|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 8, NUMBERS 2-4
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 8, pp. 119-124
1083-5423/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Risk Perceptions, Expectations, Disappointments, and Information Processing Tendencies of One- and Two-Star Hotel Guests: Is There a Market for Low-Star Hotel Categories in Austria?
School of Management, Marketing & Employment Relations, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia
Identifying the target segment is the basis of developing efficient market segmentation strategies, and efficient market segmentation is vital in an industry that is becoming increasingly competitive, as in the case of international tourism. In Austria, hotels in higher star grading categories have addressed this need through systematic market research designed to identify the needs of their consumers. Not so the hotels in the one- and two-star category: these typically do not segment the market and tend to assume that increasing their star grading will lead to increased market demand instead of investigating the specific needs of tourists who very consciously choose low-star-graded hotels. This article aims to examine this a priori segment with regard to issues that are known to influence choice behavior, namely expectations, disappointments with past experiences, and perceived risk, while taking into account information need and processing habits. The ultimate purpose of the study is to stimulate development of a segment-oriented marketing strategy for one- and two-star hotels should this guest segment differ significantly from that comprising tourists staying in higher graded hotels.
Key words: A priori segmentation; Hotel star grading
Address correspondence to Sara Dolnicar, School of Management, Marketing & Employment Relations, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia. Tel: +61 2 4221 3862; Fax: +61 2 4221 4154; E-mail: email@example.com
The Influence of Consumers' Emotions on Their Service Product Evaluation
Sandra Gountas1 and John Y. Gountas2
1Department of Marketing, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria,
2Bowater School, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
There is a lack of attention to the role of emotions in consumers' product evaluation. Much of the literature concerned with services' evaluation focuses on the distinction between the tangible and intangible aspects of the service offered and how they contribute towards the consumer's satisfaction. However, these differences may be contingent upon a wider range of factors including the duration of the service, the individual's personality, natural preferences, and emotional state prior to, during, and after the service encounter. The leisure/charter airline industry provides an ideal setting to study the effects of the aforementioned conditions. This article reports the findings of a study that currently comprises more than 1400 cases and focuses on the influence of emotions on service evaluation. The findings indicate that the leisure/charter airline passengers' emotions prior to, and during, the flight are related to service provision and that emotions are related to the passengers' overall satisfaction rating for the services received.
Key words: Emotions; Satisfaction; Services; Airlines
Address correspondence to Sandra Gountas, 52 The Strand, Point Cook, Victoria, Australia 3030. Tel: +61 3 9395; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Designing and Testing a Guttman-Type Social Distance Scale for a Tourism Context
Maree Thyne1 and Andreas H. Zins2
1Scottish Centre of Tourism, Aberdeen, The Robert Gordon
2Institute for Tourism and Leisure Studies, Vienna, University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria
Research explaining host community residents' attitudes towards tourism receives continuous attention and its scope is broadening constantly. This study aims at contributing to the body of knowledge about the systematic variation and change of these attitudes. For this reason, the concept of social distance is introduced into the tourism context. As a first attempt, a Guttman-type scale with Thurstone characteristics was developed and purified in two countries: New Zealand and Austria. In both countries independent surveys were conducted to validate the scale formation. The contribution to explaining residents' attitudes was very fruitful in the Austrian example but less clear in the New Zealand example. Whether or not different stages of tourism development are responsible for these differences cannot be entirely concluded from only two surveys.
Key words: Guttman scaling; Social distance; Host community resident attitudes
Address correspondence to Maree Thyne, Aberdeen Business School, The Robert Gordon University, Garthdee II, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen, AB10 7QG, UK. Tel: +44 1224 263 037; Fax: +44 1224 253 038; E-mail: email@example.com
Motivation for Domestic Tourism: A Case Study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Naima B. Bogari,1 Geoff Crowther,2 and Norman Marr2
1King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia
2University of Huddersfield, UK
Tourism motivation in developing countries and Islamic culture has received scant attention from researchers. The key to understanding tourism motivation is to see holiday travel as a satisfier of needs and wants. Literature on tourism often conceptualizes tourist motives in terms of push and pull forces. The idea behind this concept is that people travel because they are pushed by their own internal forces and pulled by external forces of the destination attributes. One way to realize travel motivation is to examine the notion of push and pull demand stimulation. The objectives of this research were to understand both push and pull motivation for domestic tourism and the relationship between the two motivations for Saudi tourists. The finding indicated nine push factors (cultural value, utilitarian, knowledge, social, economical, family togetherness, interest, relaxation, and convenience of facilities) and nine pull factors (safety, activity, beach sports/activities, nature/outdoor, historical/cultural, religious, budget, leisure, and upscale). This study found that the most important push and pull factors as perceived by Saudi tourists are "cultural value" and "religious." The study also confirms the relationship between push and pull factors.
