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TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 10, NUMBER 1
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 10, pp. 1-14
1098-304X/10 $60.00 + .00
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Negotiating Identity: Experiences of "Visiting Home" Among Chinese Americans
Naho U. Maruyama,1 Ian Weber,2 and Amanda L. Stronza1
1Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
2Learning and Teaching support Unit (LTSU), University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
"Roots tourism" is loosely defined as a type of tourism in which ethnic minorities visit their ancestral lands to discover ethnic roots and culture. Despite the recent popularity of this type of tourism, many gaps remain in the study of roots tourism, particularly about its influence on the tourists' identity. This exploratory study investigates the ways in which second and subsequent generations of Chinese Americans discuss their identity and feelings of belonging after visiting China. Face-to-face, in-depth interviews with Chinese Americans revealed that, contrary to the idea that roots tourism experiences provide individuals with strong feelings of belonging to one's ancestral land, interviewees did not return from their visit with a feeling of connection to China. Rather, they reported a need to negotiate and redefine who they were and where they belonged. This study highlights how physical markers of Chinese identity added complexity to the negotiation of one's identity. Because the interviewees "looked" Chinese, in a variety of situations they were automatically assumed to be Chinese while their American identity was ignored. Although Chinese Americans occasionally took advantage of such ascribed identity as Chinese, they often felt frustration, anger, and ambiguity about how they defined themselves and how others defined them. As a result of visiting China, although Chinese American tourists developed a certain sense of affinity to their ancestral land, they also affirmed that their true home was in the US. This study suggests a complexity and limitation to fostering a sense of belonging to their ancestral land through roots tourism.
Key words: Roots tourism; Chinese American; Diaspora; Globalism; Identity negotiation
Address correspondence to Naho U. Maruyama, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2261 TAMU, College Station, TX 77840, USA. E-mail: email@example.com
Cultural Values and Service Quality: Host and Guest Perspectives
Thuy-Huong Truong and Brian King
Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia
This article explores the respective cultural values of American tourists and Vietnamese service providers in the context of Vietnam as a destination. The Principal Components Analysis method is used to identify and group the distinctive cultural values of tourists and hosts with a view to providing an enhanced understanding of tourist-host perceptions of service quality in cross-cultural settings. The research has both practical and academic significance. Drawing upon the marketing, tourism, and cultural studies literature and examining cultural values in tourism settings, the article proposes some strategic directions for tourism managers and marketers in Vietnam. From a theoretical perspective, the study provides an enhanced understanding of Rokeach's model. This instrument has previously been applied in the fields of sociology, psychology, and marketing. In the present case it is used to measure cross-cultural perceptions and the associated insights should be useful for tourism researchers, developers, marketers, and managers. It provides an evidence base that can guide provision to meet the needs of Asian and Western tourists with particular reference to perceptions in cross-cultural contexts. The research applies an empirically based model to development related challenges confronting the tourism sector. It applies the theories of human values to tourism and demonstrates the important influence of cultural backgrounds on tourist perceptions.
Key words: Cultural values; Service quality; Vietnam
Address correspondence to Thuy-Huong Truong, Centre for Tourism and Services Research, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 8001. E-mail: Thuy-Huong.Truong@vu.edu.au
Tourism and Crime: A Typological Analysis*
School of Law, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
This article addresses the issue of crime in relation to tourism-and is not nation specific. The aim here is to provide a frame of reference, and illustrations, for studies of tourism and crime: it is a conceptual outline rather than a meta-study of empirical research. It is argued here that an understanding of the range, types, and implications of tourism and crime is as important, at this stage, as is reportage of individual substantive findings. Thus, this article attempts to provide a typology that might provide a frame of reference for future studies, and is not a meta-study. Tourism and crime is a part of the larger issue of tourist satisfaction, and of the well-being of tourist host places. Among the issues here are those of tourists as perpetrators, and tourists as victims; the limitations of officially recorded facts of crime and perceptions of risk; crimes specific to tourism; and the implications for residence, citizenship, and fugitive status. Many studies on tourism report, quite rightly, on the economic benefits of tourism. That position should also be seen as complemented by the countervailing views of the economic and social costs [economic (ir)rationalism versus social (ir)rationalism]. While it is possible to make estimates of the economic costs of tourist-implicated crime, it is more difficult to assess the social and political implications. This article attempts to provide a conceptual analysis that may aid that process.
Key words: Tourism; Crime; Criminality; Offenses; Civil offenses
Address correspondence to Ronald Francis, School of Law, Victoria University, 295 Queen St., Melbourne 3000, Victoria, Australia. Tel: +61 3 9919 1212; Fax: +61 3 9919 1064; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
*This article derives from an earlier and briefer presentation made to the Annual Conference of the Council for Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education, Melbourne, February 2005.
Increasing the Attractiveness of Places Through Cultural Resources
Department of Leisure Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
Culture and tourism have a symbiotic relationship that has the potential to make places more attractive and competitive. This review of the OECD report on The Impact of Culture on Tourism analyzes the ways in which culture and tourism can act as drivers of attractiveness, paying particular attention to the role of potential policy interventions to strengthen this process, including the development of partnerships, funding issues, product development, and marketing. A number of key future issues are identified, and evolving debates in the relationship between culture and tourism are outlined.
Key words: Culture; Cultural tourism; Tourism policy; Creativity; Attractiveness; Distinctiveness; Diversity
Address correspondence to Greg Richards, Department of Leisure Studies, Tilburg University, PO Box 90153, 5000LE, Tilburg, The Netherlands. Tel: (0031) 13-466-4069; E-mail: email@example.com
Narrative Analysis as a Tool for Contextual Tourism Research: An Exploration
Tomas Mainil1,2 and Vincent Platenkamp1
1Centre for Cross-cultural Understanding, Breda University
of Applied Sciences (NHTV), Breda, Nederlands.
2Research Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
Narrative analysis within the social sciences has evolved throughout this decennium as a mature qualitative methodology. An extensive body of academic publications has already been portrayed. The urgency of a narrative analysis becomes even more obvious in light of the emerging network society and the tacit knowledge, hidden in its interacting networks. Narratives are vehicles par excellence to uncover this hidden information. The growing attention within the academic and professional community for the attribution of implicit, contextual information that should make social reality more visible in everyday life, is related to the growing significance of narrative analysis for research into tourism. How can stories of silent voices in the tourism field be related to the main developments in tourism theory and practice? In this article a conceptual frame will be developed as an answer to this question. A critical review on the cultural experiences in the international classroom of tourism studies in the Dutch universities of Wageningen and Breda will illustrate the significance of this frame and a methodological design will be suggested for further use.
Key words: Network society; Hybridity; Silent voices; Contextuality; Doxas; Narrative methodology
Address correspondence to Tomas Mainil, Centre for Cross-Cultural
Understanding, Breda University of Applied Sciences (NHTV), Breda, Netherlands.