|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 2
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp. 71-84
1098-304X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Cultural Commodification and Tourism: A Very Special Relationship
University of Glasgow
This article concentrates on culture as a commodity: how culture is used to sell a particular destination, and elements of a culture that are sold to visitors and consumed. It draws on anthropological conceptions of culture and compares them to the way destinations have focused on particular aspects of their own cultures and thereby defined the concept. By comparing examples where intensive fieldwork or study has been undertaken, conclusions are drawn relating the types of tourism experienced by a destination to the local use of culture as an asset. It is argued that there is an underutilization of culture by some destinations, and that policymakers and others are missing aspects of culture that could give advantage to certain regions and their local population. Not only does this correspond to their understanding of the concept of culture, but also to their expectations of market demand. The case studies illustrating the points above are based in the following regions: The Canary Islands, The Dominican Republic, and Scotland. The examples draw attention to the process whereby elements of indigenous cultures may become commercially utilized, as well as the relevance of the social organization of tourism to choices and decisions involving commodities and the consumer in specific destinations. These findings suggest a way of understanding the processes that lead to globalized cultural experiences and at the same time ignore the rich and complex diversity of cultures.
Key words: Culture; Commodification; Policy-makers; Destination
Address correspondence to Donald Macleod, University of Glasgow, Scotland. Tel: 01-387-70-2010; Fax: 01-387-70-2001; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Identity Tourism: A Medium for Native American Stories
Susan R. Pitchford
University of Washington
This article considers identity tourism, which comprises both ethnic and heritage tourism, as a medium for the projection of ethnic and nationalist messages. Marginalized peoples acquire "spoiled" or stigmatized identities through stories that use their alleged inferiority to "explain" their position. They may counter the negative group images created through these stories by fashioning new stories of their history and culture, in an effort to set the record straight. Museums and other attractions that focus on a group's history and culture serve as a medium, in that they provide opportunities to tell a revised story and build a revalued collective identity. The analysis draws from examples of Native American heritage attractions in Washington, Oregon and British Columbia to examine the specific properties of the medium of identity tourism, and how these properties shape the messages that can be conveyed through it.
Key words: Identity tourism; Ethnic tourism; Heritage tourism; Collective identity; Ethnic movements; Nationalist movements
Address correspondence to Susan R. Pitchford, Department of Sociology, Box 353340, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Tel: 1-206-685-4223; Fax: 1-206-616-4071; Email: email@example.com.
Joint Ventures and Indigenous Tourism Enterprises
Collaborative ventures between indigenous Australians and mainstream organizations are increasingly promoted as solution to the problems affecting Aboriginal tourism enterprises. Drawing on case studies from Cape York and Gagudju National Park, this article analyzes the histories of two large-scale indigenous tourism enterprises and their divergent responses to insolvency. Current directions in indigenous tourism development policy are evaluated, including the role of Indigenous Business Australia and its relevance to the development of sustainable tourism enterprises. The article argues that the efficacy of collaborative arrangements in large-scale enterprises is limited by the presence of contrasting cultural values, social practices, and economic circumstances, and recommends a greater emphasis on cross-cultural understanding and comanagement in the development and management of indigenous tourism enterprises. Acknowledging that small-scale ecotourism and cultural tourism ventures may be more appropriate, the article suggests even these may not provide the expected benefits and calls for greater caution in indigenous tourism development strategies.
Key words: Australian indigenous tourism; Joint ventures; Government policy; Gagudju; Cape York
*Sadly, Ray Simonsen passed away prior to publication of this article. Correspondence may be directed to his daughter, Pia Simonsen, at firstname.lastname@example.org
Ethical, Career, Organizational, and Service Values as Predictors of Hospitality Traineeship Interest
Glenn F. Ross
James Cook University
The personal values held by individuals can have a powerful influence over behavior in the workplace. Such values exert a critical effect not only upon the vocational success of employees, but also upon the financial achievements of the enterprise within which they work. Human values within the workplace may be understood as comprising four domains: personal ethics, career values, organizational values, and service quality values. Each type of value, moreover, has been found to be a potent determinant of workplace problem solving. This study has sought to examine predictive associations between a range of ethical, career, organizational, and service quality values, and responses to future employment interest in the form of a hospitality industry traineeship. Findings suggest that hospitality industry traineeship employment was regarded as highly desirable; ethical values were among the most highly rated among the value precept types. Service quality values were found to be predictive of many of the traineeship employment responses, whereas ethical values predicted the most committed hospitality industry traineeship employment response. Ethical values also emerged as being associated with the employment acquisition response most likely to involve face-to-face interaction within the actual work context. Neither career nor organizational values emerged as salient in the prediction of hospitality industry traineeship interest. These results hold implications for both employers and for educational institutions. While findings in regard to personal ethics and service quality values might be looked upon as positive dispositions within prospective employees, a need was revealed for tourism/hospitality human resource managers to promote an awareness of the importance of dispositions that would lead to career enhancement and constructive organizational citizenship values. Educational providers might also participate in this process, facilitating within each individual the development of these work values, through an educational style that encourages a reflective, analytical, and problem-solving perspective.
Key words: Predictive associations; Personal ethics; Career values; Organizational values; Service quality values; Traineeship interest
Address correspondence to Glenn Ross, James Cook University, Cairns, Australia. Tel: 61-7-4042-1168 Fax: 61-7-4042-1080; E-mail: email@example.com
Some Economics of Staging Festivals: The Case of Opera Festivals
University of Limerick
In many instances festivals and events are designed to augment the tourist product of a destination. "Hallmark" events are stand-alone products that move from one destination another because it is what is happening at the time that is important rather than their location. Some events become branded by their locations, such as, for example, the subject of this article, the Savonlinna Opera Festival, which is an annual event that takes place every July in the lake regions of Eastern Finland. The main purpose is to examine how the Festival goes about the economics of sustaining itself financially and achieving its objectives. In terms of its operating characteristics, the Savonlinna Festival is similar to other well-known opera festivals by making use of performers from regular houses during their off season (the summer months) and including a guest company. As a charitable organization, its underlying philosophy is one of service to the public at large through offering a quality experience that is comparable to other world-class venues. This is constrained by the requirement to break even "one year with another" from a variety of revenue sources, of which some 60% comes from ticket sales. The article goes on to develop a revenue management model of the Festival in order to improve decision making, by enabling assessment to be made of the "downside" risk of making a loss. The model has general applicability and can be used to highlight the validity of different pricing strategies.
Key words: Events; Opera festival; Economics
Address correspondence to Address correspondence to: Stephen Wanhill, Haslemere, Surrey. Tel: 44-1-428-642-260; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org