|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 3/4
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 7, pp. 177-190
1083-5423/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Identifying Antecedent Factors to the Traveler's Pursuit of a Multidestination Travel Itinerary*
Carmen Tideswell and (The Late) Bill Faulkner
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland 9726, Australia
In recent times, several studies have investigated a particular form of travel known as multidestination travel. Such travel involves the tourist's decision to visit a minimum of two tourist destinations within a single travel itinerary and is particularly common in the context of international travel. In the Australian context, at least 60% of all international visitors to the country pursue a multidestination, as opposed to a monodestination, travel itinerary, whereby a destination is defined for the purposes of this study as a "tourism region" as designated by the Bureau of Tourism Research. While the literature has proposed a number of intuitive reasons that explain why a tourist is more or less inclined towards a multidestination itinerary, studies have yet to empirically investigate such reasons. This study presents the findings from exploration of a secondary database, the International Visitor Survey, on what factors appear to influence the extent of multidestination travel conducted by international visitors to Australia. The results of a multiple-regression analysis indicate the most influential factors include the tourist's desire to reduce existing travel risks, the need to accommodate variety-seeking behavior, and whether or not the tourist is visiting friends and relatives.
Key words: Multidestination travel; Australia; International visitors; Travel itinerary
Address correspondence to Dr. Carmen Tideswell, Lecturer, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast, PMB 50, Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: + 61 7 5552-8897; Fax: +61 7 5552-8507; E-mail: C.Tideswell@mailbox.gu.edu.au
*This article is based on findings from the first author's Ph.D. under the supervision of Professor Bill Faulkner. Sadly, Bill passed away in January 2002. This article is dedicated to his memory and represents just one small part of his enormous contribution to tourism research.
Disaggregating Visitor Flows: The Example of China
Min Yan and Geoffrey Wall
Department of Geography, University Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1
Fluctuations in visitor numbers occur at a variety of temporal scales and have theoretical and practical significance. China's international visitor arrivals were examined from 1980 to 1998, which was a period of strong growth. Tourism fluctuations were decomposed into trend and seasonal, cyclical and irregular fluctuations, and compared among themselves and for two market segments: Foreigners and Compatriots. The methods of analysis have wide applicability. In China's case, the importance of the trend and cyclical fluctuations is identified. Cyclical fluctuations appeared to be particularly associated with the economic and political situation in China.
Key words: China; Trends; Fluctuations; Seasonality; Cycles; Market segments
Address correspondence to Geoffrey Wall, Department of Geography, University Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1. Tel: (519) 885-1211, ext. 3609; Fax: (519) 746-2031; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rex S. Toh,1 Habibullah Khan,2 and Irene Siew-Leng Yap3
1Department of Management, Albers School of Business and
Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA
2Department of Economics, National University of Singapore
3Enterprise Development Division, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Singapore
The product life cycle (PLC) has long been used as a planning and management tool to identify customers, make strategic marketing decisions, and plan ahead. The PLC concept was modified by Butler to apply to tourism destinations by way of the tourism area life cycle (TALC), which was then operationalized by Haywood to apply to countries. Recently, Toh, Khan, and Koh proposed a travel balance approach (TBA) as a superior alternative to the TALC in terms of predictive ability and completeness. The present article attempts to empirically validate and extend the TBA with tourism statistics from 18 countries, and then characterizes each of the stages of the modified tourism life cycle for predictive and planning purposes, all within the context of sustainable tourism.
Key words: Extended tourism life cycle; Travel balance approach
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh, Department of Management, Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: email@example.com
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Gwangjin-ku Kunja-dong, 143-747 Seoul, Korea
The application of a multinomial logit model to the factors that are considered when making boating decisions in the context of multiple sites in Michigan's Great Lakes is presented. The results inferred from the elasticities of the segment variables and the likelihood of the selection of destination indicate that boaters' behavioral choices on boating trips are affected significantly by storage type and size of boat. The direct and cross-distance elasticities of choice probabilities for destinations are generally low while the direct elasticities for a given destination vary significantly across storage types. The model is also used to predict the spatial distribution of use, and a comparison of predicted and observed choices for the residence region segments shows that the model predicts quite well.
Key words: Multinomial logit model; Behavioral choices; Elasticities; Boating; Great Lakes
Address correspondence to Hee-Chan Lee, Assistant Professor, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Sejong University, Gwangjin-ku Kunja-dong, 143-747 Seoul, Korea. Tel: 011-822-3408-3183; Fax: 011-822-3408-3312; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Measuring Tourist Satisfaction With Multiple Destination Attributes*
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey
This study is an assessment of the findings of a single instrument distributed among four different groups of tourists visiting Mallorca (Spain) and Mugla (Turkey) in the summer of 1998. Its objective was to investigate the strength and importance of each destination attribute on the level of tourists' satisfaction and their intentions of recommendation and repeat visitation. The findings suggest that the impact of an attribute on the overall tourist satisfaction, the intention of recommendation, and repeat visiting is influenced by multiple attributes and differs from one customer group and from one destination to another.
