Forest landscapes; Scenic assessment; Tourist inquiries
Address correspondence to Francisco A. Carabelli, Patagonian Andes Forest Research and Extension Centre (CIEFAP), P.O. Box 14 PC. 9200, Esquel, Chubut Province, Argentina. Tel/fax: (+54) 2945453948; E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Use of Travel Cost Models in Planning: A Case Study
Allan Marsinko,1 William T. Zawacki,2* and J. M. Bowker3
1Department of Forest Resources, Clemson University, Clemson,
2Risk Management, American Express, Phoenix, AZ 85020
3USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA 30602
This article examines the use of the travel cost method in tourism-related decision making in the area of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation. A travel cost model of nonconsumptive wildlife-associated recreation, developed by Zawacki, Marsinko, and Bowker, is used as a case study for this analysis. The travel cost model estimates the demand for the activity based on the premise that those who live farther from the recreation opportunity will have to spend more to participate and, hence, will participate less often. The model is examined, and the nonmarket benefits obtained from the model, application of the results to decision making, problems associated with using the model, and the use of the results to supplement economic impact analyses are discussed. One important problem associated with this type of model is the lack of agreement on the value of participant time, a variable that can directly affect the value of the experience. The model can be used to assess the effect of demographic variables, such as race, as well as the effect of substitute activities and sites.
Key words: Travel cost; Travel cost model; Tourism; Recreation; Economic impact
Address correspondence to Allan Marsinko, Professor, Department of Forest Resources, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634. Tel: (864) 656-4839; E-mail: email@example.com
*Former Graduate Student, Clemson University.
A Market Segmentation Study Based on Benefits Sought by Visitors at Heritage Sites
Pamela Weaver,1 Tammie J. Kaufman,2 and Yooshik Yoon1
1Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Virginia
Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429
2Department of Exercise Science and Leisure Management, 226 Turner Center, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677
In order to contribute to the knowledge base of heritage tourism and the segmentation literature, this study examined the underlying market segments that exist with regards to the benefits that visitors seek while visiting heritage sites. One hundred ninety-seven surveys were returned, a useable response rate of 29%, from a mailing list made up of individuals seeking tourism information from an urban and a rural area. The results of the data analysis found that 15 survey items representing benefits sought at a heritage site fell into three underlying dimensions: "Escape," "Social," and "Education." Two unique clusters of respondents surfaced from these factors, "Active Benefit Seekers" and "Loners." The "Active Benefit Seekers," although highly educated, were not as educated as "Loners" and virtually always traveled with family and friends. They wanted to escape to a highly social environment that includes an educational theme. The "Loners" were very highly educated and some traveled alone. While interested in educational issues, they had little need to escape daily life and were not interested in meeting new people or being with family and friends. A demographic profile of these segments was also developed.
Key words: Heritage tourism; Benefits sought; Factor analysis; Cluster analysis; Segmentation
Address correspondence to Dr. Pamela Weaver, Professor, Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 352 Wallace Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429. Tel: (540) 231-3263; Fax: (540) 231-8313; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An Examination of Golf Travelers' Satisfaction, Perceived Value, Loyalty, and Intentions to Revisit
James F. Petrick1 and Sheila J. Backman2
1Texas A&M University, Department of Recreation, Park
and Tourism Sciences, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261
2Clemson University, Department of Park, Recreation and Tourism, 263 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634-1005
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the relationship between golf travelers' repurchase intentions and the satisfaction, perceived value, and loyalty derived from the experience. Subjects were systematically selected from golf travelers who stayed at a coastal resort during the fall season. Findings revealed that: a) satisfaction, perceived value, and loyalty each aid in the explanation of golf travelers' intentions to revisit; b) of the variables analyzed, satisfaction appears to be the most reliable predictor of intentions to revisit; and c) loyalty is an antecedent to satisfaction and satisfaction is an antecedent to perceived value in the prediction of intentions to revisit. Results provide important direction for the development of a theoretical foundation for the conceptualization of antecedents to repurchase intentions. Such research is critical to improving the understanding of behavior necessary to provide managerial guidance validly based on expected behavior.
