|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 7, pp. 1-13
1083-5423/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Astrid Kemperman, Aloys Borgers, and Harry Timmermans
Urban Planning Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
In this study we introduce a semiparametric hazard-based duration model to predict the timing and sequence of theme park visitors' activity choice behavior. The model is estimated on the basis of observations of consumer choices in various hypothetical theme parks. These parks are constructed by varying the absence and presence of existing and new activities within a theme park as well as their attributes: waiting time, activity duration, and location. The semiparametric hazard model focuses on the probability that an event will start or end in a given time interval, conditioned on the fact that the event has not occurred or ended before the beginning of that time interval. The main results of the estimated models show the shape of the distribution of the visitors during a day over the various activities in the park. Only few activity attributes, visitor and context characteristics influence the timing and sequence of the activity choices. The findings provide guidance for theme park management on how the demand for activities fluctuates during the day, and how it can be accommodated and directed.
Key words: Activity choice behavior; Timing and sequencing decisions; Choice experiment; Hazard model
Address correspondence to Astrid Kemperman, Eindhoven University of Technology, Urban Planning Group, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 40 2473291; Fax: +31 40 2455882; E-mail: A.D.A.M.Kemperman@bwk.tue.nl
James Jeng1 and Daniel R. Fesenmaier2
1Statistical Analyst, Strategic Planning,
Best Buy, Inc.
2National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Department of Leisure Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Travel decision-making research has enjoyed considerable progress over the decades. Many different models and approaches have been used to advance our knowledge of travel decisions, including gravity and econometric models, psychological motivational/value, information processing theory, attitude theory, and conjoint analysis. Conventional travel research follows a normative perspective, which aims to predict visitor volumes and the overall economic impact of travel to a particular destination. Common to these modeling efforts is that they tend to focus attention on choice of destination. In addition, these conventional approaches emphasize the static nature of travel choice behavior. As a result, these models often provide problematic and invalid estimations. Recent developments in travel choice and decision-making behavior research indicate that travel decisions follow a temporal, dynamic, successive, and multistage contingent decision process. This research establishes the basis for developing an alternative and a more comprehensive view of travel decision making. The article provides an extensive overview of the theoretical underpinnings of travel decision research and proposes a conceptual framework that can be used to better describe the travel decision-making process.
Key words: Travel decision making; Decision facets; Travel hierarchy; Decision heuristics
Address correspondence to Daniel R. Fesenmaier, Professor and Director, National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, Department of Leisure Studies, University of Illionis at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Timothy J. Tyrrell and Robert J. Johnston
Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, University of Rhode Island
This article outlines a methodology for estimating visitor counts in regions characterized by: (1) multiple gateways into the region (e.g., roads, airports) from which accurate regional visitor counts cannot be obtained, and (2) multiple attractions (e.g., museums, hotels) at which site visitor counts can be obtained. As visitors may be observed at more than one attraction, and attendees at an attraction may include residents and tourists, one cannot simply add attendance numbers from the various sites to generate a total visitor count. Moreover, one cannot use visitor counts at any single site as an accurate proxy for regional tourism. Where such conditions hold, the presented methodology provides statistically consistent estimates of total regional visitor counts, based on efficient use of the information embedded in attraction-level count and survey data. The methodology also provides consistent count estimates for visitor subgroups.
Key words: Visitor counts; Regional tourism; Visitation estimates; Tourism impacts
Address correspondence to Timothy J. Tyrrell, Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, 208 Coastal Institute Bldg., University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881. E-mail: email@example.com.
Harald Pechlaner and Matthias Fuchs
Department of General and Tourism Management, University of Innsbruck, Universitätsstrabe 15, A-6020 Innsbruck
The main weaknesses of alpine tourism are generally described as inadequate company sizes, limited cooperative marketing and management of destinations, as well as slow rates of professionalization among tourism management organizations. Mature markets as well as new competitive conditions due to globalization, liberalization, and deregulation are leading to a number of significant changes in the situation of nonprofit tourism organizations. Consequently, new expectations of stakeholders due to benefit deficits, as well as an increasing multiplicity of tasks, cause inappropriate priorities with regard to tourism marketing and product development and lead to incorrect and distorted trend perceptions. Reinforced by high levels of disintegration, lacking coordination and low market efficiencies, tourism organizations in Europe's alpine regions presently appear hardly able to cope satisfactorily with these new market challenges. The more management in tourism organizations becomes aware of their altered environment, the more likely they will be convinced of the vital importance of efforts for internal organizational developments and investments in human resources. To obtain partial answers to the question as to whether tourism organizations have the organizational capabilities in terms of adequate human capital and decision-making systems and procedures for the regime of the "new tourism," a survey was undertaken in 2000 among 37 local and regional tourism boards, asking for a self-assessment of ideal versus existing levels of qualification, skill, and competency. This article demonstrates that tourism organizations not always do a sufficient amount of environmental scanning to find out the changed business environment with respect to "new tourism."