Key words: Motivation; Islamic culture; Tourism
Address correspondence to Geoff Crowther, Department of Marketing, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, West Yorkshire, UK. Tel: 00 1484 472608; Fax: 00 1484 472896; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ecotourism Operators and Environmental Education: Enhancing Competitive Advantage by Advertising Environmental Learning Experiences
Garry G. Price
School of Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086 Australia
Research indicates that tourist motivation and behavior are often determined, in part, by the desire for a learning experience. It is contended in this article that ecotourists have a desire for environmental learning and that ecotourism operators who differentiate their product through the provision of high-quality environmental education programs establish a potential sustainable competitive advantage. However, it is asserted that this potential long-term competitive advantage will only be realized if sufficient tourists can be attracted to the offered ecotourism experience. It is further asserted that attracting the required number of clients can be done, in part, by ecotourism operators emphasizing environmental learning in their printed and electronic advertising material. Content analysis of the current advertising material of ecotourism operators reveals that many ecotourism operators are not placing emphasis on their environmental learning offerings in their advertising. Using the results obtained, it is argued that the relatively small emphasis on ecotourists' demand for environmental learning in advertising directed at potential clients is a substantial weakness in some companies' strategic marketing. It is further argued that authentic and expert ecotourism operators who capitalize on this shortcoming are likely to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
Key words: Ecotourism; Advertising; Ecotourist behavior; Environmental learning; Competitive advantage
Address correspondence to Garry G. Price, School of Tourism and Hospitality, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, 3086 Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 1126; Fax: +61 3 9479 1010; E-mail: email@example.com
Domestic Leisure Traveler Purchase and Consumption Systems
Ray Spurr,1 Elizabeth Cowley,1 Peter Robins,2 and Arch G. Woodside3
1University of New South Wales
2Bureau of Travel Research, Australia
Leisure travelers visiting overnight destinations complete a series of related purchases that may be viewed usefully as a leisure travel consumption system. Certain travel-related purchases in one product-service category trigger additional purchases in other product-service categories. This article reports findings of an empirical study that support the above core proposition. For this study, analyses were conducted on the unit record data of overnight domestic travelers (n = 27,653 households) in the Australian National Visitor Survey (NVS) 1998 study on the characteristics and travel patterns of domestic tourists. A core proposition for doing the research work reported here is that understanding domestic overnight travel behavior requires examining tourism consumption systems rather than only focusing on two or three variable relationships. The theoretical logic of focusing on tourism trips as a unit of analysis rather than variable relationships is applicable through field studies of tourism consumption systems.
Key words: Tourism consumption systems; Travel patterns; Marketing strategies
Address correspondence to Arch G. Woodside, Boston College, Carroll School of Management, 450 Fulton Hall, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467. Tel: (617) 552-3069; Fax: (617) 552-2097; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Supporting Tourist Activity Planning Decisions From an Urban Tourism Management Perspective
Qi Han,1 Benedict G. C. Dellaert,2 W. Fred Van Raaij,3 and Harry J. P. Timmermans1
1Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Urban
Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Eindhoven, The
2Maastricht University, Department of Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Maastricht, The Netherlands
3Tilburg University, Department of Economic and Social Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg, The Netherlands
Urban tourism has positive effects on the city such as generating financial support and improving the city's atmosphere, but may also have negative impacts such as overusage of resources. In this article, an activity-based approach to tourists' behavior analysis is combined with a game-theoretic methodology to study the interaction between individual tourists as well as the interaction between tourists and the tourism information offices. We postulate that, when integrated in an Internet-based information system, this approach can support urban authorities to achieve sustainable tourism development, and also support individual tourists in planning their urban day-trips as a customized experience.
