|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 7, pp. 89-104
1083-5423/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Comparison and Contrast of Push and Pull Motivational Effects on Trip Behavior: An Application of a Multinomial Logistic Regression Model*
Gyehee Lee,1 Joseph T. O'leary,2 Sun Hee Lee,3 and Alastair Morrison1
2Texas A & M University
Within the context of the multidestinations and multiactivities, the present study focused on the comparison between the push and pull motives in terms of the influences on destination choice and vacation activity of German pleasure travelers to the US, Canada, and Asia. Employing a multinomial logistic regression and OLS regression techniques, this study assessed the effect of each motivational factor on destination choice and vacation activity participation. The effect of other independent variables, such as length of stay, travel budget, travel mode, and sociodemographics, was also investigated. The results of this study indicated that: (1) in general, pull factors exerted more influence on destination choice than push factors, and different pull factors motivated travelers to select different destinations, (2) motivational factors were the most significant determinants among others, and (3) a typology of vacation activity patterns based on need-satisfying property of motivation may exist.
Key words: Motivation; Push factor; Pull factor; Multinomial logistic regression; OLS regression; Destination choice; Vacation activity
Address correspondence to Dr. Ghyehee Lee at his present address, Department of Hotel, Restaurant and Tourism Management, Columbia Coliseum, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Tel: (803) 777-6665; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*The data utilized in this study were made available by the Canadian Tourism Commission. The data were originally prepared by Coopers and Lybrand Consulting. Neither the preparer of the original data nor the Canadian Tourism Commission bear any responsibility for the analysis or interpretations presented in the current article.
Social Psychological Theories of Tourist Motivation: Exploration, Debate, and Transition
Rich Harrill1 and Thomas D. Potts2
1Georgia Institute of Technology, Economic Development Institute,
Tourism and Regional Assistance Centers (TRACS)
2Clemson University, Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs
The purpose of this article is to review and assess the dominant social psychological and related models of tourist motivation, reviewing the conceptual development of tourist motivation from the early 1970s to the present. Given the evolution of this debate, we argue that an integrated social psychological approach to tourist motivation has yet to be achieved. First, we provide a brief introduction to the social psychology of tourism. We then assess competing social psychological models of tourist motivation, concluding with implications for the development of an integrated social psychology of tourist motivation. Finally, we discuss lessons learned from the debates with implications for tourism theory and pedagogy.
Key words: Tourism motivation; The social psychology of tourism; Tourism theory
Address correspondence to Dr. Rich Harrill, Ph.D., Georgia Institute of Technology, Economic Development Institute, 207 O'Keefe Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0640. Tel: (404) 894-3852; Fax: (404) 894-0069; E-mail: email@example.com
Recall Salience: Concept, Use, and Estimation
Jay Beaman,1 Andrew Hill,2 and Joseph T. O'leary3
1Auctor Consulting, Colorado State University & UIUC
2University of Washington
3Texas A&M University
A 1998 review of the 1994, 1996, and 1997 Canadian Travel Surveys (CTS) provided evidence that a large decline in estimated travel was related to a change in respondents' efficiency in recalling trips, in other words, to a change in trip recall salience (TRS) between the years. Because the CTS data are collected on all trips that respondents take in a month, one can examine the order in which different categories of trips are reported. Research reviewed in this article shows how the statistical significance of TRS and the estimation of a TRS scale can occur. Scale estimation is critical to work cited as making estimates of the consequence of changes in survey methodology. This research pursues the systematic estimation of TRS scales using regression. Topics covered include avoiding bias, estimation of a TRS scale using regression, and estimating bias in the CTS using a TRS scale. Because numerous surveys collect data on occurrences recalled for a given period of time, it follows that some analyses where salience is relevant will be based on data sets large enough that the ideas presented and the methodology developed will be of benefit. For other studies a caution is discussed about the impact of salience, even if a scale cannot be estimated and recall bias evaluated.
Key words: Salience; Scale estimation; Bias; Bias change; Methodology; Travel surveys
Address correspondence to Joseph T. O'Leary, Professor and Head, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-7324; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gats and Tourism
Misoon Lee, Hanna Fayed, and John Fletcher
International Centre for Tourism & Hospitality Research, Bournemouth University, UK
The economic emphasis is upon globalization, and fundamental to this is the degree of trade liberalization that is one of the main objectives of the World Trade Organization. All forms of economic activity today are fundamentally dependent on international trade. Initially emphasis was focused upon international trade in manufactured goods but, more recently, this emphasis has shifted along with the significant growth in trade of services. International cooperation in trading services is not new, but the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) represents the first multilateral trade agreement effort to establish rules governing services trade, including travel and tourism, and to provide a framework for multilateral negotiations on improved market access for foreign services and service suppliers. This represents a significant step forward in international economic cooperation. It reflects a growing realization of the economic importance of trade in services, as well as the need for closer cooperation among nations in a world with growing interdependence.