Key words: Consumer satisfaction; Perceived value; Loyalty; Intentions to revisit; Golf; Path analysis
Address correspondence to James F. Petrick, Assistant Professor, Texas A&M University, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-8806; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: email@example.com
Alternative Tourism as Impetus for Consciousness-Raising
Nancy Gard McGehee1 and William C. Norman2
1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg,
2Clemson University, Clemson, SC
This study develops and tests a theoretical model, drawing on social-psychological perspectives of social movement theory to explain changes in consciousness among Earthwatch expedition volunteers. Earthwatch expeditions are a form of alternative tourism in which volunteers participate in any of 126 different types of 10-14-day research-oriented field expeditions that may include evaluating the health of a coral reef, studying maternal health among West African women, assessing the killer whale population off the coast of Pugent Sound, or recording oral history in Dominica. A pretrip and posttrip survey of over 350 Earthwatch expedition volunteers conducted during the summer of 1998 reveals that both network ties established during an Earthwatch expedition and perceived self-efficacy gains during an Earthwatch expedition positively and significantly influence consciousness-raising. In other words, both the relationships established and the challenges overcome during an Earthwatch expedition increase participants' feelings about making purchases, reading books and magazines, and traveling, in accordance with their sense of political justice.
Key words: Social movements; Alternative tourism; Consciousness-raising; Personal as political; Earthwatch
Address correspondence to Nancy Gard McGehee, Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Box 0429, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Tel: (540) 231-5515; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sustainable Tourism Development: A Case of Cumalikizik, Turkey
Ulker Oren,1 David G. Woodcock,2 and Turgut Var3
1University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey and Visiting Scholar,
College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX,
2Historic Resources Imaging Laboratory, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843
3Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Mail Stop 2261, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261
The objective of this article is to present efforts designed to protect the integrity of a historical town amid invasive urban development. The 700-year-old Ottoman village of Cumalikizik in Bursa, Turkey was chosen as an example. Cumalikizik is a unique village with the characteristic architectural structure and traditional life style, which has been able to preserve its structure physically against all the changes experienced. The Local Agenda 21 Cumalikizik, a volunteer organization, has been involved in implementing a project that aims to conserve and revitalize this unique heritage. It is expected that if this national heritage is left to its own destiny it would disappear in the near future. The current planning efforts are directed towards achieving a sustainable tourism development that would preserve this authentic Ottoman village and the life style of its residents.
Key words: Sustainable tourism; Preservation revitalization; Carrying capacity
Address correspondence to Turgut Var, Ph.D., Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Mail Stop 2261, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-5411; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: Turgutvar@msn.com
Residents' Attitudes Towards Tourism in Ayvalik, Turkey
Cevdet Avcikurt1 and Hüseyin Soybali2
1School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Balikesir University,
2School of Advanced Vocational Studies, Department of Tourism and Hotel Management, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey
This article investigates resident attitudes and perceptions of tourism. A literature review revealed a range of impacts that resulted from tourism development and the tourist-host interaction. The survey research was undertaken in a small Turkish coastal tourist resort, Ayvalik. The aim of the study was to measure perceptions of tourism by 300 residents of Ayvalik. Ayvalik is one of the main touristic centers on the Aegean coast in Turkey. The findings of the study indicated that residents had a generally positive attitude toward tourism and perceived an overall slightly positive impact of tourism. Some general outcomes can be drawn for the hotel and restaurant operators and tourism planners from this study.
Key words: Resident attitudes; Tourism impacts; Resident perceptions; Tourism development; Turkey
Address correspondence to Cevdet Avcikurt, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Balikesir Üniversity, Çagis Kampusu, Balikesir, Turkey.. Tel: +90-266-612 23 54; Fax: +90-266-612 13 57; E-mail: cevdet email@example.com
Effect of the Middle East Peace Process on Pan Arab Tourism Industries
Said M. Ladki, Bassel Zein, and Mira W. Sadik
Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 13-5053, Chouran, Beirut, 1102 2801 Lebanon
In a perfect world, countries in the Middle East would be stable politically, united economically, and surrounded by peace-loving responsible neighbors advocating the flow of tourism. People would not be dying because of war, and tourists and investors would not be apprehensive of the entire region. Before the war, Lebanon was a central tourist destination for the Arab world and beyond. Today, in the aftermath of a 16-year civil war, Lebanon is struggling to recover. To say the least, this is not a perfect world. This article will discuss the Peace Process and its effect on Pan Arab tourism industries.
Key words: Middle East; Peace; Middle East Peace Process; Pan Arab tourism; Lebanon
Address correspondence to Said M. Ladki, Associate Professor, Lebanese American University, P.O. Box 13-5053, Chouran, Beirut, 1102 2801 Lebanon. Tel: 961-1-786456 ext. 1299; Fax: 961-1-867098