|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 5, NUMBER 1
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol.
5, pp. 3-21
1098-304X/04 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2004 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Unsettling Intersections: A Case Study in Tourism, Globalization, and Indigenous Peoples
University of South Australia
The nexus between tourism, globalization, and indigenous communities is increasingly evident. This article uses qualitative methodologies to examine the pressures that tourism and economic globalization place on indigenous communities and the means that indigenous communities use to assert their rights in turn. The discussion moves from a macro-level theoretical discussion of such themes as tourism and globalization, indigenous tourism and indigenous rights to a micro-level case study that illustrates the lived experience of the Ngarrindjeri Aboriginal community of South Australia. This article examines the Ngarrindjeri people's experience during the conflict over the Hindmarsh Island Bridge, their concerns about tourism planning, marketing, and operations, and their relationships with agencies such as the South Australian Tourism Commission and National Parks and Wildlife of South Australia. It reveals how the ideological framework behind contemporary tourism and globalization is hostile to the desires of such groups as the Ngarrindjeri. However, the Ngarrindjeri, through their work at Camp Coorong, can resist these forces and use other opportunities presented by globalization and tourism to achieve their own aims.
Key words: Globalization; Indigenous tourism; Indigenous rights; ATSI tourism
Address correspondence to Freya Higgins-Desbiolles, University of South Australia, School of International Business, South Australia, Australia. Tel: +61-8-8302-0878; Fax: +61-8-8302-0512; E-mail: Freya.HigginsDesbiolles@unisa.edu.au
Use and Abuse of Tourism: The Goan Experience
Natasha Brammer and John Beech
Coventry Business School
The state of Goa provides an unusual example of tourism development. While responding with a measure of fatalism to the invasion of hippy tourists in the 1960s, some of whom remain in Goa today, Goans are rather more divided in their responses to the influx of mass tourists, which began over a decade ago. The onset of tourism on a large scale has produced pressures on both society and the environment. Reactions to mass tourism have been varied, but include the more organized forms of stakeholder resistance that are common in India. Major issues that have emerged center on the community's reaction to disputes over the use of land and, in particular, the use and abuse of beaches. This article first focuses on the history of conflict between two groups of Goan stakeholders: the small-scale entrepreneurs who seek a living from tourism through the running of beach shacks, hawking, and rave party organization, and the large corporate interests who have seen tourism development in terms of beach-front hotels and casinos, who see the market as an unsophisticated extension of sunlust tourism by Europeans. The conflict between these two groups is then studied in the context of the responses of a third significant stakeholder group, the Goan authorities, both in the form of the state government and the Goan police. The role of protest movements is also considered. The issues of land use, planning, and community involvement in tourism development emerge from the analysis as significant in critiquing the way that tourism has evolved in recent years. In a broader view, the issue of conflicting views of Goan identity by Goans themselves becomes significant. The article concludes that the development of tourism in Goa has started down an inherently unsustainable route for reasons grounded in the broader context of changes in both global and Indian tourism. It is only very recently that planning by the authorities and producers of tourist products has begun to adopt a resource audit approach. The major concern for Goan tourism is whether these more recent responses are well founded and sufficiently timely.
Key words: Development; Emergent strategy; Goa; State; Intended strategy; Sustainability
Address correspondence to John Beech, Coventry Business School, Coventry, UK. Tel: 024-7688-8475; E-mail: J.Beech@coventry.ac.uk
Western Backpackers and the Global Experience: An Exploration of Young People's Interaction With Local Cultures
Manchester Metropolitan University
Increasingly, young people are choosing to take a "gap year" or time off work to go traveling. This article seeks to examine the ways in which "traveling the world" has now become a recognizable facet of Western youth culture. The research proceeds from the notion that the stories, narratives, and myths that surround backpacking culture can tell us much about how young (particularly Western backpacking) consumers are currently engaging with "global" and "Other" cultures, and may offer more general insights into how narratives of globality are being constructed and modified in Western societies. Drawing upon semistructured interviews with Western backpackers, the article tentatively addresses how far and in what ways young travelers actually engage and "construct" the cultures of the places they are visiting and how far they integrate themselves with other cultures. This will provide some insight into the nature and quality of traveler-host experiences. Secondly, the research investigates the travelers' encounters with local cultures to help determine the ways in which these experiences might mesh with the broader development of a global backpacking culture. Preliminary findings seem to confirm the difficulties of the so-called host-guest relationship, which was balanced by the sense of accomplishment young travelers felt. The main difficulty arising was the persistent nature of "authenticity," which many academics see as an intellectual cul-de-sac, yet was raised by the respondents repeatedly as a powerful motivating force.
