ognizant Communication Corporation

TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACTS
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 59-69
1098-304X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Tourism as Social Contest: Opposing Local Evaluations of the Tourist Encounter

Keir Martin

Department of Social Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

This article provides an overview of the processes by which tourism becomes a setting for the clash of competing discourses over issues such as socioeconomic stratification, ethnicity and national identity, and democratic participation. It examines the notion that such discourses are produced through the recreation of binary oppositions such as local/outsider, traditional/modern, and authentic/commodified. These oppositions are not viewed as objective descriptions of tourist encounters, but their use in disputes among communities impacted by tourism is an ethnographic observation that deserves serious consideration. The oppositions occur in historical contexts that are constantly shifting. They are complex and are sometimes used in a paradoxical manner. Rather than seeking to explain away such contradictions, this article views them as central to the processes by which local evaluations of the tourist location are formed. In this sense, tourist sites are experienced and constituted locally through these oppositions. The fierce debates about such concepts in the tourism context are reflective of widely felt moral and social crises. These phenomena include internal socioeconomic differentiation, problematic relations with the state, traditional power structures, moral and religious frames of reference, gender, and notions of belonging. Ethnography shows that such oppositions are recreated rhetorically by actors who are involved in these contests in a contextually shifting manner. Oppositions between different moral evaluations of tourism-mediated relations are crucial illustrations of how contemporary neoliberalism is constituted at a face-to-face level in different parts of the world.

Key words: Opposition; Authenticity, Globalization; Commodification

Address correspondence to Keir Martin, Department of Social Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Arthus Lewis Building, Bridgeford Street, South Campus, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Tel: 44-161-275-3488; E-mail: keir.martin@manchester.ac.uk




Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 71-83
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Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Contesting Visions of Caribbean Landscapes

Carlo Cubero

School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

This article examines the social contests that arose out of a series of state-sponsored tourism development projects on the Caribbean island of Culebra. The article will be focusing on how Culebra's tourism debates shed light on the complex social definitions of the island's space and its delimitations. The island's discursive location--as part of the paracolonial state of Puerto Rico, with a significant population from the US and Europe, and a social memory that is linked to the Anglophone Caribbean--creates a complex social context with multiple imaginaries and understandings of what it means to live in Culebra. However, for all its complexity and mobility, the social actors who got involved in the development debates used their position to insularize and essentialize the island. In this sense, the development debate continued to reproduce, through its rhetoric, local versus foreigner binaries regardless of the fragmented nature of the island and the fragmented nature of the opposed parties. The central argument of this article revolves around two propositions. On the one hand, I argue that the multiplicities and fragmentations of the island of Culebra are visualized and that these visualizations were made manifest in the arguments and justifications people made in outlining their position on tourism development. Second, I will argue that the mobilities--represented by social networks that traverse through the island--and the insularities--created by the islander's political positions in relation to the development--do not represent mutually exclusive positions. Rather the article explores the nature of this paradox by bringing in ethnographic examples collected through a year of fieldwork, in order to see this contradiction as a positive tension from where people construct and politicize a sense of place.

Key words: Puerto Rico; Insularity; Development; Neoliberalism; Nationalism

Address correspondence to Carlo Cubero, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Arthur Lewis Building, Bridgeford Street, South Campus, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Tel: 0161-275-4470; E-mail: ccubero@yahoo.com




Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 85-96
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Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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"Muslimization," Mission, and Modernity in Morelos: The Problem of a Combined Hotel and Prayer Hall for the Muslims of Mexico

Mark Lindley-Highfield

Department of Anthropology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK

A recent visitor to Mexico, from Muslim Aid, commented on the necessity for religious projects to exhibit self-sufficiency. In such a climate, the need for entrepreneurial ingenuity is essential to the successful operation of any religious enterprise. Dar as Salam is the product of a pioneering Mexican project to bring a place of worship and conference center to the Mexican Muslim convert community. To provide itself with some revenue, it opened the doors of its residential accommodation to the public for visitors to the popular Mexican weekend retreat of Tequesquitengo in Morelos. With the opening of these doors coincided a critique of the relationship between the place's Mexican and Muslim identities. Tequesquitengo provides the Muslim converts of Mexico with a retreat from the ordinary pressures of Mexican life, which has been likened to the hijra, or exile, performed by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Yet, non-Muslim visitors who come to stay have brought with them the indulgences of their modern lifestyle, including the drinking of alcohol, "inappropriate" dress, and fornication. Some Muslim visitors to the mosque have therefore been critical of the haram, or forbidden, nature to some of the activities taking place there, yet the center remains dependent on such sources of revenue for its existence. In this article, I examine how, through a process I call "Muslimization," moral critiques of tourism practices at Dar as Salam are employed as a mode of situating the individual in relation to varying dynamics of power existing between competing elements within Mexico's Muslim community. Yet this contention is an inevitable product of the desire of external investors to minimize a venture's dependency on external resources in a context where the Muslim community is still developing.

