|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 3, NUMBER 1
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 3, pp. 1-14
1098-304X/01 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2001 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
The Self-Admitted Use of Cliché in the Language of Tourism
Graham M. S. Dann
International Tourism Research Institute, University of Luton, United Kingdom
Against the backdrop of an ever-increasing presence of cliché in the everyday life of members of tourism generating societies, this paper focuses on its employment in the language of tourism promotion. After examining the etymology, qualities, and types of cliché in general, attention is principally directed to its self-admitted utilization in various media of the language of tourism as this discourse operates at all stages of a trip. Some of the advantages of tourism cliché are investigated and typical examples of the genre are supplied. They include their seeming ability to provide security, give people what they want, reveal hidden truths, and act as vehicles of memory. The corresponding disadvantages comprise clichés as agents of gendered and political control, self-perpetuating mechanisms of inevitability, meaningless expressions, and imposed stereotypical imagery. It is argued that cliché is more than simply a two-edged sword since the balance tips so unevenly towards miscommunication. Indeed, the constant use of cliché can often amount to an irresponsible abuse of tourism's promotional language.
Key words: Cliché in tourism promotion; Media of the language of tourism; Etymology, qualities, and types of cliché; Examples of self-admitted use; Advantages and disadvantages; Irresponsible communication
Address correspondence to Graham Dann. Fax: 01582 489 076; E-mail: email@example.com
Smiling for the Camera: The Influence of Film Audiences on a Budget Tourism Destination
School of Tourism & Hospitality, La Trobe University, Australia
Today's focus on attracting the "high yield" tourist to established destinations has the potential to dramatically alter the mix of visitors to an area, alienating the existing tourism market. In many areas the budget, family holiday-maker is being edged out by the push to attract higher spending socioeconomic groups. A case study approach has been adopted to consider the impacts of such change precipitated by the little-understood phenomenon of film-induced tourism. The seaside village of Barwon Heads is experiencing change through the success of the ABC TV series, Sea Change. Viewers of Sea Change consist of the main ABC viewer demographic of educated, professionally employed Australians in the range of 40-65 years of age. Film-induced tourism to the area is altering the mix of visitors, which in turn may impact on the traditional holiday market, not merely through increased demand, but also by creating a new, intrusive style of tourism that directly affects the traditional holiday-maker. Issues that affect the traditional holiday-maker include a loss of privacy, especially in terms of those staying in the local caravan park, an increase in holiday rental prices, and a growing sense of inadequacy in relation to the increase in the highly visual, high-yield visitor. The outcomes of this study have applicability to other rural communities contemplating moves into new tourist markets, as well as those whose councils may wish to encourage the filming of television programs and movies as an economic fillip.
Key words: Film-induced tourism; Community; High yield
Address correspondence to Sue Beeton. Fax: +61 3 5444 7998; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tourism and the Arts: A View from Singapore
Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Since 1988 the authorities in Singapore have been actively seeking to encourage the arts and increase their significance for residents as well as tourists, aiming to establish Singapore as a "global city for the arts." The article examines the history of recent government interest in the arts, the agencies involved, and aspects of presentation and promotion. Official policy is seen to have been informed by various views of the arts as a creative activity, a commercial enterprise, and a tourist attraction with considerable success achieved in the past decade. However, the arts are also recognized as a tool in the process of nation building and the forging of a common identity in a country that has only existed since 1965 and has an ethnically diverse population. Now that the material aspirations of residents have been largely met, other needs are being expressed and the government is responding by fostering the arts within the multicultural context of Singaporean society. There is some potential for tension and conflict amongst these demands being made upon the arts and issues emerge about the arts as an expression of cultural heritage, their relationship with society, the individual and the state, and the role of tourism. The article raises several questions and presents some preliminary observations, as well as suggesting the need for and direction of further research.
Key words: The arts; National identity; Tourism promotion; Singapore
Address correspondence to Joan Henderson. Fax: 65791 3697; E-mail: email@example.com
Looking for Pontius Pilate's Footprints Near the Western Wall: Russian Jewish Tourists in Jerusalem
Alek D. Epstein and Nina G. Kheimets
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and Department of Sociology and Political Science, Open University of Israel
This study examined trips to Jerusalem by Russian Jewish tourists who visited Israel during late 1998. The research examines the expectations prior to travel, their actual experiences, and how they related to prior expectations. A content analysis was undertaken of tourist memories and reflective diaries. This analysis was supplemented by personal interviews and by participant observations undertaken during the course of Russian-language guided tours of Jerusalem. The research set out to examine tourist expectations and the differences between expectations and reality. Russian Jewish tourists arrive in Israel having left a country in transition. In the present study it is proposed that what has been called the "master narrative" for Russia has been lost and that this combined with the changed status of religion may have led to an intensified search for roots. The self-identification of today's post-Soviet Jewish intelligentsia is made up of a unique combination of Jewish legacy and the heritage of the Grand Russian Culture, which has been created by Jewish writers and artists as well, although its main narrative is a Christian one. They regard Jewish writers and artists as having made a significant contribution to the development of Russian identity. In the present research it is suggested that any tour by a member of the Post-Soviet Jewish intelligentsia to Jerusalem may be viewed as a "double pilgrimage." The first component is as a pilgrimage to King David's capital, the capital of the original and ancient Jewish state. In this context the Western Wall may be viewed as the most sacred place in Jerusalem. The second component is as a pilgrimage to the roots of Christian civilization. In this context the Via Dolorosa, the Garden of Gethsemane, and the Holy Sepulchre may be viewed as key sacred sites in Jerusalem. In practice, however, the landscapes of the Western Wall and the Garden of Gethsemane differ markedly from the expectations that tourists have and incongruity is evident within the dual role as the center of the Judeo-Christian civilization. In contrast to tourists' expectations of Israel as a destination, Jewish history is in fact communicated most cogently at Yad VaShem, established in 1953 as a place to commemorate Jewish Holocaust victims. It is here that Russian Jewish tourists appear to gain an understanding of their roots.
Key words: Identity; Roots; Russian Jews; Holy Land; Jerusalem; Tourism; Pilgrimage
Address correspondence to Alek D. Epstein. Tel: 972-3-6460637; E-mail: