ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM ANALYSIS

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 1

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 1-13
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Atlas/ti and Content/Semiotic Analysis in Tourism Research

Mehmet Mehmetoglu1,2 and Graham M. S. Dann2

1Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism, 9509 Alta/Norway
2International Tourism Research Institute, University of Luton, England

After defining content/semiotic analysis and noting some of its general merits and disadvantages, this article outlines its principal applications in tourism research. Since this type of investigation seems to be reluctant to take advantage of computer-assisted software, the case for its greater adoption is explored. Attention focuses on Atlas/ti and a comparison is made with manual techniques, both with regard to their operations and their respective strengths and weaknesses. An example is taken from qualitative data gathered from fieldwork conducted in the Norwegian Lofoten islands, a case that illustrates the mutually beneficial differences between traditional and newer approaches.

Key words: Content/semiotic analysis; Content/semiotic analysis in tourism research; Atlas/ti; Lofoten islands

Address correspondence to Mehmet Mehmetoglu, Finnmark University College, Department of Tourism, 9509 Alta, Norway. Tel: +47 784 50 269; Fax: +47 784 34 438; E-mail: memet@hifm.no




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 15-31
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Predicting Random Level and Seasonality of Hotel Prices: A Latent Growth Curve Approach

Germà Coenders, Josep Maria Espinet, and Marc Saez

Department of Economics, University of Girona

This article examines the effect on price of different characteristics of holiday hotels in the sun-and-beach segment, under the hedonic function perspective. Monthly prices of the majority of hotels in the five major tourist regions in the Spanish continental Mediterranean coast were gathered from May to October 1999, from the tour operator catalogues. Hedonic functions are specified as random-effect models and parameterized as structural equation models with two latent variables, a random peak season price and a random width of seasonal fluctuations. This model can be considered to be a latent growth curve model applied to seasonality rather than growth. Characteristics of the hotels were used as predictors of both latent variables in models fitted for each region separately. Hotel category, region, distance to the beach, availability of parking place, and room equipment have an effect on both peak price and seasonality. Three-star hotels have the highest seasonality and hotels located in the southern regions the lowest. This can be explained by a warmer climate in autumn in the southern regions. The model is fitted to the pooled data of all regions and expanded to include the effect of climate on prices.

Key words: Hedonic functions; Hotel pricing; Seasonality; Latent growth curve models; Random-effect models

Address correspondence to Germà Coenders, Faculty of Economics, Campus Montilivi, 17071, Girona, Spain. Tel: +34972418736; Fax: +34972418032; E-mail: germa.coenders@udg.es




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 33-45
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A Forecasting Model of Tourist Arrivals From Major Markets to Thailand

Jing Hao, Turgut Var, and Jinhyung Chon

Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2261

Since international tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon worldwide, the tourism industry has become a powerful engine for economic development and a major foreign exchange generator, especially in the East Asia and Pacific Region. With such growth and increased competition, it is vitally important to forecast tourism demand in the region and understand the factors affecting demand. Considering the national importance of tourism, Thailand was chosen as the destination country with nine major markets as the countries of origin. A model was developed for each country to forecast tourism demand from that market. Multiple regression analysis was applied over time series data. The empirical results suggest that independent variables, such as income level in the country of origin, prices of tourism goods in the destination country, currency exchange rate between the origin and destination country, and rooms supply in destination, do affect tourism demand. Qualitative factors, represented by dummy variables, namely special promotional program and political unrest, show slight impact on demand. The study reveals that there are differences in the relative impacts of variables among the tourist-generating countries. Thus, country-specific forecasting models and strategies must be formulated to reflect the uniqueness of each country of origin.

Key words: Tourism forecasting; Thailand; International tourism; Demand; Income; Price; Distance; Time constraint; Exchange rate

Address correspondence to Turgut Var, Department of Recreation, Park & Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-5395; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: tvar@mail.rpts.tamu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 47-59
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Integrating Micro and Macro Approaches to Tourist Motivations: Toward an Interdisciplinary Theory