Key words: Liberalization; Globalization; GATS; International trade; Trade agreements
Address correspondence to Misoon Lee, International Centre for Tourism & Hospitality Research, School of Service Industries, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: +44 1202 595660; Fax: +44 1202 515707; E-mail: email@example.com
Impact of National Tourism Budgets on International Tourist Arrivals in Three Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries: A Comparison
Tekle Shanka and Frederick A. Frost
School of Marketing, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, Perth WA 6845, Australia
Growth in African tourism is by no means homogeneous. While a few countries enjoy rapid growth in international tourist arrivals and receipts, others have been suffering declines. This is the result of a number of contributing factors, one of which is the inadequacy of national tourism budgets. This article examines the relationship between National Tourism Authority (NTA) budgets, tourism promotion budgets, international tourist arrivals, and receipts from international tourists in three Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The 1991-1997 World Tourism Organization (WTO) budgets were analyzed. The countries in the study were selected based on a number of criteria--the SSA countries that: (a) ranked in the top 20 tourism destinations and tourism earners in Africa in 1998, and (b) had their NTA budgets and promotional budgets reported in a WTO report. South Africa was excluded from this study to minimize distortions in the analysis due to its enormous budgets, international tourist arrivals, as well as receipts. For example, South Africa ranked as the number one tourism destination in Africa in 1998 with 24% of total arrivals going to this country. In terms of international tourism receipts, South Africa again ranked number one in Africa with 24.8% of receipts going to this country. South Africa can be taken as a benchmark for SSA countries for the management of international tourism marketing strategies. Therefore, it was appropriate to take this country out of the equation and compare other SSA countries that have been selected based on the rankings. Of the 48 countries in SSA only 12 countries (25% of SSA countries) were included in the study. Of these, only three countries met the criteria for selection for final analysis. The results indicate a strong positive correlation between NTA budgets, tourism promotional budgets, and tourist arrivals for the countries under study.
Key words: Sub-Saharan Africa; International tourism; NTA budget; Promotion budgets; Tourist arrivals; Receipts
Address correspondence to Tekle Shanka, Ph.D., School of Marketing, Curtin Business School, Curtin University of Technology, GPO BOX U1987, Perth WA 6845, Australia. Tel: (+61 8) 9266-2839; Fax: (+61 8) 9266-3937; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Are We Teaching What We Should? Dilemmas and Problems in Tourism and Hotel Management Education
Ayse Bas Collins
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
There is a growing demand for professionally educated and trained staff in the Tourism and Hotel Management (THM) sector as the whole industry attempts to meet expanded consumer wants and desires. This article examines the relevance of THM education from stakeholders' perspectives, namely, the THM sector, the current and graduate THM students. The following research questions were posed: 1) What are the sector representatives' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of tourism education? 2) What are the current and graduate students' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of tourism education? and 3) What recommendations can be made to improve the system? Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed in the study. Results showed that there was an expanding need for university recognition of specialization due to new technologies and consumer maturation. Likewise, the need for an improved mix between the academic and practical experience and second language inadequacies were highlighted by joint concerns expressed by the sector representatives and the graduate students.
Key words: Tourism and hotel management education; Tourism and hotel management curriculum; Students' perception on tourism and hotel management education; Managers' perception on tourism and hotel management education
Address correspondence to Dr. Ayse Bas Collins, Hosdere Cad. Cankaya Evleri D Blok, Daire 1, Yukari Ayranci 06550, Ankara, Turkiye. Tel: 90-312-2905043; Fax: 90-312-2664607; E-mail: email@example.com
American Travel Survey and National Household Travel Survey
Bo A. Hu,1 Joseph T. O'leary,2 and Joy Sharp3
1Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue
2Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University
3U.S. Department of Transportation
The 1995 American Travel Survey (ATS), a primary data source to examine Americans' long-distance travel characteristics in the field of transportation, provides a comprehensive insight into Americans' foreign and domestic travel for the purposes of business, leisure, visiting friends and relatives, and personal business. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), which combines ATS and Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), will be available publicly in early 2003. Although the ATS and forthcoming NHTS are designed for policy formation and promotional activities in the general field of travel and tourism, few leisure, recreation, and tourism researchers realize the availability of use of these data in their research. This research note aims to introduce the 1995 ATS and the 2001 NHTS, and discusses some issues in these surveys.
Key words: American Travel Survey (ATS); National Household Travel Survey (NPTS); Data availability
Address correspondence to Bo A. Hu, Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1266. Tel: (765) 494-6727; Fax: (765) 494-0327; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org