|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 6, pp.161-169
1098-304X/06 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2006 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Influence of Mass Media's Coverage of Adventure Tourism on Youth Perceptions of Risk
Rochelle King and Sue Beeton
La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
Perception is a complex construct that is influenced by a number of factors, including the mass media, which can produce a distorted view of reality. This is of significance to adventure tourism businesses because a person's perceptions of adventure, risk, and safety are what determine whether they will participate. Research was undertaken to examine how the mass media's coverage of adventure tourism accidents influences youth perceptions of risk. It was found that the news media increases the perceived risk associated with an activity, but instead of discouraging youth participation it actually encourages future participation intentions.
Key words: Mass media; Adventure tourism; Risk perception; Youth travelers
Address correspondence to Sue Beeton, La Trobe University, Kingsbury Drive, Bundoora 3086, Melbourne, Australia. Tel: 61-3-9479-3500; Fax: 61-3-9479-1010; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Collaborative Methods in Researching City Branding: Studies From Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Sydney
John Gammack1 and Stephanie Hemelryk Donald2
1Griffith University, Meadowbrook, Australia
2University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
This article illustrates and reflects upon the nature of inquiry appropriate to the question of place branding, in particular, world city branding. Disciplinary research traditions including cultural studies, film studies, marketing, and psychology offer conceptual categories and valuable modes of access to this area, and our concern here is to examine whether these compete or converge in forming understanding. Noting both the benefits and challenges of working across quite different paradigms of thought, vocabulary, and expected outcome, we discuss the possibilities of mutual shaping or influence in interdisciplinary inquiry. Acknowledging issues in establishing a working and meaningful discursive field across disciplinary boundaries, interests, and methodological habits, we illustrate, using a range of qualitative, projective, and quantitative methods, the collection, evaluation, and analysis of primary and secondary data in a current project. This looks at the major Pacific Rim cities of Sydney, Hong Kong, and Shanghai, and particular issues of their brand identity. While all three cities compete on the world stage for events, tourists, and investment, they also are at the center of distinct film traditions, and have been rendered variously in popular imagination. We examine the representation of the city in the mind of some of its publics, and the relation of this to the requirements of branding. We find common ground in critical categories including narrative, everyday life, and color, and view these as a plexus from which various discipline-focused inquiries may proceed. We also discuss how central notions of identity, character, and representation are conceptualized differently within disciplines, and note implications for place-branding theory. We conclude that greater cross-disciplinarity is required for appropriate understanding, and that both tourism marketing and cultural (especially film) studies can learn from each other.
Key words: City branding; Color; Narrative; Film studies; Interdisciplinary research
Address correspondence to John Gammack, Department of Management, Griffith University Logan Campus, University Drive, Meadowbrook, Queensland 4131, Australia. Tel: 61-7-373-57342; Fax: 61-7-373-53887; E-mail: email@example.com
From Erewhon to Edoras: Tourism and Myths in New Zealand
Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand
This article presents the case study of the Upper Rangitata Valley, Canterbury, where literary and film tourists meet in the high country of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Both the literary myth of "Erewhon" and the film myth of "Edoras" are being used to promote the region and present important case studies for mythical tourism in New Zealand. Samuel Butler published his tale of the Utopian society Erewhon in 1872 after having lived in New Zealand for 5 years. The book became a best-seller and established a new myth that endures until today. Within weeks of publication a specific tourism to the high country of Canterbury begun that brought tourists to locations described by Butler. This early literary tourism was facilitated by the fact that Butler interwove existing geographical and botanical features with purely mythical ideas of a Utopian society hidden in the mountains. And while the tourists sought the farmed high country scenery described in the book, they also visited the property and the homestead of the author. A hundred and thirty years later this early literary tourism faces a challenge by an unlikely rival. The set of "Edoras" of the Lord of the Rings movies used another location in the Upper Rangitata Valley. And even though the set was finally disassembled, the location is now attracting film tourists. What are the characteristics of these special-interest tourism forms? Both support the claim that tourists are seekers of myths and challenge the notion that tourists seek authenticity in their experience. It is interesting to note that both myths incorporated already existing images and used existing physical features to heighten the reality aspects of their telling. And both forms of tourism bring characteristic challenges for the tourism industry and its stakeholders.
Key words: Literary tourism; Film tourism; Myth making; Erewhon; Lord of the Rings
Address correspondence to Anne Buchmann, Lincoln University, P. O. Box 94, Canterbury 8150, New Zealand. Fax: 64-3-325 3857; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The Development of the "Secrets" Image of South Australia
Jane James1 and Denise Von Wald2
1Flinders University, Adeliade, South Australia
2South Australian Tourism Commission
This article investigates the impact of a specific marketing campaign, aimed at raising awareness of both the image and attractions of South Australia, which would position South Australia as a holiday destination in its target markets. Most tourism (80%) in South Australia is from the domestic market, but extensive research showed the key markets of Sydney and Melbourne didn't know what South Australia had to offer - and this was the major factor preventing growth in domestic tourism. Potential holidaymakers had few negative perceptions about the State; rather, they were inhibited by a lack of information. In 1998, the South Australian Tourism Commission developed the "Best Kept Secrets" marketing strategy, which promoted authentic experiences and positioned South Australia as a compelling holiday destination. It involved extensive use of the media - cinema, magazine and print advertising - and the nation's largest direct mail tourism campaign, which created a "sense of place" that derived much of its impact from the use of iconic vision and images of South Australia. The camera was all important in portraying that "secret" image.
Key words: Secrets; Marketing; Media; Cinema; Photography; South Australia
Address correspondence to Jane James, Department of Cultural Tourism, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia. Tel: 61-8-8201-2595; Fax: 61-8-8201-3845; E-mail: email@example.com
Humorous Sites: An Exploration of Tourism at Comedic TV and Film Locations
La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia
The article discusses humor and the tourist experience, with a particular focus on formal humorous experiences when tourists visit comedy festivals or comedic TV and film locations. The article describes the three phases of the tourist experience in relation to humor (i.e., before travel, during travel, and after travel). The article reflects on the importance of understanding the role of humor in the tourist experience, particularly in relation to the management of humorous sites such as comedic TV and film locations.
Key words: Humor; Film locations; Sitcoms; Comedy festivals; Motivation; Satisfaction
Address correspondence to Elspeth Frew, School of Sport, Tourism and Hospitality Management, La Trobe University, Bundoora 3086, Australia. Tel: 61-3-9479-2333; Fax: 61-3-9479-1010; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Promoting Tourism Through Popular Music
University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia
The media in its many forms has been instrumental in popularizing tourist venues and can have the impact of introducing tourism to these places or boosting tourism numbers. An area that has not been explored in enough detail yet is the marketing of tourist attractions/venues in music, which would be heard by substantial listeners globally. This would mean using techniques called "product placement" or "embedding," which advertisers have implemented for almost 40 years in promoting tangible goods in movies, television shows, and, more recently, in pop songs. A suggestion is that such techniques could be used to promote tourist attractions/venues. This is somewhat different from the usual product placement because it may involve promotion of an image. However, it does mean that by choice of the type of song that specific age groups could be targeted. A notable benefit may be that apart from the destination being featured in the lyrics, it may also be featured in an accompanying video clip.
Key words: Tourism; Product placement; Media; Travel; Song
Address correspondence to Alick Kay, University of South Australia, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, South Australia. Tel: 61-8-302-0609; Fax: 61-8-302-0512; E-mail: email@example.com