Tazim Jamal and Jin-Hyung Lee

Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

This article examines key contributions to research on tourist motivations in the tourism studies literature from two influential areas, social psychology and sociology. While much of 20th century sociology has been characterized by either micro-level study (individual) or macro-level analysis (social structures), linking these two dimensions has emerged as an important new study area for sociologists. It is argued in this article that this integrative move is overdue in tourism studies and even more so in the study of tourist motivations. This area, as our analysis shows, suffers from theoretical and methodological fragmentation due (in part) to the interdisciplinary nature of tourism studies. Recent perspectives on micro-macro linkages from sociology, and related insights from a variety of disciplines, are laid out in the article and used to propose a conceptual framework that integrates individual (micro-level) and social (macro-level) aspects of tourist motivations. The overall production-consumption approach of the proposed framework helps to situate tourist motivations within mutually reinforcing micro-macro structures and the global political economy of international tourism. A number of related impacts and methodological insights result from this integrative approach, which are discussed in the article.

Key words: Tourist motivations; Interdisciplinary theory; Social psychology; Sociology; Micro-macro linkages; Tourism production-consumption; Modernity

Address correspondence to Tazim B. Jamal, Ph.D., Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, TAMU 2261, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-6454; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: tjamal@tamu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 61-73
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The Attitudinal and Behavioral Consequences of Destination Performance

Mark P. Pritchard

Department of Recreation Management & Tourism, Arizona State University

Many destinations seek to improve their industry's performance so that tourists are satisfied and return. Although the concept remains a fundamental goal for governments and tourism agencies alike, a complete understanding about how tourists develop a sense of performance, and the effect this has on their behavior, is lacking. The consequences of performance extend beyond its link to satisfaction, yet tourism research on the construct's relationship with other important factors has been limited in scope and rigor. This study surveyed visitors to Western Australia and used factor analysis to develop two performance-expectation measures of the destination's environment and service infrastructure. These multiattribute estimates were employed, along with measures of trip satisfaction, tourist word-of-mouth and intent-to-return, to test a series of hypothesized relationships in a structural equation model. Fit indices supported the model and destination performance's link to visitor satisfaction and word-of-mouth behavior. However, contrary to previous reports, tourist satisfaction did not directly influence whether a tourist would return, as this effect was largely mediated by word-of-mouth's (WOM) link to intent to return. While questions about the close relationship between satisfaction and WOM were raised by the results, another issue discussed was whether WOM behavior provides a mechanism that enhances attitude accessibility, and the capacity for performance and satisfaction to influence visitation. Recommendations for this construct's development are discussed, along with some practical insights about WOM's potential in tourism promotion.

Key words: Western Australia; Tourist performance-expectations; Trip satisfaction; Word of mouth; Intent to return; Path analysis

Address correspondence to Mark P. Pritchard, Ph.D., Department of Recreation Management & Tourism, Arizona State University, Moeur Building, Room 138D, Tempe, AZ 85287-4905. Tel: (480) 965-8913; Fax: (480) 965-5664; E-mail: mark.pritchard@asu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 75-87
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Measuring the Quality of Airline Services: Evidence From Northern Cyprus

Nazmi Kozak,1 Osman M. Karatepe,2 and Turgay Avci2

1School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Anadolu University, Yunus Emre Kampusu, 26470, Eskisehir, Turkey
2Center for Tourism Research, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey

This study set out to examine the service quality and customer satisfaction delivered by the national airline company in Northern Cyprus, using a SERVQUAL scale. For this purpose, the translated instrument was purified using an item categorization technique and administered to 270 current users of the national airline company at an international university in the region. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the predicted five-dimensional structure of SERVQUAL was partially confirmed by the data. SERVPERF scores gave a better prediction of overall satisfaction and showed almost the same reliability and validity as those from which expectations were subtracted. The largest service gaps were identified with the reliability and responsiveness dimensions, and the smallest with the empathy dimension. Reliability and responsiveness dimensions were found by path analysis to be significant determinants of customer satisfaction. Implications of the results are discussed.

Key words: Expectations; Perceptions; SERVQUAL; SERVPERF; National airline company; Service quality; Customer satisfaction

Address correspondence to Dr. Osman M. Karatepe, Center for Tourism Research, School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, Eastern Mediterranean University, Gazimagusa, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, via Mersin 10, Turkey. E-mail: osman.karatepe@emu.edu.tr




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 89-94
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RESEARCH NOTE
International Sport Fishing: The Case of the German Angler in Alaska

Laura M. Milner,1 Mark Herrmann,1 Kelly Giraud,2 Michelle Skogen Baker,3 and Rodney F. Hiser4

1School of Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks
2Department of Resource Economics and Development, University of New Hampshire
3Southcentral Foundation
4Butler County Community College

This study represents the first comprehensive survey of German sport fishing anglers in Alaska. Utilizing an approach previously developed in the literature, differentiating anglers on a continuum from occasional anglers to specialists, the current study adapts this typology to a travel context and shows these distinctions are useful in developing a tourism marketing strategy to attract the international angling tourist.