Key words: Tourist satisfaction; Turkey; Spain; German tourists; British tourists
Address correspondence to Metin Kozak, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. Tel: +90 252 223 92 05; Fax: +90 252 223 91 64; E-mail: M.Kozak@superonline.com; email@example.com
*An earlier draft of this paper was presented at the Tenth World Business Congress of the International Management Development Association (IMDA) held in Zagreb, Croatia, July 4-8, 2001.
Economic Development Institute, Tourism and Regional Assistance Centers (TRACS), Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0640
Heritage tourism has become big business in the southeastern United States. Due to the loss of traditional industries such as textiles and manufacturing to increasing overseas competition, many small communities in the region are turning to tourism in hopes of reviving economic fortunes. In particular, heritage tourism has become an important part of this emerging economy. However, as communities develop their heritage tourism industry, they are also faced with discovering and negotiating multiple historical narratives regarding culture and values. The purpose of this study, by way of general inductive investigation, was to explore heritage tourism at the community level: specifically host-guest relationships and the role tourism plays in maintaining the community's social order. It is contended that tourism at the community level can be used to control and reinforce existing social hierarchies, in addition to producing benefits. For the purposes of the study, the name of the community has been changed from its real name and pseudonyms are used for the 10 informants interviewed.
Key words: Heritage tourism; Community tourism development; Ethnographic research
Address correspondence to Dr. Rich Harrill, Economic Development Institute, Tourism and Regional Assistance Centers (TRACS), Georgia Institute of Technology, 207 O'Keefe Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0640. Tel: (404) 894-3852; Fax: (404)-894-0069.
James F. Petrick
Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261
Perceived value has been identified as one of the most important measures for gaining competitive edge. While recent multidimensional scales have been created for measuring perceived value of products, SERV-PERVAL is the first multidimensional tool for the measurement of perceived value of a service. Thus, the purpose of the current study was: (1) to investigate the reliability and validity of the SERV-PERVAL scale in a tourism setting, and (2) to analyze how well factors of perceived value predict perceived value, satisfaction, and intentions to repurchase. Results revealed that the scale shows good reliability and validity, and that SERV-PERVAL factors are related to cruise passengers' postcruise cognitive assessments. Specific managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.
Key words: Perceived value; SERV-PERVAL; Satisfaction; Intention to repurchase; Cruise passengers; Structural equation modeling
Address correspondence to James F. Petrick, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-8806; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Residents' Attitudes Toward Tourism Development: A Case Study in Kusadasi, Turkey
Senol Cavus and Abdullah Tanrisevdi
Adnan Menderes University, School of Tourism Administration & Hotel Management, Candan Tarhan Bulvari, No: 6, 09400 Kusadasi, Aydin, Turkey
Mass tourism may influence local peoples' daily routines. These influences may be seen mostly in the peak tourism seasons. Such influences are formed as congestion, density, overcrowding, and energy shortages. Residents' participation in the tourism development process helps to improve local economies. The purpose of this study was to examine the residents' attitudes toward tourism development in Kusadasi (Turkey) that highly influence mass tourism. Factor, frequency, and chi-square analysis were used in the study. Seven factors were found, which were: negative attitudes toward tourism development, economic benefits, general concerns, congestion, negative economic benefits, cultural concerns, and support to tourism establishments. In addition, the residents' threshold level based on Doxey's Irridex model was explored. The relationships between variables were also measured. Significant differentiations were within age and length of residence.
Key words: Resident attitudes; Threshold level; Tourism development; Irridex model
Address correspondence to Abdullah Tanrisevdi, Ph.D., Adnan Menderes University, School of Tourism Administration & Hotel Management, Candan Tarhan Bulvari, No: 6, 09400 Kusadasi, Aydin, Turkey. E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Ibrahim Birkan and Zeliha Eser
Department of Tourism Management, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey
In the tourism industry customer satisfaction gains importance more than any other type of industry in terms of service characteristics, such as perishability, inseperability, intangibility, and simultaneous production and consumption. The objective of this study was to measure and understand the satisfaction level of visitors of the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) with different amenities offered in the Antalya region. The findings reveal that most of the CIS visitors are satisfied with the services provided in Antalya. Further, the study found that the most satisfactory service is related to check-in/check-out procedures, and the least satisfactory item is the price of the services provided.
Key words: Satisfaction; Measuring satisfaction; CIS visitors
Address correspondence to Ibrahim Birkan, Ph.D., Faculty of Economics and Administrative, Department of Tourism Management, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: 90-312-4551400; Fax: 90-312-2551415; E-mail: email@example.com
C. Patrick Fleenor, Rex S. Toh, and David W. Arnesen
Albers School of Business and Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA
In the summer of 2000, Seattle University's business school organized a student study tour of Vietnam and Singapore. From records, results show that group expenses were almost twice as high in Singapore as in Vietnam, reflecting the respective costs of living in the two countries. This also was true for contemporaneously kept diary records of individual expenses, due to more shopping done in Singapore. Surprisingly, individual spending was largely unaffected by demographics, but was instead destination specific. We conclude that student study tours are a form of sustainable tourism that can make a substantial economic impact on host countries.
Key words: Student study tours; Impact on tourism; Vietnam; Singapore
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh, Department of Management, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122-4460. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org