Key words: Decision support; Activity-based model; Game theory; Internet; Interaction
Address correspondence to Qi Han, Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 40 2475403; Fax: + 31 40 2438488; E-mail: email@example.com
Comparing First-Time and Repeat Visitors Activity Patterns
Astrid D. A. M. Kemperman, Chang-Hyeon Joh, and Harry J. P. Timmermans
Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands
This article compares activity patterns of first-time and repeat visitors in a theme park. A sequence alignment method and CHAID are used to classify the visitors with regard to their activity patterns and identify predictor variables. The results indicate that first-time and repeat visitors differ in their activity patterns in the park, specifically with respect to the order of activities chosen. First-time visitors follow a strict route in the park, while repeaters have a more diverse activity pattern. However, the difference between the two groups is reduced when first-time visitors use information about the available activities in the park.
Key words: Activity pattern; Repeat visitation; Sequence alignment
Address correspondence to Astrid Kemperman, Eindhoven University of Technology, Urban Planning Group, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Tel: +31 40 2473291; Fax: +31 40 2455882; E-mail: A.D.A.M.Kemperman@bwk.tue.nl
Tourist Perceptions of and Motivations for Visiting the Algarve, Portugal
Antónia Correia1 and Geoffrey I. Crouch2
1University of Algarve, Faculty of Economics, Portugal
2La Trobe University, School of Business, Melbourne, Australia
Perceptions and motivations are fundamental in tourist decisions and are crucial in the formation of the destination image. Despite the growing number of publications in this area, case studies are still scarce and especially so for Portugal. This study investigates tourist perceptions and motivations in the Algarve. A questionnaire was used to interview a random sample of tourists. Factor analysis and multivariate statistics were employed to find different exogenous variables at work for both perceptions and motivations, which varied according to the participant's country of origin. Eight factors were found that help in understanding the perceived image and motivations tourists of different nationalities have about the Algarve. It is found that the Algarve is perceived as a sports destination. The sun and the beach also predominate as the leading motivation for tourists. The implications of these findings for explaining consumer behavior indicate future lines of research.
Key words: Tourism; Perceptions; Motivations; Choice; Demand; Factor analysis
Address correspondence to Antónia Correia, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8000-117 Faro, Portugal. Tel: +351 919 978 488; Fax: +351 289 862 045; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Experimental Analysis of the Choice of Convention Site
Geoffrey I. Crouch1 and Jordan J. Louviere2
1La Trobe University, School of Business, Melbourne, Victoria
2University of Technology, Sydney, School of Marketing, Haymarket, NSW 2000, Australia
The conventions industry has grown to become a very important part of the global tourism and hospitality sector. For cities, particularly, conventions have become one of their principal target markets. This article reports the results of an Australian study that has sought to model the convention site selection choice process. It finds that, although the characteristics of the meeting facilities are particularly important, an attractive host site must offer strengths in a broad range of other attributes if the site is to be successful in an escalating competitive environment.
Key words: Association conventions; Choice modeling; Convention site selection
Address correspondence to Geoffrey I. Crouch, Professor of Marketing, School of Business, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9479 2450; Fax: +61 3 9479 5971; E-mail: G.Crouch@latrobe.edu.au
Contexts and Dynamics of Social Interaction and Information Search in Decision Making for Discretionary Travel
Tzung-Cheng (T. C.) Huan1 and Jay Beaman2
1Graduate Institute of Management, National Chia-yi University,
151 Lin-Sen East Road, Chia-yi, Taiwan, ROC 600
2Auctor Consulting Associates, Ltd., 465 Andra Ct., Cheyenne, WY 82009
A number of tourism decision models draw on consumer psychology. These focus on intrapersonal mental processes, attitudes, values, sociodemographics, some aspects of experience, and information use. The dynamics of information search and social interaction by an individual as part of travel decision making have received little attention. Here the dynamic interaction of an individual with the external environment for social interaction and information search purposes and an individual's style of being involved with some travel decision options are emphasized. The article relates decision making to an operator model. Implications of information search and social interaction potentially occurring over time resulting in interim decisions on what to do are discussed. A final decision on taking a trip is seen as an end that depends on a process. Matters discussed include decisions being interpreted and modeled as involving a single compensatory decision when the final decision can depend on interim decisions, some of which may not be compensatory. A simple question-answer approach is used to show implications of the ideas presented and their application to survey research.