Key words: Sport fishing anglers; Segmentation; German tourists

Address correspondence to Mark Herrmann, School of Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6080. Tel: (907) 474-7116; Fax: (907) 474-5219; E-mail: ffmlh@uaf.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 95-98
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Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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RESEARCH NOTE
Training Needs of Web Users in "A" Group Travel Agencies: A Case of Antalya Region

A. Akin Aksu and Ebru Tarcan

Akdeniz University, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey

Using information technologies results in having advantages in competition, decreasing costs, gaining time, getting and sharing information, and having speedy service. In a rapidly increasing trend, touristic establishments are benefiting from the new information technologies. In order to be successful, touristic establishments must invest in technology and qualified personnel. The objective of this article is to investigate the training needs of Web users in "A" group travel agencies. Internet, e-mail connections, and Web applications of "A" group travel agencies operating in the providence of Antalya Region were examined, and possible training needs of Web users employed in these travel agencies were assessed. The information from this study can be of help in charting out the course of future research.

Key words: Internet; E-mail connections; Information technologies; Travel agencies

Address correspondence to Associate Professor A. Akin Aksu, Akdeniz University, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: 00 90 242 227 45 51; Fax: 00 90 242 323 33 10; E-mail: aakinaksu@yahoo.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 99-103
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RESEARCH NOTE
An Investigation Into Maintaining Quality Culture in Four- and Five-Star Hotels in the South-Agean Coast, Turkey

Edip Örücü And Erdogan Gavcar

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Mugla University, Kötekli, Mugla, Turkey

This study investigates how four- and five-star hotels in the South-Aegean region develop and maintain quality culture. After reviewing previous research on developing and maintaining quality culture in organizations, data were collected via a questionnaire from 31 hotels and analyzed by using correlation and multiregression statistical techniques. The findings of the study indicate that the success of developing and maintaining a quality culture in a hotel depends very much on the existing culture of the hotel and the ability of the management team. It is therefore essential for hotel organizations to possess universal quality culture values and have a professional management team if they are to compete and prosper. Following the total quality management approach can help hotel groups to create and implement these values. However, organizational culture should have appropriate components for a successful total quality management implementation.

Key words: Total quality management; Tourism organizations; Culture; Hotel management; Hospitality

Address correspondence to Erdogan Gavcar, Ph.D., Professor, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Mugla University, Kötekli, Mugla, Turkey. Tel: 00 90 252 2238005; Fax: 00 90 252 2238004; E-mail: gavacar1@yahoo.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 105-111
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RESEARCH NOTE
The Role and Potential of Travel Agency Staff as a Marketing Communications Tool

Erdogan Koc

Department of Business Administration, Dogus University, Istanbul, Turkey

This article explores the role and potential of travel agency staff as a marketing communications tool in marketing package holidays. A number of data collection methods were used to provide in-depth information. They ranged from initial exploratory interviews with tourists, key informant interviews with managers at travel agencies, observations at travel agencies, focus group studies with tourists, and final interviews with tourists. All explored the role and potential of travel agency staff as a marketing communications tool. The findings of the primary research indicate that there is a disparity of perception between the management of travel agencies and domestic tourists in Turkey as to the role of travel agency sales staff in marketing domestic holidays. The research shows that the sales staff at travel agencies are not used effectively as a marketing communications tool. The research findings are believed to be relevant for other services industries as well as tourism and service sector businesses in other countries.

Key words: Travel agencies; Domestic tourism; Personal selling; Marketing communications; Sales staff

Address correspondence to Dr. Erdogan Koc, Deputy Dean, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Dogus University, Acibadem Zaemet Sok. No. 21, Kadikoy 81010, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90 216 3271104 or +90 216 3271106, ext. 396; Fax: +90 216 3268449; E-mail: eoc@dogus.edu.tr