|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol.
4, pp. 1-15
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Neil Ravenscroft1 and Xavier Matteucci2
1University of Brighton, UK
Using empirical data from a questionnaire survey of residents and visitors attending the 1998 San Fermin fiesta in Pamplona, Spain, this article offers a critique of the contemporary construction of festivals as interpretive devices. Informed by the work of Bakhtin, this article makes the case that festivals should be understood as carnivalesque inversions of the everyday, deployed to maintain and reinforce social order and, thus, the discipline of bodies. This is achieved, it is argued, by creating "liminal zones" in which people can engage in "deviant" practices, safe in the knowledge that they are not transgressing the wider social structure they encounter in everyday life. It is suggested that the attraction of visitors is crucial, in providing a "cover" for this activity, as well as a conduit for the gradual legitimation of new and revised social values. The article concludes by arguing that this need for tourists (local and outsiders) is both recognized and embraced by residents and visitors alike, with neither fraction naive enough to believe that authenticity resides in representation, or even cultural (re)production.
Key words: Festivals; Social relations; Interpretation
Address correspondence to Neil Ravenscroft, Chelsea School, University of Brighton, Trevin Towers, Gaudick Road, Eastbourne BN20 7SP, England. E-mail: N.Ravenscroft@brighton.ac.uk
The Effect of National Culture on Consumers' Evaluation of Travel Services
John Crotts1 and Abraham Pizam2
1Hospitality and Tourism Management
Program, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston,
2Rosen School of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, 32816-1450
The influence of national culture on consumer evaluations of travel services was the focus of this study. Drawing from a representative sample of 1735 overseas visitors to the southeast US, the results provide an indication that national culture affects the evaluation of travel services and customers' willingness to repeat purchase and recommend a service to others. The implication for researchers is that national culture is a multidimensional construct and is one of many forces influencing consumer expectations. It is a measurable construct that conditions how consumers of different national cultures interact with others and the level of service quality expected.
Key words: Cross-cultural differences; Power-distance; Masculinity; Service quality; Consumer evaluation
Address correspondence to John Crotts, Hospitality and Tourism Management Program, School of Business and Economics, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424-0001. Tel: 843-953 6916; Fax: 843-953 5697 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Chris Ryan and Jessica Ruthe
University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
When describing locations and activities associated with adventure tourism, places and experiences may be described by young tourists as being "cool," "radical," or "awesome." For an operator seeking to enhance both product and profitability, an issue is what do such expressions mean? This article reports results derived from a study of 389 visitors using Kiwi Experience services to a white water rafting and lodge operator in North Island, New Zealand. Using a combination of closed questions based on Likert-type scales and open-ended questions, an analysis was undertaken of what constituted the nature of the comments being made. It was found that Dann's typology of brochure messages fitted the nature of the comments being made. Additionally, it was noticeable that the content of the messages changed over reiterations of questioning, and that in a third round, some critical comments began to emerge. It is suggested that messages of "difference" are important, and it is possible to discern linkages between separated perceptions of landscape and activity.
Key words: Language; Adventure tourism; Tourist perceptions; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Chris Ryan, Department of Tourism Management, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Tel: 64-7 838 4259; Fax: 64-7 838 4063; E-mail: email@example.com
Pyramids, Pubs, and Pizzas: An Interpretation of Tourism Network Structures
University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
This article provides an interpretive account of relational connections among tourism suppliers. Traveling as a free and independent traveler through the UK, Italy, and Egypt prompted reflection on the differing types of tourism product delivery modes being experienced. This article examines and illustrates these connections and the role of interorganizational relationships in facilitating or constraining the transfer of information between businesses and consumer. It proposes that a structural optimization of both strong ties (local support relations) and weak ties (external information-seeking relations) contribute to the most effective and reliable mode of product delivery. Finally, the article illustrates how these relational connections can be best structured to achieve strategic advantage for groupings of firms.
Key words: Networks; Interconnections; Organizations; Strategy; Tourism
Address correspondence to Kathryn Pavlovich, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Tel: 64-7-8384837; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org