Key words: Decision models; Compensatory decisions; External environment; Information search; Social interaction
Address correspondence to Jay Beaman, Ph.D., Director, Auctor Consulting Associates, Ltd., 465 Andra Ct., Cheyenne, WY 82009. Tel: (307) 635-2114; E-mail: email@example.com
A Duality in Vacation Decision Making
Kenneth F. Hyde
Manukau Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand
Both destination marketing organizations and tourism businesses would benefit from an understanding of which vacation elements are typically chosen by the traveler pretrip versus which vacation elements are typically chosen while on vacation. Previous studies on this subject have produced conflicting results. This article seeks to explain these discrepancies by referring to the concept of a traveler's familiarity with the destination. Furthermore, the article suggests a duality might exist in vacation decision making. Pretrip decision making might best be described as deliberate, purposeful, and reasoned. On-vacation decision making might at times be described as light hearted, free spirited, and hedonistic.
Key words: Vacation decision making; Vacation elements; Independent travel
Address correspondence to Kenneth F. Hyde, Manukau Institute of Technology, Private Bag 94-006, Auckland, New Zealand. Tel: +64 9-968-7681; Fax: +64 9-968-7709; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Vacation Choice Model Incorporating Personality and Leisure Constraints Theory
Robyn L. McGuiggan
Sydney Graduate School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta NSW 2150, Australia
Over the years a number of tourist choice models have been advanced by researchers but, in the study of tourist choice, two areas in particular appear to be lacking: the possible role of the individual difference variable, personality, in that choice, and the importance of constraints during the choice process. This article presents a model of vacation choice based on the constraints model of leisure participation proposed by Crawford, Jackson, and Godbey in 1991 and modified by Jackson, Crawford, and Godbey in 1993, but incorporating the individual difference variable, personality. In building on Jackson et al.'s model, it is proposed that personality will influence vacation preference through the development of motives, and that personality will influence the perception of both intrapersonal constraints and assessment of the ability to negotiate them. It is further proposed that an individual's weighted motives will give rise to weighted vacation attribute preferences and that successful negotiation of interpersonal constraints will lead to jointly agreed weighted vacation attribute preferences.
Key words: Personality; Constraints; Tourist choice; Decision model; Social interaction
Address correspondence to Robyn L. McGuiggan, Sydney Graduate School of Management, University of Western Sydney, Parramatta NSW 2150, Australia. Tel: 61-2-88335926; Fax: 61-2-98915899; E-mail: email@example.com
Holiday Packaging and Tourist Decision Making
Walaiporn Rewtrakunphaiboon1 and Harmen Oppewal2
1School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey
GU2 7XH, UK
2Department of Marketing, Monash University, PO Box 197, Caulfield East, Victoria 3145, Australia
This study aims to investigate how packaging can be used for destination marketing. The focus is on how bundling influences consideration and intention to visit. Most tourism researchers have ignored the fact that destination choice is actually a complex and multifaceted decision process in which destinations are selected in combination with other elements that comprise a holiday. Tourism literature also seems to assume that consideration sets are likely to be stable over time and destination marketers should try to get their destinations into the consumers' consideration sets as early as possible. The present study will investigate these assumptions by looking into the effects of holiday packaging on consideration and intention to visit. This article reviews the literature and presents the methodology and some preliminary results.
Key words: Bundling; Consideration; Consumer behavior; Destination choice; Package holidays; Tourist decision making
Address correspondence to Walaiporn Rewtrakunphaiboon, Ph.D. Research Office, School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK. Tel: +44 1483 682117; Fax: +44 1483 686346; E-mail: W.Rewtrakunphaiboon@surrey.ac.uk
An Investigation of the Determinants of Customer Satisfaction
School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
This study investigates the relationships between customer satisfaction, service quality, and overall attitude. To this end, two conceptual frameworks and 10 hypotheses are tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings indicate that the evaluation of service quality leads to customer satisfaction and satisfaction is more similar to an attitude. Also desires congruence and ideal self-congruence are found to be antecedents of customer satisfaction.
