|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 7, NUMBER 2
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 7, pp. 85-97
1098-304X/07 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2007 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Analyzing Printed Media Travelogues: Means and Purposes With Reference to Framing Destination Image
Steve Pan and Chris Ryan
University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand
Travelogues have long been recognized as a useful resource for travel literature, destination image creation and promotion, geography learning, and tourism education. However, the selection criteria and analytical framework of travelogues are underresearched. Image creation is itself a product of framing (i.e., selection and emphasis of certain attributes while omitting others). Therefore, it is important for stakeholders to understand this framing process in order to gain an in-depth and objective appreciation of destination image formation. As a conceptual framework, this article proposes criteria for analyzing travelogues published in newspapers and magazines that are supposed to create favorable destination imagery while simultaneously providing readers with information about destination attributes through vicarious travel. It also presents a framework to aid extraction of objective and balanced information from travelogues that may be of use to destination marketing organizations. Excerpts from 200 travel stories are used to explain the analytical results.
Key words: Travelogue; Framing; Destination image; Cross-culture understanding; New Zealand
Address correspondence to Steve Pan, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management, University of Waikato, Pirvate Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand. Tel: 64-7-838-4259; E-mail: email@example.com
Rethinking Globalization Theory in Tourism
Ana Maria Munar
CEUS Business School, Nykøbing Falster, Denmark
Globalization has become the most popular term in social sciences since the beginning of the 21st century. The phenomenon is suffering under the paradox of inclusiveness and it is becoming clouded and useless. An effort to structure and focus on the meaning of the term is a necessity. The former debate between globalists and antiglobalists has shown to be a misleading one, and it is being surpassed by the study of three theoretical tendencies and approaches to the phenomenon: the hyperglobalist, the traditionalist, and the transformationalist. All three approaches can be seen in the understanding of tourism today. The first two have a methodological problem as they are rooted in the methodologies of nationalism as well as on a preconception of the global world. The transformationalist approach to globalization is to be applied as the theoretical frame of globalization and tourism, used in a dialogic and systemic way of understanding tourism development and tourists as today's global citizens.
Key words: Globalization theory; Tourism theory; Transformationalism; Global economy; Social and cultural identity; Nationalism; Citizenship
Address correspondence to Dr. Ana Munar, Assistant Professor, CEUS School of Business, Mailbox 173, 4800 Nykøbing F., Denmark. Tel: +45 27507833; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Determination of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Using Herzberg's Motivator and Hygiene Factor Theory: An Exploratory Study
Jennifer Kim Lian Chan1 and Tom Baum2
1School of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
This article explores underlying guest satisfaction dimensions in the ecolodge service consumption context, a pioneering investigation adopting Herzberg's Motivator and Hygiene Factor Theory. The article suggests that consumer satisfaction can be measured by proposing a paradigm that adopts a behavioral and experiential perspective as an alternative to the confirmation/disconfirmation paradigm, rather than the expectancy disconfirmation paradigm that is predominantly employed in measures of consumer satisfaction. It argues that guest satisfaction in the ecolodge context is the consumption of experiences involved in both behavioral and comparison components. Building on Herzberg, underlying satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions are linked to job satisfaction in a way that is a function of two types of condition, known as hygiene factors (dissatisfiers), leading to the condition of dissatisfaction (prevention), and motivators (satisfiers), leading to a condition of satisfaction.. These dimensions are determined from service quality attributes, the desired social-psychological benefits (motivation), and attitude. An exploratory qualitative inductive approach utilizes three different techniques to collect "authentic" data. Methodological triangulation, consisting of participation observation, was used to explore behavior and actions during riverboat cruises; in-depth interviews were employed to explore dimensions of satisfaction and dissatisfaction by identifying the key moments of positive and negative experiences; and the Profile Accumulation Technique survey, a novel research tool with an open-ended questionnaire, was adopted to assess service quality attributes. The informants were European English-speaking soft ecoguests who stayed at ecolodges in Sukau, Sabah, Malaysia. The results from the three data sources reveal that satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions in the ecolodge service experience context are derived from both tangible and intangibles elements. These dimensions result from different facets of interaction between their experiences and attitudinal consequences of the individual. They are satisfied and dissatisfied simultaneously by different unrelated dimensions. Satisfaction dimensions are derived from intangible elements: experience gained from nature attractions including wildlife viewing, the nature environment, the lodge environment; participation of ecoactivities (riverboat cruises and jungle walks) and service provision from experienced and knowledgeable local tour guides, all of which are related to the external ecolodge environment. Dissatisfaction dimensions come from more tangible elements: lodge maintenance (cleanliness, safety, discomfort, and minimum operational standards), the functionality and operation of riverboat cruises (boat engine causing environmental pollution), environmental pollution (noise, air, and waste pollution), and the bumpy road journey to the lodge. These dimensions are largely related to the internal environment of the ecolodge. This leads to conclusions that satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions are unrelated. These two different dimensions can be explained by using Herzberg's dual factor theory where satisfaction dimensions can be termed as "true satisfiers or motivator factors" while dissatisfaction dimensions can be termed as "dissatisfiers or hygiene factors." The finding seems to concur with the proposition made by Balmer and Baum that true satisfiers are related, primarily, to intangible elements, while dissatisfiers are related to tangible elements. The article explores satisfaction dimensions that consist of satisfiers and dissatisfiers and link well to Herzberg's theory. Thus, this study contributes to the theoretical and methodological advancement of the guest satisfaction literature, in terms of predicting and understanding the true satisfiers and hygiene/maintenance factors.
Key words: Satisfiers and dissatisfiers; Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory; Methodological triangulation; Ecolodge; Guest satisfaction
Address correspondence to Jennifer Chan, School of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag 2073, 88999, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Tel: +06088320-000, ext. 1624; Fax: +06088-320360; E-mail: email@example.com
Developing Tourism Products in the Primary Attraction Shadow
Thor Flognfeldt, Jr.
Lillehammer University College, Lillehammer, Norway
This article examines the activity and attraction usage patterns of en route traveling tourists in sparsely populated areas in Northern Europe. Several studies have documented that en route travelers are driving long distances close to every day, and that they spend little time on most stop sites. The choice of where to stop seems partly to be based on information of primary attractions and partly the stops are made by impulse. A common belief among both local developers and many consultants is that adding new attractions to a site will keep tourists staying in the area for a longer time, and hence spending more money. Consequently, there has been a rapid growth of new attractions like small museums, commercial information centers, and thematic attractions. Money for such investment has been available in abundance in Norway, and "positive" market analyses have been easy to obtain. After some time, however, many of these attractions fail or need additional financial support to survive. The developers then claim for more marketing money, often showing that other attractions in the region have higher visitor numbers, and that new investment is needed for survival. The aim of this article is to try to explain why some attractions fail to get a sufficient number of paying visitors, even after additional investment and "improved marketing." The study is based on models and data from both en route surveys and a sample of attractions built or expanded in the 1990s. The article will also discuss some alternative ways of examining markets and developing strategies to make attraction products more sustainable, based on structured information of tourist flows and studies of actual attractions behavior along routes.
Key words: Primary attractions; Sparsely populated areas; Usage patterns; En route travelers; Attraction failure
Address correspondence to Thor Flognfeldt, Jr., Faculty of Social
Sciences, The Tourism and Travel Courses, Lillehammer University College,
N-2626 Lillehammer, Norway. Tel: 47-6128841; E-mail: Thor.Flognfeldt@hil.no