ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 57-70
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourist Experiences of Landscape in New Zealand: Themes From Three Case Studies

John R. Fairweather and Simon R. Swaffield

Lincoln University

This article reports on visitor experience of natural and modified landscapes in New Zealand and shows how some experiences are common across studies in three locations. In each study, photographs of landscape settings and visitor activities were Q sorted by a nonrandom sample of locals and both overseas and New Zealand visitors, and the data were factor analyzed to identify factors or types of experience. Results from a study of Westland are presented to illustrate our approach to research on experience of landscape, and then results across three studies are compared. The results show that there are some consistent themes among the experiences of both local and overseas visitors and that tourist experiences cannot be theorized in terms of a simple dichotomy between "performance" and "gaze." The consistency of the results across three diverse settings provides a base to develop policy implications that have general relevance.

Key words: Tourism; Experiences; Culture; Patterns; Locals; Visitors; Landscape; Q method

Address correspondence to John R. Fairweather, AERU, Lincoln University, New Zealand. Tel: 3 325-2811; Fax: 03 325-3847; E-mail: Fairweat@Lincoln.ac.nz

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 71-81
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Tourism Promotion and Identity in Malaysia

Joan C. Henderson

Nanyang Technological University

This article examines the relationship between official tourism promotion and the identity of a destination's people within the context of the plural society of Malaysia, where the government has been engaged in nation building since independence. Its vision of national identity is centered on the dominant Malays and Islam, while other groups such as the Chinese and Indians have been marginalized. However, content analysis of selected promotional material reveals the importance attached to the country's multiethnicity, which has acquired a value as a marketable commodity. The imperatives underpinning such decisions about formal tourism marketing are assessed and are shown to be the outcome of a combination of economic, social, and political processes. Tourism promotion is seen to serve many purposes, but its use as a vehicle of state propaganda may be undermined by commercial objectives with unexpected consequences as prevailing ideologies are challenged and vulnerable identities protected.

Key words: Tourism promotion; National Identity; Ethnicity

Address correspondence to Joan C. Henderson, Assistant Professor, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798. Tel: 65 6790 6116; Fax: 65 6791 3697; E-mail: ahenderson@ntu.edu.sg

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 83-94
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

News From the Motherland: A Content Analysis of Existential Tourism Magazines in Southern China

Alan A. Lew1 and Alan Wong2

1Northern Arizona University
2The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Ethnic Chinese who reside outside of mainland China proper constitute an enormous opportunity for tourism and economic development in China (Lew & Wong, 2003). Overseas Chinese have a strong sense of common origin, based on both racial and cultural grounds, which are further enhanced by business, social, and familial ties. These ties often take the form of existential tourism, which Cohen (1979) defined as travel back to a personal or spiritual "center" located away from one's home. This article presents the results of a content analysis of publications from Guangdong Province in China for ethnic Chinese residing outside of China. The content analysis results indicated that very strong existential tourism ties exist between Guangdong Province and the US and Canada in North America, and to adjacent Hong Kong and Macau. Examples of efforts to strengthen common origins included 56 articles on biographies of overseas Chinese individuals and 24 articles on overseas Chinese society and culture (out of 176 articles examined). Other major topics included efforts to build networks and investments, domestic news articles, donation story articles, education-related articles, investment-related articles, and articles on activities of local overseas Chinese Affairs Offices. Stories of rootfinding visits and the theme of "Love of -Country" were also prominent. These magazines indicated how local overseas Chinese Affairs Offices are proactive in strengthening ties with overseas Chinese through travel and tourism, upon which social and then business networks can be established.

Key words: Existential tourism; Overseas Chinese; Diaspora; Economic impacts; Social impacts; Ethnic networks; Guangdong Province; China

Address correspondence to: Alan A. Lew, Department of Geography and Public Planning, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5016 USA. Tel: 928-523-6567; Fax: 928-523-1080; E-mail: Alan.Lew@nau.edu.

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 4, pp. 95-107
1098-304X/03 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2003 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Travel Behavior and Migrant Cultures: The Vietnamese in Australia

Thu-Huong Nguyen,1 Brian King,1 and Lindsay Turner2

1School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, and 2School of Applied Economics, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia

This article examines the influence of cultural factors on the travel behavior of Vietnamese migrants (Viet kieu) resident in Australia, with particular reference to return visits to Vietnam. A conceptual framework of cultural influence on migrant travel behavior is proposed to explain the relationships between migrant adapted culture and travel behavior. The findings suggest that the Viet kieu maintain certain traditional Vietnamese cultural values and Confucian ideals, while actively adopting behavioral characteristics from mainstream culture during their gradual integration into the adopted society. Significant differences in cultural and travel behavioral characteristics are evident between the Viet kieu, their relatives in Vietnam, and mainstream Australians. Such differences appear to have some connection with the individualism of the West and the collectivism of the East. Issues of identity, rootlessness, belonging, and the relationship between past and present are associated with the decision to travel and subsequent experience of travel to the homeland. The article concludes by discussing implications for future studies.

Key words: Vietnamese diaspora; Migrant culture; Travel behavior

Address correspondence to Thu-Huong Nguyen, School of Hospitality, Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia. Tel: 61-3-9248-1269; E-mail: nthuhuong@hotmail.com