Key words: Customer satisfaction; Service quality; Overall attitude; Structural equation modeling
Address correspondence to Yuksel Ekinci, Ph.D., School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK. Tel: +44 1483 686 376; Fax: +44 1483 686 301; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
First-Timer Versus Repeat Visitor Satisfaction: The Case of Orlando, Florida
Paul Fallon and Peter Schofield
School of Leisure, Hospitality and Food Management, University of Salford, Salford M6 6PU, UK
This article compares first-time and repeat visitor satisfaction with Orlando, FL. Factor analysis (PCA) of subjects' ratings on 22 "performance" attributes produced five factors: primary, secondary, and tertiary attractions, facilitators, and transport plus. A one-way between-groups MANOVA identified a significant difference between first-time and repeat segments on the secondary attractions. Regression of overall tourist satisfaction with Orlando against the factors showed that secondary attractions were the single most influential factor affecting tourists' overall satisfaction with Orlando. Subdivision of the sample into first-timer and repeater segments showed that the overall satisfaction of first-timers and repeaters was explained by different hierarchies of factors.
Key words: Visitor satisfaction; First-timer visitors; Repeat visitors; Orlando, FL
Address correspondence to Paul Fallon, School of Leisure, Hospitality and Food Management, University of Salford, Frederick Road, Salford M6 6PU, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 161 295 4579; Fax: +44 (0) 161 295 2020; E-mail: P.Fallon@salford.ac.uk
Ethical Ideals and Expectations Regarding Visitor, Staff, and Management Among Potential Tourist Industry Employees
Glenn F. Ross
School of Business, James Cook University, Cairns, Queensland, Australia
This study has examined ideal ethical beliefs together with perceived visitor, staff, and management ethical expectations, and also employment context preferences among a sample of secondary college students in a major Australian tourist destination, many of whom would likely later seek postsecondary college education for or immediate employment within the tourism industry. It has been found that ethical ideals generally exceeded those perceived to be held by current tourism industry staff and also tourism industry management; respondent ideals were perceived to be similar to those of visitors, except in regard to precepts such as helpfulness and frankness. Those less likely to perceive a divergence between ideal and actual staff friendliness were the ones more likely to favor tourism/hospitality/retail and also tourism/transport employment contexts. Finally, those graduands more likely to perceive themselves as holding ethical beliefs significantly different from visitors in regard to frankness were the ones more likely to deem tourism industry employment contexts as undesirable. Implications of these various findings are addressed.
Key words: Ethics; Values; Aristotelian virtues
Address correspondence to Glenn F Ross, Ph.D., School of Business, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland, Australia 4870. Tel: 61 7 4042 1080; E-mail: Glenn.Ross@jcu.edu.au
Expressive Versus Instrumental Factors in Measuring Visitor Satisfaction
Muzaffer Uysal,1 John Williams,2 and Yooshik Yoon3
1Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department
of Hospitality & Tourism Management, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429
2Department of Hotel, Restaurant, Institution Management & Dietetics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-1404
3Department of Tourism Management, Pai Chai University, Daejeon, South Korea (302-735)
This study describes overall satisfaction as a function of instrumental and expressive factors. The objective of the study was accomplished by testing whether instrumental and expressive attributes are distinct behavioral indicators that could better predict visitor satisfaction. Furthermore, the study tests if visitor types based on motivation for travel moderate the relationship between instrumental and expressive attributes. The findings of the study revealed partial support that expressive and instrumental factors collectively might be predictors of overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction in general. However, the findings reveal that visitor type based on motivation for travel moderates the relative importance of instrumental and expressive factors. Empirical studies of this nature may be of help to destination marketers and planners to understand the complexity of satisfaction as one of the elements of visitation behavior. Actual and potential markets can use these types of studies to develop appropriate communication materials that would incorporate the relative importance of destination features as perceived.
Key words: Expressive factors; Instrumental factors; Satisfaction; Structural equation model
Address correspondence to Muzaffer Uysal, Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Hospitality & Tourism Management, 355 Wallace Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0429. Tel: (540) 231-8426; Fax: (540) 231-8313; E-mail: email@example.com
Profiling Airline Web Users: A Segmentation Approach
Jospeh S. Chen1 and Seyou Jang2
1Department of Hospitality Management, International University
of Applied Sciences, Mülheimer Strasse 38, D-53604 Bad Honnef, Germany
2School of Tourism, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-dong, Gwangjin-ku Seoul 143-747, South Korea
Due to the paucity of literature dealing with Internet usages, this research attempted to determine users' preferences to airline Web sites with a segmentation approach. The measurement of the users' preferences was accomplished through a two-stage, analytical scheme embracing both qualitative and quantitative methods. Consequently, 16 Web site-related attributes were developed for a mail survey that yielded 328 useful samples. Two distinct segments, named Bargain Seekers and Utilitarians, were collectively determined by a cluster analysis, the importance rankings, and mean scores. Bargain Seekers tended to be younger females with a college degree, an annual income lower than $60,000, and used the Internet over 2 hours daily. In the final analysis, marketing implications along with suggestions for future studies are rendered.