Key words: Tourism organization; Destination management; Skill requirements; Knowledge acquisition
Address correspondence to Harald Pechlaner, Ph.D., Department of General and Tourism Management, University of Innsbruck, Universitätsstrabe 15, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. Tel: +43 512 507 7189; Fax: +43 512 507 2968; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Yvette Reisinger1 and Felix Mavondo2
1Department of Management and 2Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3806, Australia
The primary purpose of this study was to test the relationships between the importance of destination attributes, travel motivation, and perception of destination attributes for two youth markets: American and Australian. A path model was developed, separately for each market, to test for these relationships and to assess the similarities and differences between both models. Seven hundred and eight randomly selected American and Australian respondents were surveyed. The results suggest that in both samples there is a significant association between the importance of destination attributes and internal and external motivation, which also have significant associations with perception of destination attributes. The importance of destination attributes influences perception of destination attributes through the mediating effects of travel motivation. The study implies the need for tourism researchers to test the developed model across different international tourist markets.
Key words: Destination attributes; Travel motivation; Destination perceptions; Youth travel market
Address correspondence to Yvette Reisinger, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3806, Australia. Phone: +61 3 990 47078; Fax: +61 3 990 47100; E-mail: email@example.com
Ron Lennon and Birute Clottey
Andreas School of Business, Barry University, Miami, FL 33161
This study examined the decision variables used by German travel consumers when making certain travel decisions. Data were gathered in March 2000 at the International Tourism Exchange (ITB) in Berlin. ITB is the leading trade fair for the global tourism industry. The authors investigated Lithuania as a potential travel destination. As a result of this research, the authors recommend that the Lithuanian Tourist Board allocate more resources to informing potential tourists about Lithuania and to the development of a relationship marketing program with past visitors because this segment was found to be more predisposed to visiting Lithuania than the average German. Overall, Germans were found to have favorable tourist consumers' perceptions of Lithuania as a tourist destination and as a safe place to visit.
Key words: Consumer behavior; Tourist decision making; Eastern European travel; Lithuania
Address correspondence to Dr. Ron Lennon, Andreas School of Business, Barry University, Miami, FL 33161. Tel: (305) 899-3507; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Erdogan Gavcar1 and Dogan Gursoy2
1Mugla University, College of Business
and Economics, Management Department, Mugla, Turkey
2Washington State University, College of Business and Economics, Hotel and Restaurant Administration, Pullman, WA 99164-4742
Travelers from six countries/regions who were vacationing in one of the six vacation destinations of Mugla, Turkey, were interviewed in order to identify the destination-originated (pull) factors that are likely to influence travelers' destination choice behavior. Results indicated six destination-originated (pull) factors had significant impact on travelers' decision to choose Turkey as the vacation destination over other possible vacation destinations. These significant destination-originated (pull) factors are: the perception of the cost of accommodations, cost of others such as souvenirs, type of accommodations offered, quality of food, environmental concerns at the lodging facilities, and historical and cultural attractions. Five of the destination-originated (pull) factors had positive impact on travelers' decision to choose Turkey as a vacation destination while the cost of others such as souvenirs had a negative impact.
Key words: Destination choice behavior; Turkey; Number of visits; Perceptions of prices; Perceptions of quality; Perceptions of attractions
Address correspondence to Dogan Gursoy, Washington
State University, College of Business and Economics, Hotel and Restaurant
Administration, Todd Hall, Room 470, PO Box 644742, Pullman, WA 99164-4742.
Tel: (509) 335-7945; Fax: (509) 335-3857; E-mail: email@example.com