|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 2, NUMBER 3, 2000
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 2, pp. 153-164, 2000
1098-304X/00 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2000 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Marcjanna M. Augustyn
Department of Tourism and Leisure, Luton Business School, University of Luton, Park Square, Luton, UK
The sector of small cultural tourism enterprises (SCTEs) is a significant contributor towards the development of local economies, especially in rural areas. A high percentage of such companies are, however, at a stage of decline or survival. This article aims to establish which innovative strategies can be adopted by manufacturing SCTEs in order to stimulate their growth. A case study approach, with Westons Cider in Herefordshire (UK) constituting its subject, has been adopted. Three innovative strategies for growth employed by this company have been identified and evaluated. They include focus on tradition as a niche strategy, diversification, and ISO 9000 as a strategy for quality management. While the former two strategies are aimed at establishing the company's position in the regional market, the latter makes the enterprise an important player in national and global terms. The article concludes that whichever strategy is employed by a manufacturing SCTE, it has to be dynamic and proactive to allow the company to become an innovator within the market in which it wishes to grow.
Key words: Small cultural tourism enterprises (SCTEs); Manufacturing SCTEs; Growth; Innovative strategies; ISO 9000
Address correspondence to Dr. Marcjanna M. Augustyn. Tel: 44-1582-743461; Fax: 44-1582-743143; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Creativity and Conflict: Cultural Tourism in London's City Fringe
Stephen J. Shaw1 and Nicola E. Macleod2
1Urban Tourism, Planning and Transport and 2Arts and Heritage Tourism, Centre for Leisure and Tourism Studies, University of North London, 277/281 Holloway Road, London N7 8HN, UK
This article examines the core periphery relationship between the City of London and the neighboring inner areas of the metropolis, with reference to a case study of the Cultural Quarters Programme of the City Fringe Partnership: an initiative recently launched by the area's four local authorities to alleviate the economic deprivation and physical dilapidation evident in the areas immediately surrounding the city. A key feature of the regeneration strategy will be the development of a visitor economy through interpretation of the area's multicultural history as well as its alternative arts and crafts, clubs and restaurants, street festivals, and other events that draw on the diversity and creativity of the areas communities. The study explores the issues and problems arising from the development of cultural tourism in disadvantaged urban areas through involvement of artists and local residents in the process of conservation, animation, and promotion of the built environment for leisure and tourism activities.
Key words: Urban tourism; Urban renewal; Urban cultural tourism
Address correspondence to Stephen J. Shaw. E-mail: email@example.com
Cultural Tourism in Wales: Paradox Polemics and Paragons
Faculty of Business, School of Leisure and Tourism, Swansea Institute, Mount Pleasant, Swansea, SA1 6ED, Wales, UK
Heritage and interest in the past has become one of the largest growth industries within the UK, attracting some 250 million visitors per annum, to a variety of heritage sites. There are currently approximately 2500 museums open in the UK, and in Wales there are some 350 museums or associated heritage attractions. It is quite evident from the statistics that heritage tourism and associated attractions can provide a number of benefits to their host communities and localities. These tend to include such benefits as: economic gain, jobs, marketing appeal, education, community interaction, and cultural exchange. In a country such as Wales, where the traditional income generators are in a rapid and continued decline, the economic opportunities presented by heritage tourism are increasingly important. Pritchard, writing for the Wales Tourist Board's Tourism 2000 consultative paper, identifies heritage and cultural tourism as the most significant and economically important of the growing tourism industry components in Wales. This fact is supported by the Wales Tourist Board's own tourism statistics, which show that "heritage" attractions of historic-, industrial-, and museum-based tourist attractions in Wales accounted for 56% of all tourism visits, helping to generate tourist-related income exceeding £1 billion in the tourism industry in Wales. This article reviews these trends and highlights the growing tensions and difficulties in sustaining heritage resources and attractions in Wales. It concludes that without adequate and sustained funding linked to public support and strategic vision, the growth in heritage-related tourism in Wales will be increasingly marginalized.
Key words: Heritage; Culture; Tourism; Wales
Address correspondence to Andrew Jones. Fax: 44 115 948 6512; E-mail: jillian.Swinhoe@sihe.ac.uk
Empowering Hotel Workers Across National Borders*
Department of Leisure Studies, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
This article presents a general theoretical approach to the concept of empowerment of employees in the hospitality/hotel industry, which is used as a framework for a research currently conducted among the employees of an international hotel company. Among the numerous definitions and conceptualizations of empowerment, the article recognizes generally two basic approaches: a management approach and a psychological approach. The former basically deals with the management interventions that are necessary for the development of "empowered" behavior, whereas the latter basically deals with the psychological impact that these interventions have on the individuals. These interventions are distinguished into "empowerment practices," "empowering leadership," and organizational structures and policies referred to here as "empowering organization." It is then argued that these "empowering" interventions should also be perceived and experienced as empowering by the individuals, in order to result in the intended "empowered behavior." Furthermore, the incorporation of empowerment in the rhetoric of many international hospitality organizations raises the question of whether the concept is in practice compatible with different cultural contexts. Using the work on national cultures of Dutch anthropologist Geert Hofstede, the article introduces the implications that may be encountered when applying empowerment across different countries and cultures.
Key words: Empowerment; Hotels; Culture; Hofstede
Address correspondence to Antonis Klidas. Fax: 31 13 466 3002; E-mail: A.Klidas@kub.nl
*This article was presented in the ATLAS-EUROTEX International Conference
on "Innovative Approaches to Culture and Tourism" in October 1998, held
in Rethymno/Crete in Greece.