Key words: Airline Web sites; User preferences; Market segmentation
Address correspondence to Joseph S. Chen, Ph.D., CHA, Professor, Department of Hospitality Management, International University of Applied Sciences, Mülheimer Strasse 38, D-53604 Bad Honnef, Germany. Tel: +49 2224-95605-206; Fax: +49 -2224-9605-500; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tracking Data-Driven Market Segments
School of Management, Marketing & Employment Relations, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia
Market segmentation has become a standard concept in tourism marketing. A priori and a posteriori (data-driven) segmentation approaches enjoy high popularity among both practitioners and researchers. To optimize the market segmentation strategy it is not only necessary to identify relevant market segments, describe them, evaluate the match between corporate or destination strengths and segment needs, but also to determine how segments develop over time. This knowledge is typically accounted for when a priori segments are used. In the case of a posteriori segments, however, such trend tracking is neglected. In this article a tracking framework is presented that allows testing of a posteriori segment developments over time on the basis of identical consecutive guest surveys. The framework is flexible with regard to methods applied at each step and--through validation of explorative findings by means of repetition--allows insight into market structure from multiple perspectives.
Key words: Market segmentation; Market structure analysis; Change monitoring
Address correspondence to Sara Dolnicar, School of Management, Marketing & Employment Relations, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia. Tel: +61 2 4221 3862; Fax: +61 2 4221 4154; E-mail: email@example.com
Stakeholder Analysis in Colorado Ski Resort Communities
Richard R. Perdue
Leeds School of Business, Boulder, CO 80309-0419
The purpose of this article is to illustrate the application of stakeholder theory in the ski resort industry of Colorado. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, eight stakeholder groups within three populations are identified and described. The article advocates that stakeholder analyses include groups from the host community resident, tourism industry employee, and guest populations. Further, the data show the importance of examining these groups over a period of time to understand both their viewpoints and their involvement in tourism industry planning and development. As evidenced by the study results, it is possible for resident stakeholder groups to exist that have little direct involvement in the tourism industry, but are politically active in tourism planning decisions due to perceived indirect involvements. The importance of understanding this diverse policy environment is illustrated with the example of resort employee housing.
Key words: Ski resorts; Sustainable tourism; Stakeholder theory
Address correspondence to Richard R. Perdue, Professor of Marketing, Leeds School of Business, Boulder, CO 80309-0419. Tel: (303) 492-2923; E-mail: Richard.Perdue@Colorado.edu
Cultural Determinants of Tourist Intention to Return
Jeffery M. Caneen
Hospitality and Tourism Management, Brigham Young University-Hawaii, Laie, HI 96762
Repeat visitation is one aspect of economically sustainable tourism. While there is a significant body of research relative to travel motivation and destination choice, it has largely focused on the first-time leisure visitor. This article considers the criteria by which tourists decide to return to a destination. It also analyzes the effect of culture and nationality on the intention to return. A comparison of US, Japanese, and Chinese tourists in Hawaii found that there are significant differences in their decision-making criteria relative to repeat visitation. Japanese tourists indicate a high intent to return to destinations that are fun and relaxing, while US visitors indicate intent to return based on a desire to learn more about the culture and the people. Chinese visitors showed greater similarity to US than to Japanese tourists. The study also found that reported intent does not always correspond to actual behavior. Japanese visitors report higher intent than US visitors to return to Hawaii, while US visitors actually return at a much higher rate.
Key words: Loyalty; Nationality; Repeat visitation; Return
Address correspondence to Jeffery M. Caneen, Associate Professor of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Brigham Young University-Hawaii, 55-220 Kulanui St., Box 1956, Laie, HI 96762. Tel: (808) 293-3449; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Towards the Conceptualization of Tourism Destination Loyalty
Outi Niininen and Michael Riley
School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
Tourism destination loyalty has been the subject of numerous studies. The existing research shows that destination loyal behavior does exist, yet many of the findings are noncomparable due to the differences in conceptualization of the loyalty construct. This article proposes a conceptual model for the psychological propensity towards destination loyalty. It is suggested that any future research into destination loyalty should include both psychological and behavioral measures to establish the respondent's inherent loyalty propensity.
