ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp. 7-18
1098-304X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The UK Travel Industry and Ethnic Minorities: Social Inclusion and Cultural Awareness

Mary Klemm

University of Bradford

This article examines the issues of race and social inclusion in the British tourism industry. The UK, along with other countries of Western Europe, has substantial populations of non-white ethnic groups. Are these new citizens in the market for holidays and what is the attitude of the tourism industry to them as potential customers and employees? This study examines the meaning and limitations of multiculturalism and the extent to which the travel and tourism industry in a multicultural society such as Britain is socially inclusive. Using evidence from a regional survey of consumers of South Asian origin in Britain, focus group discussions, and tour operator interviews, we conclude that the travel industry in the UK, especially in the Yorkshire region, demonstrated a degree of racial segregation. Many UK travel companies had outdated stereotypical images of ethnic minorities as only wishing to visit their ethnic homeland. A lack of market intelligence and cultural awareness was causing the UK travel industry to ignore a potential growth market, especially that of young affluent professionals from ethnic minorities. An audit of tourism training revealed few young people from ethnic minorities training to work in the travel sector, resulting from poor perceptions of travel as a career among south Asian communities. The study also examined the problems experienced by Asian travel businesses in developing into professionally qualified and bonded travel agencies.

Key words: Travel; Multiculturalism; Ethnic minorities

Address correspondence to Mary Klemm, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. Tel: 44-0-1274-23-4360; E-mail: m.s.klemm@bradford.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp. 19-35
1098-304X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Social Exclusion and Crime in English Seaside Resorts: Implications for Resort Restructuring

Sheela Agarwal and Paul Brunt

University of Plymouth

Although it has been documented in the academic and policy literature that some English seaside resorts are experiencing social exclusion, there is a dearth of understanding of its occurrence, nature, and extent. This lacuna is addressed through an examination of two Southwest English seaside resorts: Ilfracombe and Torquay. Drawing on a database made up of separate "domains" of deprivation and on selected crime statistics, this article assesses the occurrence, nature, and extent of characteristics associated with social exclusion within these resorts. Further, the nature of the tourist area and whether this has an impact on crime rates and patterns is also assessed. The study reveals a range of linked socioeconomic problems and crime being experienced, that when taken together relate broadly to social exclusion, and it highlights the extent of these problems. In addition, it demonstrates that their nature and extent is reasonably similar across both resorts and suggests some important theoretical and practical implications for resort restructuring. This study thus makes a theoretical contribution to the fields of social exclusion and resort restructuring, with practical value. By highlighting the occurrence, nature, and extent of social exclusion and crime in the context of postmature destinations, it makes a theoretical contribution to the understanding of the internal dynamics of resort change. In addition, some practical insights into resort restructuring are provided, particularly in relation to its need to be less tourism focused. A future research agenda is suggested that may inform the design of more appropriate approaches to seaside resort restructuring.

Key words: Social exclusion; Crime; Seaside resort; Restructuring; England

Address correspondence to Sheela Agarwal, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK. Tel: 44-0-1752-238421; E-mail: sagarwal@plymouth.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp. 37-49
1098-304X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

There's a Nasty Smell in the Kitchen! Gender and Power in ihe Tourism Workplace in Wales

Alan White,1 Eleri Jones,1 and Diana James2

1University of Wales Institute
2Tourism Training Forum for Wales

The tourism industry accounts for over 10% of employment in Wales and is a significant employer of women. Perceptions of equal opportunities (EO) by core staff (i.e., nonseasonal, full-time, and regarded by the employer as permanent staff in "proper" nonseasonal jobs) are important in determining attitudes towards employment in tourism with implications for social inclusion. This article explores power relationships in tourism to identify reasons for continuing gender segregation and low pay among women. The study focuses on core jobs in hotels and visitor attractions in Northwest and Southeast Wales to avoid bias associated with seasonal and part-time work. Rural Northwest Wales focuses on traditional family holiday markets; urban Southeast Wales focuses on business, incentive, and increasingly event tourism. Hotels are key to the Welsh tourism product; visitor attractions may be public or private sector and enable comparison of the private and public sectors. The study draws on empirical research through a survey supplemented with semistructured interviews to consider the extent to which power has shaped the implementation of EO legislation in Welsh tourism businesses and explores through staff perceptions of organizational practices, promotion, and job stereotyping/gender prejudice to examine attitudes to EO and how it is approached by business and staff. The 1975 Sex Discrimination Act and its legal framework provide an overall context for the study. Funded by the European Social Fund and commissioned by the Tourism Training Forum for Wales, the study provides a rich contemporary picture of organizational culture relating to gender equality, social inclusion, and power as manifested in the tourism workplace in Wales and its impacts on, and implications for, men and women. The article concludes that significant inequalities still exist in the tourism workplace and that bottom-up power mechanisms can override legislative top-down power mechanisms so that women are quiescent and feeling powerless to act.

Key words: Tourism workplace; Gender bias; Employment and social inclusion; Equality of opportunity; Power in the workplace

Address correspondence to Alan White, University of Wales, Institute, Cardiff, Wales. Tel: 44-2920-416-316;  Fax: 44-2920-416-930; E-mail: awhite@uwic.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp. 51-62
1098-304X/05 $20.00 + .00
Copyright © 2005 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Paradox of Gay Men as Tourists: Privileged or Penalized?

Howard Hughes

Manchester Metropolitan University

The belief that gay men are intensive holidaymakers is examined within the context of citizenship and inclusion in society. It is argued that the idea of gays as being economically privileged and as intensive tourists is based on a restricted database. In addition, the tourism patterns of gay men are examined and it is concluded that there are a number of issues that inhibit full participation in this leisure sphere. It is argued that the perpetuation of views of intensive and frequent holidaymaking has had undesirable consequences, including perceptions of gays as "privileged" but also distraction of gays from the pursuit of "equality" in other spheres and the attainment of full citizenship.

Key words: Holidays; Citizenship; Gay men; Inclusion

Address correspondence to Howard Hughes, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK. Tel: 44-0-161-247-2739; Fax 44-0-161-247-6334; E-mail: h.Hughes@mmu.ac.uk