|ognizant Communication Corporation|
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 3
Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 141-152
1083-5423/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
A Mixed-Method Approach for Measuring Environmental Impacts in Nature-Based Tourism and Outdoor Recreation Settings
Kelly J. Mackay1,2 and J. Michael Campbell2
1Parks Canada and University of Manitoba,
2University of Manitoba
The research presented in this article is a response to the need for expanding traditional approaches to the study of human use and environmental impacts in natural resource-based tourism and recreation settings. The National Park example provided herein examined abiotic, biotic, and cultural (social) dimensions using a mixed-method approach to study tourism and recreation impacts in the backcountry. The study demonstrates how biophysical and sociocultural research methods can be systematically employed to expand traditional impact monitoring and assessment models and consequently advance understanding of recreation and tourism impacts on the environment through an integrated interpretation of the results. Specifically, the findings of the study provide an example of a multimethod strategy for assessing visitor impacts in backcountry settings, and demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach for identifying and mediating backcountry impacts.
Key words: Environmental impacts; Assessment; Tourism; Recreation
Address correspondence to Kelly J. MacKay, Ph.D., University of Manitoba, Health, Leisure, & Human Performance Research Institute, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation Studies, 102 Frank Kennedy Center, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3T 2N2. Tel: (204) 474-7058; Fax: (204) 261-4802; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism as Economic Self-Development in Rural Nebraska: A Case Study
James B. Lewis and Lee Delisle
Department of HPER, Western Michigan University
Rural communities in the US have chosen to develop tourism, but there is very little understanding of the process of development. The primary aim of this study was to determine the developmental process of tourism in a rural community. The secondary purpose was to determine whether or not that process was an example of self-development. Results of this case study of a rural community illustrate successful self-developed tourism in a small isolated rural community.
Key words: Community development; Tourism development; Self-development; Rural tourism
Address correspondence to James B. Lewis, Ph.D., Western Michigan University, Department of HPER, 1903 W. Michigan, Kalamazoo, MI 49008. Tel: (269) 387-2697; Fax: (269) 387-2704; E-mail: email@example.com
GIS and 3D Modeling for Tourism Visual Viewscape Issues
Bradley A. Shellito,1 Joshua Dixon,2 Clarence Inge,2 and Jason O'Neal2
1Department of Geography, Youngstown State University, Youngstown,
2Department of Political Science and Geography, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA
In April 2002, the city council of Virginia Beach, Virginia, passed new regulations allowing hotels located at the oceanfront resort area to grow to a maximum height of 200-feet tall, up from the previous height of 100 feet. This article is an investigation of the possible effects this new regulation may have on tourism in Virginia Beach. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the oceanfront resort area and to generate simulations representing possible development scenarios that may occur due to this new regulation. Taller hotels along the boardwalk may have an effect on open space and views of the Atlantic Ocean. Viewshed analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of views of the beach and ocean under each simulation. Finally, a discussion of the potential impacts to the area from a tourism and economic view was examined. This model and its accompanying simulations offer a tool for visualizing and analyzing the changes to the resort area once the construction of taller hotels begins along the boardwalk and the potential effects this will have on tourism.
Key words: GIS; Three-dimensional modeling; Viewshed; Tourism
Address correspondence to Bradley A. Shellito, Department of Geography, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555. Tel: (330) 941-3316; Fax: (330) 941-1802; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cointegration Analysis of Tourism Revenues by the Member Countries of European Union to Greece
Nikolaos Dritsakis1 and Katerina Gialetaki2
1Department of Applied Informatics, University of Macedonia,
2Department of Tourist Administration, Technological Educational Institute of Amfissas, Greece
The countries of Europe and especially European Union member countries are, traditionally, amongst the most important tourism markets for Greece. The purpose of this article is to investigate the long-run changes in tourism revenues from European Union (EU) member countries to Greece. In order to explain tourism revenues we use a number of leading macroeconomic variables, including the real income of 15 EU member countries, the exchange rate, and some dummies, which examine the crises periods for tourism. The quarterly data that are used for this article cover the period from January 1960 to December 2000. The augmented Dickey-Fuller for unit root is examined in the univariate framework and Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to test the cointegration method and to estimate the number of cointegrated vectors of "VAR model"-Vector autoregressive processes. Error correction model is estimated to explain tourism revenues from European Union member countries to Greece. The results show that the real income of 15 EU member countries and the exchange rate have a positive effect on tourism revenues of Greece, whereas some political crises have a negative effect on them.