Key words: Backpackers; Culture; "Gap year"; Interaction; Authenticity
Address correspondence to Lucy Huxley, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK. Tel: 44-0-161-247-2000; Fax: 44-0-161-247-6390; E-mail: L.Huxley@mmu.ac.uk
Ecomuseums and the Democratization of Cultural Tourism
University of Newcastle
Ecomuseum philosophy and practice have been adopted worldwide for a variety of different purposes, including the conservation of natural and cultural heritage, to enable tourism and economic regeneration in rural areas, and to foster a sense of local pride by representing and promoting cultural identity. Ecomuseum philosophy and theory suggests that this postmodern museological phenomenon should ensure the sustainable use of cultural and natural resources, and sustain the communities that are responsible for them. Some communities appear to benefit from ecomuseological interventions by simply being more aware of their place, their past, and local achievements, but for most of them the rewards come from establishing strong links between ecomuseums and regeneration agendas through enhanced tourist numbers. Most ecomuseums encourage the exploration of places and their local culture, and so have strong links to ecotourism and cultural tourism. However, what makes ecomuseums special is that the selection of cultural and natural features that are promoted as tourist sites is decided by local communities, and not imposed by outside authority. Consequently, ecomuseums demonstrate facets of cultural heritage that are important to local people. It is therefore important to redefine the nature of cultural tourism when contemplating ecomuseum approaches--it is not high culture, but the material culture and intangible heritage that signify the special nature of places, cultural touchstones defined and selected by local people. This democratic vision for cultural tourism that is central to ecomuseum philosophy is critically examined here. An overview of ecomuseum development is given to provide context for a discussion of links between ecomuseums, sustainability, cultural tourism, and democracy. Selected ecomuseums from France, Canada, and Japan are described and an assessment of their democratic processes made. It is evident that the ill-defined or "plastic" nature of ecomuseum philosophy and practice can be viewed as both a strength and a weakness. Its flexibility means that it can be molded to suit most situations, with the result that the processes and outcomes may or may not directly involve local people. The ecomuseum philosophy, as originally proposed, had a democratic vision, but it is clear that these ideals can only be achieved if the local community is identified as the major stakeholder.
Key words: Ecomuseums; Ecotourism; Cultural tourism; Communities; Democracy
Address correspondence to Peter Davis, School of Arts and Cultures, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Tel: 0191-222-5632; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A Discursive Analysis of Cultural Resistance: Indigenous Constructions Of Blackfoot
Siegrid Deutschlander and Leslie J. Miller
University of Calgary
Tourism is undervalued as a domain that may support marginal groups in their political struggle for equality in mainstream society. Using discourse analysis, this article examines counterhegemonic claims regarding the buffalo-hunting Plains Indian Culture Complex of the First Nations of Treaty 7, Southern Alberta, Canada. Ethnographic fieldwork and interviews were conducted at the various tourist sites in this area where the interpreters and displays strategically contest dominant perceptions of indigenous cultures as inferior and primitive. In particular, the claim of technological competence asserts the superiority of the Blackfoot culture of the North American Plains for various practices including tipi construction, powwow dancing, and buffalo hunting. We argue that this claim challenges the dominant view regarding the technological inferiority of indigenous cultures, which has been perpetuated in the colonial binary of Western/non-Western societies. This research is grounded in the Cultural Studies approach, which explores the political potential in the production of cultural performances.
Key words: Indigenous cultures; Political equality; Blackfoot culture; Ethnographic research; Self-representation
Address correspondence to Siegrid Deutschlander,
Faculty Social Sciences, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Tel: 403-220-6501;
Fax: 403-282-9298; E-mail: email@example.com