|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 3, NUMBER 3
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 3, pp. 117-129
1098-304X/02 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2002 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Tourism and Colonial Heritage in Singapore
Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
The article explores the relationship between heritage and tourism in the context of colonial-built heritage in Singapore. Singapore's history as a British colony and its architectural legacy are briefly summarized, followed by an assessment of remaining colonial buildings and their contemporary use. The buildings are seen to serve a multiplicity of purposes and possess a variety of meanings, interpreted in particular ways by official agencies. Tourism has appropriated certain sites, providing one reason for conservation, but other influences are at work, including the employment of heritage by the state as a means of unifying the nation and asserting its authority.
Key words: Colonial cities; Conservation; Heritage; Singapore
Address correspondence to Joan Henderson, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore. Tel: 790 6116; Fax: 792 4217; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Wenbin Guo,1 Lindsay W. Turner,1 and Brian E. M. King2
1School of Applied Economics and 2School of Hospitality, Tourism, and Marketing, Victoria University, Australia
The emerging Chinese domestic and outbound tourism markets may be viewed as part of broader processes of historical change and development in China. Tourism is not a new stage in China's economic development, but is a renaissance and reinvigoration of established economic activity that has roots dating far back into history. History has influenced tourism growth in China in terms of both traveler motivations and destination choice. Literature has influenced perspectives of attractive destinations within China and the Chinese diaspora has influenced international travel. This article examines the significance of China's travel history for the current and future development of tourism in China.
Key words: History; Tourism development; China
Address correspondence to Wenbin Guo, School of Applied Economics, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, MC Melbourne City, VIC, Australia 8001. Tel: 61 3 9216 8013; Fax: 61 3 9216 8117; E-mail: email@example.com
Organizational Culture and the Leisure Policy Process in Britain: How Structure Affects Strategy in Sport-Tourism Policy Development
Department of Physical Education, Sports Science & Recreation Management, Loughborough University, UK
Previous work identifies organizational structure as a key factor that might influence sport-tourism partnerships in Britain. This article examines the structures of the national and regional agencies for both sport and tourism in England (the Sports Council, now Sport England, and its regional offices, the English Tourist Board, now the English Tourism Council, and the Regional Tourist Boards). In addition, local authority structures are examined. These structures are analyzed utilizing the work of Mintzberg, prior to drawing on empirical evidence from in-depth, informed source interviews with officers of these organizations during the period 1994-1997, in order to examine the operation of such structures in practice. The article shows that the differing structures of these organizations may act as a significant bar to sport-tourism partnerships. In conclusion, the article discusses the potential for key staff and governmental initiatives to overcome such barriers.
Key words: Organizational structure; Policy; Sports tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Mike Weed, Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, Department of Physical Education, Sports Science & Recreation Management, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 1509 223327; Fax: +44 (0) 1509 223971; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Snapshot in Time: The Marketing of Culture in European Union NTO Web Sites
Joseph A. Ismail, Theodore Labropoulos, Juline E. Mills, and Alastair Morrison
Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
Cultural tourism is an important area of consumer demand in Europe, and one of the central foci of European Union (EU) activity. With the increase in the use of the World Wide Web as a tool for marketing tourism destinations, this study evaluates the extent to which EU members market culture through their National Tourism Organizations' (NTO) Web sites. To achieve a final ranking for EU member countries based on the extent to which culture is marketed, this study utilized the Balanced Scorecard approach, Kendal's Coefficient of Concordance, and Friedman's two-way Nonparametric Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed Denmark as the country that makes the most effective use of culture in designing and marketing its NTO Web site.
Key words: Balanced scorecard; European Union; Cultural tourism; Marketing; World Wide Web (WWW)
Address correspondence to Joseph A. Ismail, B022B Stone Hall, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. Tel: (765) 494-4736; Fax: (765) 494-0327; E-mail: email@example.com