Key words: Tourism revenues; Cointegration analysis; Error correction model
Address correspondence to Nikolaos Dritsakis, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Informatics, University of Macedonia, Greece. E-mail: email@example.com
Utilizing Sweepstakes to Promote International Tourism in Foreign Markets
Musa Pinar and John L. Beisel
Department of Management and Marketing, Pittsburg State University, 1701 S. Broadway, Pittsburg, KS 66762
This article discusses sweepstakes as a viable tool in promoting international tourism. The concept of sweepstakes is defined and explained. Various actual sweepstakes promotions used by different countries to promote their tourism are presented as examples. It is evident that well-planned and executed sweepstakes promotions can help move potential tourists through some steps of the hierarchy of effects model to the point of desire to visit the sponsoring country. A sophisticated database can be developed from sweepstakes entrants, which could be used to design more effective relationship marketing strategies. Several managerial implications of targeted sweepstakes and the steps for designing successful sweepstakes promotions are presented.
Key words: Sweepstakes; Tourism marketing; International tourism; Destination promotion; Database; Sales promotion
Address correspondence to Musa Pinar, Department of Management and Marketing, Pittsburg State University, 1701 S. Broadway, Pittsburg, KS 66762. Tel: (620) 235-4585; Fax: (620) 235-4513; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Importance of Consumer Guide Information to Management: The Mobil "Check" and Hotel Pricing Behavior
James A. Henley, Jr.,1 Michael J. Cotter,12 and J. Duncan Herrington3
1The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Department of
Marketing & Entrepreneurship, Chattanooga, TN 37403-2598
2Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49504-6431
3Radford University, Department of Management & Marketing, Radford, VA 24142
Consumer guide information in the tourism industry is designed to provide consumers with information in such areas as value and quality. However, hotel managements are also aware of consumer guide ratings. This study analyzes hotel managements' pricing behavior before and after a change in value rating for hotels. Specifically, pricing and value information on hotels from the Mobil Travel Guides relating to several states and provinces in the US and Canada were analyzed. The Mobil Travel Guides awards a "check" to hotels that they deem a good value. The results indicate that hotel managements altered their pricing strategies before and after the gain or loss of a "check" by Mobil. These pricing changes were significantly different from hotels not gaining or losing a "check."
Key words: Pricing; Hotel; Hospitality; Check; Mobil
Address correspondence to James A. Henley, Jr., UC Foundation Professor of Marketing, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Department of Marketing & Entrepreneurship, College of Business Administration, Dept. 6156, 615 McCallie Avenue, Chattanooga, TN 37403-2598. Tel: (423) 425-5257; Fax: (423) 425-4358; E-mail: James-Henley@utc.edu
Turnover Costs: Research Among Five-Star Hotels in the City of Antalya, Turkey
A. Akin Aksu
Akdeniz University, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, 07058 Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey
Because of high personnel-customer interaction, turnover has special importance in the hospitality industry. Satisfied, motivated personnel comprise a major factor for successful competition among hotels. Neither high nor low turnover rates are useful for hotels. Each hotel must determine its tolerable turnover rates and costs. High personnel turnover has disadvantages for hotels and personnel. In the hospitality industry, personnel turnover is generally high by comparison with other industries and has adverse effects on the morale, motivation, and job satisfaction of personnel. There are two types of personnel turnover: voluntary and involuntary. In this research the costs of involuntary turnover were calculated in US dollars.
Key words: Turnover; Involuntary turnover; Tourism; Hotels
Address correspondence to A. Akin Aksu, Akdeniz University, School of Tourism & Hotel Management, 07058 Arapsuyu Campus, Antalya, Turkey. Tel: 00 90 242 227 45 51; Fax: 00 90 242 323 33 10; E-mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Bomb Blasts in Bali: Impact on Tourism
Rex S. Toh,1 Habibullah Khan,2 and Sukma D. Erawan3
1Department of Management, Albers School of Business and
Economics, Seattle University
2Department of Economics, National University of Singapore
3American International Assurance Company, Singapore
On October 12, 2002, Muslim terrorists detonated two powerful bombs that destroyed Paddy's Club Café and Sari Club Café located in the tourist district of Bali, which killed 202 people and wounded hundreds more (mostly Australians and other Western tourists). Tourism is vital to Bali (an idyllic Hindu enclave within the mostly Muslim Indonesian Archipelago), and contributed as much as 60% of Bali's gross domestic regional product. Using the results from input-output analysis and our own survey, we found that terrorist acts of wanton destruction have an immediate and drastic effect on tourism and the locals, but an attractive destination that offers good value will soon rebound.
Key words: Bali; Terrorism; Impact on tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Rex S. Toh, Department of Management, Albers School of Business, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122-4340. Tel: (206) 296-6007; Fax: (206) 296-2083; E-mail: email@example.com