Key words: Muslimization; Tourism; Religion; Identity; Islam

Address correspondence to Mark Lindley-Highfield, Department of Anthropology, University of Aberdeen, Edward Wright Building, Old Aberdeen, Scotland AB24 3QY, UK. Tel: 44-0-1224-273124; Fax: 44-0-1224-273442; E-mail: m.p.highfield@abdn.ac.uk




Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp.97-107
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Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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The Work of Tourism and the Fight for a New Economy: The Case of the Paupa New Guinea Mask Festival

Keir Martin

Department of Social Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, United Kingdom

The annual Papua New Guinea Mask, held in the town of Rabaul, is organized by the government in order to, "preserve and protect culture in PNG," yet it is also explicitly envisaged as a potential tourist attraction. There are often tensions between the two stated purposes of the event, with local critics arguing that the event damages rather than preserves custom. The participation of the tubuan, a masked dancing figure of the local Tolai people, provokes particular concern; tubuans mark the relationships between clans and the propriety of raising them when they "have no work to do" is questioned. This is not the only controversy surrounding the festival. Since a volcanic eruption in 1994 the provincial capital has been moved to the nearby town of Kokopo, provoking anger among those with commercial interests in Rabaul. They suspect corrupt financial motives lie behind attempts to move the Festival to Kokopo. These two seemingly unrelated controversies both express unease about the nature of economic relations in the postdisaster environment. The first expresses a consciousness of economic differentiation among grassroots Tolai, of which a feeling that elites are commercializing custom is a central part. The second expresses a sense among the previously economically powerful that the disaster has been used to reorganize the political economy to their disadvantage. The contest over the location and meaning of the Festival can be understood as a part of a wider struggle to renegotiate economic relations in the context of postdisaster reconstruction and of ongoing neoliberal globalization.

Keywords: Social stratification; Custom; Political economy; Papua New Guinea

Address correspondence to Keir Martin, Department of Social Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Arthus Lewis Building, Bridgeford Street, South Campus, Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Tel: 44-161-275-3488; E-mail: keir.martin@manchester.ac.uk




Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 109-121
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Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
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Black Skin, White Yacht: Race Opposition in Panapompom Tourist Encounters

Will Rollason

School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK

Panapompom people from an island community in southeastern Papua New Guinea have regular contact with tourists who visit the island in yachts. These visits are the occasion for political moves for the development of the community by the mobilization of a racial opposition between black local people and white yachters. In this article, I examine the implications of the use of oppositions of this type both for anthropological questions of "authenticity" and also local social relations and self-images. The result is a detachment of people from their "native places" and an account of how "authenticity" is deployed as a political discourse for the constitution of postcolonial Papua New Guinean subjects in local tourist encounters.

Key words: Papua New Guinea; Development; Race; Authenticity; Postcolonialism

Address correspondence to Will Rollason, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, Arthur Lewis Building, Bridgeford Street, South Campus Manchester M13 9PL, UK. Tel: 0161-275-4470; E-mail: will.rollason@yahoo.co.uk




Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 123-134
1098-304X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Negotiating Rubbish in Dhërmi/Drimades Of Southern Albania

Natasa Gregoric Bon

Institute Of Anthropological and Spatial Studies, Scientific Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenia

This article addresses the problem of rubbish in the coastal village of Dhërmi/Drimades in Southern Albania. On the one hand, people's dealings with rubbish are very much a reflection of historically determined political, economical, and social relationships in the village, region, and country at large; on the other hand, rubbish negotiation have become one of the vital subjects in the process of construction and reconstruction of these relationships and the social space generally. This article explores the ways in which rubbish produces order and classifies what and who is "out of place" and what and who is "of the place." The presented accounts illustrate people's never ending negotiations over who is responsible for dumping rubbish and who is responsible for it not being removed. When talking about these issues people delineate a multiplicity of contradictions and shift the responsibility from "state" to "locality" and from "locality" to "state," from communal to individual and from individual to communal, from foreigners to locals and from locals to foreigners. All these conceptualizations are quite complex and depend on the social and cultural background of the speaker. With the expansion of tourism and related growth in owners of tourist facilities, seasonal workers, emigrants, and tourists in recent years, questions about who or what is "out of place" and who or what is "of the place" become even more relevant. While the coastal place serves as the source for this kind of negotiations, the negotiations themselves also construct this coastal place, on which local people who claim to originate from Dhërmi/Drimades situate their belonging.

Key words: Southern Albania; Postcommunism; Rubbish; Locality and belonging

Address correspondence to Natasa Gregoric Bon, Institute of Anthropological and Spatial Studies, Scientific Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, PO Box 306, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. Tel: 386-0-1-4706-492; E-mail: ngregoric@zrc.sazu.si