ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM ANALYSIS

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 9, NUMBER 4

Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 231-240
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New Methodology for Analyzing Competitive Positions: A Demonstration Study of Travelers' Attitudes Toward Their Modes of Transport

Josef A. Mazanec

Institute for Tourism & Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics & Business Administration

This research introduces a new methodology for analyzing the competitive relationships among a set of choice alternatives. The nonparametric methodology recommended for analyzing the competitive relationships works on a disaggregate level. It combines an exploratory step--condensing the attitudes about modes into a small set of attitudinal patterns--with an inferential step of using contingency for pairs of alternatives to examine relationships. A simple coefficient derived from these tables indicates the amount of "similarity" competition. Data on travelers' attitudes toward the modes of transport train, air, and bus are used to illustrate applying the methodology. Segments are identified based on specific attitudes. Interdependence of attitudes means that, for example, a consumer's judgment of air travel influences his/her simultaneous judgment of train travel. Asymmetry of the travelers' belief systems implies that managers of airline, train, or bus companies face unequal attitudinal conditions in their target groups leading to competitive advantage or disadvantage. For the segments the meaning and implication of attitudes towards modes being interdependent and not symmetric is considered. The results obtained are not meant to be generalized. Rather they are a vehicle to highlight the method's value for both researchers and practitioners for studying the competitive positions of businesses associated with classes of tourist products or services.

Key words: Competitive position; Attitude measurement; Vector quantization; Modes of transport

Address correspondence to Josef A. Mazanec, Institute for Tourism & Leisure Studies, Vienna University of Economics & Business Administration, Vienna, Austria. Tel: +43-1-313 36, ext. 4586; Fax: +43-1-317 12 05; E-mail: mazanec@wu-wien.ac.at or josef@mazanec.com




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 241-254
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Heritage and the Nation: An Exploration of a Discursive Relationship

Donna P. Chambers

School of Marketing and Tourism, Napier University, Craighouse Road, Edinburgh EH10 5LG

This conceptual article seeks to interrogate the relationship between heritage and the nation by utilizing some of the logics of a Foucauldian concept of discourse and that subsequently developed by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The article suggests that heritage and the nation might be perceived as discursive constructions that have been articulated together into a hegemonic discursive formation. This conceptualization of a discursively constructed heritage/nation relationship is important for tourism studies because in a postmodern, global era it is in and through tourism that this relationship is most readily apprehended. Indeed, such a conceptualization has implications for both the discourse and praxis of tourism. With regard to tourism discourse, this conceptual investigation can broaden the existing knowledge base in mainstream tourism studies insofar as it demonstrates the utility of adopting alternative methodologies in arriving at understanding of phenomena in tourism. With regard to tourism praxis, this conceptual investigation can open up understanding to those power/knowledge relationships at work in the representation of heritage in and through tourism and how this relates to a national concept. Such understanding can facilitate a rethinking of heritage construction for the tourism industry.

Key words: Heritage; Nation; Discourse; Hegemony; Antagonism; Tourism

Address correspondence to Dr. Donna P. Chambers, Lecturer in Tourism, Programme Leader MSc. International Tourism, School of Marketing and Tourism, Napier University, Craighouse Road, Edinburgh EH10 5LG. Tel: +44 (0) 131 455 6462; Fax: +44 (0) 131 455 6269; E-mail: d.chambers@napier.ac.uk




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 255-267
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Value as a Measure of Tourism Performance in the Era of Globalization: Conceptual Considerations and Empirical Findings

Robertico R. Croes

Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32819-8701

In general, both the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) consider the trends of tourist arrivals and receipts as indicators in comparing the performance of destinations and regions. These considerations are based on the annual average percentage change in arrivals and receipts and a comparison that is made across time. This methodology is incomplete, however, particularly in light of the new exigencies of globalization. The study proposes an alternative approach based on the concept of value. Value is founded on the premises of microeconomics, and it provides more reliable and effective information to improve the quality of both policy formulation and business decisions. Using partial correlation analysis, the study introduced a time trend variable as a proxy of value. The study developed a panel of observations from 1986 to 2001 for 32 countries worldwide. In terms of performance, the results of the alternative approach differ dramatically from those obtained in conventional methodology.