Key words: Optimum stimulation level (OSL); Destination loyalty
Address correspondence to Outi Niininen, School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK. Tel: +44-(0)1483-686344; Fax: +44-(0)1483-686301; E-mail: email@example.com
Measuring Comparative Performance of Vacation Destinations: Using Tourists' Self-Reported Judgments as an Alternative Approach
School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey
This study has been designed to test the use of a practical approach developed (1) to measure external performance of international tourist destinations and (2) to investigate their competitive position, not only against each other but also against other major self-selected destinations on the basis of the actual tourists' perceptions of various self-reported destination attributes. The sample population chosen comprised British tourists visiting Turkey and Mallorca in the summer of 1998 and who had been to other destinations in the previous 4 years. An open-ended questionnaire was designed to achieve the research objectives. From the research findings, it is apparent that the analysis of tourists' self-reported judgments is relevant to report differences in regard to the areas of strengths and weaknesses of one destination vis-à-vis those of another in the same competitor set. Implications of the findings for the theory of consumer research in tourism, for understanding qualitative research, for destination management and marketing, and for future research are discussed.
Key words: Destination performance; Destination competitiveness; Comparison research; British tourists; Turkey; Spain
Address correspondence to Metin Kozak, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. Tel: + 90 252 223 92 05; Fax: + 90 252 223 91 64; E-mail: M.Kozak@superonline.com
Cross-Cultural Behavior Research in Tourism: A Case Study on Destination Image
Metin Kozak,1 Enrique Bigné,2 Ana González,3 And Luisa Andreu2
1Mugla University, School of Tourism and Hotel Management,
48000, Mugla, Turkey
2University of Valencia, Faculty of Business and Economy Studies, Department of Management and Marketing, Avda. dels Tarongers s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3University of León, Faculty of Business and Economy Studies, Department of Management and Marketing, Campus de Vegazana s/n 24071 León, Spain
This study aims to emphasize the significance of exploring cross-cultural differences in consumer behavior and, in particular, destination image. First a theoretical framework was developed to introduce a research agenda on cross-cultural consumer behavior in tourism. Secondly, a case study was carried out based on two ad hoc studies conducted by the Valencian Tourist Board (Spain) at its tourism information offices. ANOVA and factor correspondence analysis were considered as the main techniques to analyze the differences of destination image attributes, taking into account the tourists' country of residence. Conclusions and managerial implications are discussed.
Key words: Cross-cultural research; Destination image; Tourist perceptions; Perceptual maps; Spain
Address correspondence to Metin Kozak, School of Tourism and Hotel Management, Mugla University, 48000, Mugla, Turkey. Tel: + 90 252 223 92 05; Fax: + 90 252 223 91 64; E-mail: M.Kozak@superonline.com
The Cultural Tour Route: A Journey of the Imagination?
Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, UK
Organized tours are one of the main ways that tourists experience cultural destinations. They are often described as "a destination bubble," conveying a sense of isolation rather than involvement. The extent to which tour participants interact with and learn about destinations is not well understood, although the acquisition of knowledge is frequently cited as significant in peoples' decisions to travel by this mode. This article investigates cultural tour participants' experiences, and specifically addresses the extent to which participants' images of their destinations change or remain unaltered after their visit. The empirical research employed route mapping to elicit information about tour members' knowledge before and after touring. Ireland was selected because it presented elements common to many nonspecialized cultural tour itineraries. A multimethod approach combined qualitative and quantitative techniques in the analyses of the route maps, and triangulated the findings with those from focused interviews and participant observation. The study found that tourists' images changed in magnitude as the tour had enforced already well-defined images. It concludes that future work focusing on the critical prepurchase period in the destination-image formation process would contribute to this area of research.
Key words: Route mapping; Destination bubble; Organized tours; Cultural tour route; Destination image
Address correspondence to Tove Oliver, Institute of Rural Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL, UK. Tel: +44 1970 621 621; Fax: +44 1970 611 264; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org