Key words: Tourism performance; Value; Demand; Globalization; Partial correlation analysis; Time trend

Address correspondence to Dr. Robertico R. Croes, Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, 9907 Universal Blvd., Orlando, FL 32819-8701. Tel: (407) 823-1121; Fax: (407) 903-8105; E-mail: rcroes@mail.ucf.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 269-284
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Examining the Visitor Attraction Product: A Case Study

Mehmet Mehmetoglu1 and Birgit Abelsen2

1Department of Tourism, Finnmark University College, 9509 Alta, Norway
2Norut NIBR Finnmark, Follums vei 33, 9510 Alta, Norway

An increasing interest in attraction competitiveness has led to attention being directed towards the definition and description of the attraction product, and how visitors consider its different parts. Accordingly, this article first reviews the literature on the visitor attraction product, from which it proposes a model, that of Levitt, consisting of three product components. Secondly, these three components are used to identify a particular attraction's attributes and then to examine their effects on visitors' satisfaction with their experience at the attraction. The data for this study were obtained from 573 usable questionnaires completed by the visitors of a heritage museum located in Northern Norway. The results indicate that the museum's attraction product consists of learning, status, novelty (core), staff service, visual and information (tangible), ancillary features, and easy access (augmented) aspects. The findings further reveal that only ancillary features and learning aspects of the augmented and core product components, respectively, have a significant influence on visitors' satisfaction with their overall experience at the museum, whereas both aspects of the tangible component are considered the most influential factors.

Key words: Attractions; Attraction product; Tourism product; Visitor satisfaction; Museum

Address correspondence to Mehmet Mehmetoglu, Department of Tourism, Finnmark University College, 9509 Alta, Norway. Tel: +47 784 50 269; Fax: +47 784 34 438; E-mail: memet@hifm.no




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 285-298
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Center/Periphery Imbalance in Tourism Development: The Case of Taiwan

Duarte B. Morais,1 Chung-Hsien Lin,2 and Jing-Shoung Hou3

1Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 228 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802-1307
2Department of Land Management, The Feng-Chia University, Taichung 403, Taiwan
3Landscape Architecture, Tung-Hai University, Taichung 403, Taiwan

Many authors have examined the spatial distribution of tourism sites in an attempt to inform tourism planning and policy. Most of their work, however, has focused on physical planning issues and has overlooked the role of those tourism sites in transforming land into desirable or undesirable places to live for the host communities. This study attempts to address this concern from an environmental justice perspective by examining whether tourism development is evenly distributed across geographic regions and fairly distributed across sociodemographic groups in Taiwan. The results indicated that there is spatial inequality in the distribution of tourist sites. As predicted in literature examining tourism flows, tourist numbers were concentrated in peripheral areas with lower household incomes--the pleasure periphery. For example, Chomalai farm in Tainan County is a very popular destination but is located in one of the poorest regions in Taiwan. In addition, size of the local population and the average amount of money local people received from tourism appeared to be unrelated to numbers of tourists visiting the area. Due to the geographic clustering of most of the variables examined, it is recommended that subsequent studies consider using spatial regression instead of the traditional OLS regression, which is more frequently found in the literature. In conclusion, the findings support the current emphasis in sustainable tourism, suggesting that planners should consider whether tourism results in local undesirable or desirable land use because the tourism industry tends to disproportionably affect less-developed peripheral regions.

Key words: Environmental justice; Tourism planning; Sustainable tourism; Spatial analysis

Address correspondence to Duarte B. Morais, Assistant Professor of Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University, 228 Mateer Building, University Park, PA 16802-1307. Tel: (814) 865-5614; Fax: (814) 863-4257; E-mail: dmorais@psu.edu




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 299-308
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A Cognitive-Affective Positioning Analysis of Convention Cities: An Extension of the Circumplex Model of Affect*

Seyhmus Baloglu and Curtis Love

Department of Tourism and Convention Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6023

This study investigates relative images and positions of select US convention cities as perceived by association meeting planners. Based on a cognitive-affective framework, it utilizes a perceptual mapping technique and controls direct experiences of the meeting planners with the convention cities. Data were collected from randomly selected members of the Professional Convention Management Association (PCMA) about Las Vegas, Chicago, Dallas, Atlanta, and Orlando. For each city, no image difference was found between the planners who had direct experience and those who did not. The findings suggested that the convention cities should use both cognitive and affective evaluations in developing a positioning strategy because they provide a picture from different angles and complement each other. The joint perceptual map also helps identify major and minor competitors. The findings also demonstrated that the circumplex model of affect holds for, and can be applied to, domestic and well-known convention cities. The study also extends the model in the sense that it examines places (cities), cognitive evaluations, and affective responses simultaneously and still finds support for the theorized structure of the model. The study provides implications for positioning, communication, and/or product development strategies for the convention cities, and discusses future research.

Key words: Cognitive-affective positioning; Convention cites; Circumplex model; Perceptual mapping

Address correspondence to Seyhmus Baloglu, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Tourism and Convention Administration, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 456023, Las Vegas, NV 89154-6023. Tel: (702) 895-3720; Fax: (702) 895-4870; E-mail: baloglu@ccmail.nevada.edu

*The paper was presented at the 2003 TTRA Conference and a condensed version of this article was published in the conference CD-ROM.




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 309-320
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The Relationship Between Resident Attitudes Toward Tourism and Support for Further General and Forest-Related Tourism Development

Yalçin Kuvan

Department of Forest Policy and Administration, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

This study explores resident reactions to tourism at the local level in Turkey with the case study of Antalya-Belek. More specifically, it tests the relationship between resident attitudes toward tourism and support for further general and forest-related tourism development. The reactions were measured by resident attitude toward general and forest-related tourism's impacts, and opinions about general and forest-related tourism development in the future. In this context, the main objective of the study was to investigate resident attitudes toward tourism's impacts and how they related to general and forest-related tourism development. Although residents in Belek recognized the existence of tourism's environmental and economic costs, more specifically forest-related costs, they supported further tourism development without the expansion on the forest lands resulting from mass tourism activities.

Key words: Forest; Forest and tourism; Resident attitudes; Support for tourism; Forest-related tourism

Address correspondence to Yalçin Kuvan, Assistant Professor, Department of Forest Policy and Administration, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: ykuvan@e-kolay.net




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 321-341
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Why Do Australians, New Zealanders, and Americans Travel to Fiji? Evidence From Cointegration, Unit Roots, and Parameter Stability Tests*

Paresh Kumar Narayan

Griffith Business School, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast MC, Queensland 9726, Australia

The aim of this study was to estimate the demand for Fiji's tourism from its three main source markets--Australia, New Zealand, and the US--using the bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our main finding was that visitor arrivals to Fiji and its key determinants are cointegrated over the 1970-2000 period. We then used the autoregressive distributed lag model to estimate short-run and long-run elasticities and found that income in origin countries, transport costs, and prices were significant determinants of Fiji's tourism demand. We also found that coups negatively impact visitor arrivals from all markets. In testing for parameter stability, we established that the series were integrated of order one in the presence of a structural break. We then used the Hansen test for parameter stability and found that the parameters of our long-run model are stable over time.

Key words: Fiji tourism; Cointegration; Parameter stability; Bounds test

Address correspondence to Paresh Kumar Narayan, Griffith Business School, Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, PMB 50 Gold Coast MC, Queensland 9726, Australia. Tel: +(617) 5552 8056; Fax: +(617) 5552 8068; E-mail: P.Narayan@Griffith.edu.au

*This article is a chapter from the author's Ph.D. thesis.




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 343-354
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An Examination of the Norwegian Demand for Package Tours Abroad in the 1990s

Christer Thrane

Department of Social Science, Lillehammer University College, 2626 Lillehammer, Norway

This article draws attention to a neglected field in tourism research: the study of the demand for package tours. In particular, two research questions were addressed. First, the possible changes in the demand over time for package tours abroad were examined using Norwegian household expenditures data from 1989 to 1999. Second, the article examined how a number of sociodemographic and locational variables affected the demand for this kind of tourism. Because a large number of households in the data did not take part in a package tour abroad in the period studied, a sample-selection regression procedure was adopted as the estimation strategy. Three results were especially noteworthy: 1) An increasing number of Norwegian households took part in a package tour as the decade progressed. 2) Among those households that took part in a package tour, the mean expenditures decreased throughout the decade. 3) Permanent income had a positive influence on both the propensity of taking part in package tours and on the expenditures on such tours.

Key words: Package tour demand; Norwegian households; Sample-selection models

Address correspondence to Christer Thrane, dr. polit., Associate Professor, Sociology, Department of Social Science, Lillehammer University College, 2626 Lillehammer, Norway. Tel: +47 61 28 82 47; Fax: +47 61 28 81 70; E-mail: christer.thrane@hil.no




Tourism Analysis, Vol. 9, pp. 355-361
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RESEARCH NOTE
Estimating the Impact of the September 11 Terrorist Attacks on the US Air Transport Passenger Demand Using Intervention Analysis

Sangkwon Lee, Chi-Ok Oh, and Joseph T. O'leary

Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261

The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of September 11 terrorist attacks on the US air transport passenger demand. The article focuses on how soon and to what extent passenger traffic recovery will emerge from the September 11 terrorist attacks. After selecting ARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 as the most appropriate model, the intervention model estimates that the total impact amounts to a demand decrease of approximately 67,432,000 within first 9 months. The impact of the intervention continues to drop for the rest of the periods but the decreasing level is getting smaller. Overall, therefore, it seems that the terrorist attacks appear to have a short-term impact on air transport passenger demand. In contrast, in the long term, there are no strong impacts on air transport passenger demand. It is meaningful to evaluate whether the US air transport industry, in terms of passenger demand, has rebounded from the crisis. This study deals with how to manage tourism and travel demand policy in case of future interventions and provides insights to policy makers in the tourism and travel industry to respond to the unexpected exogenous shocks.

Key Words: Intervention analysis; Travel demand; Terrorist attacks; Tourism policy

Address correspondence to Sangkwon Lee, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-2261. Tel: (979) 845-6538; Fax: (979) 845-0446; E-mail: sklee@tamu.edu