|ognizant Communication Corporation|
TOURISM, CULTURE & COMMUNICATION
VOLUME 8, NUMBER 3
Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 8, pp. 135-145
1098-304X/08 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2008 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.
Representations of Islam in Official Tourism Promotion
Joan C. Henderson
Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
This article is concerned with the ways in which Islam is represented in the official tourism promotion of countries with mainly Muslim populations where non-Muslims constitute important tourist markets. Islam is one of the world's major religions, but it has a potentially difficult relationship with international tourism and has become a sensitive issue for the industry due to wider political developments. The cases of selected leading destinations are considered and their formal printed and online promotional materials are analyzed. Islam is shown to be acknowledged, but it occupies a relatively limited amount of space and marketers focus on visually appealing and noncontroversial manifestations of the religion. Implications of such an approach are discussed and it is concluded that some revisions may be advisable in the light of conditions in the contemporary world.
Key words: Destination promotion; Islam; Muslim countries as destinations; Religion and tourism
Address correspondence to Joan Henderson, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798. Tel: 65-6790-6116; E-mail: email@example.com
Creating a Sustainable Brand for Northern Ireland Through Film-Induced Tourism
Noëlle O'connor1 and Peter Bolan2
1School of Business and Humanities, Limerick Institute of Technology,
2Department of Hospitality and Tourism Management, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK
This article explores the integration of film-induced tourism and destination branding upon locations featuring in a film. Northern Ireland and the film The Chronicles of Narnia--the Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (2005) are the case study under investigation. The researchers' hypothesis is that a brand based on the image derived from a film may be a strong means of marketing the area and supporting tourism even when the film is shot elsewhere. This was initially tested through key informant interviews with the Northern Ireland Tourist Board (NITB) to assess the linkages between film-induced tourism and destination branding. The review of existing academic literature identified a gap in previous investigations, which indicated that there has been little focused research on this phenomenon, particularly in the Irish context. In response, the interviews undertaken were an initial attempt to fill this gap. The findings from these interviews and the issues that emerged from the literature review highlighted a number of implications for the future branding of such destinations. If such implications are adhered to, destinations such as Northern Ireland can strive to brand themselves more effectively in association with film, as seen with New Zealand and The Lord of the Rings (2001-2003) trilogy.
Key words: Branding; Film-induced tourism; Narnia; Northern Ireland
Address correspondence to Noëlle O'Connor, School of Business and Humanities, Limerick Institute of Technology, Moylish Park, Limerick, Ireland. Tel: 353-0-61-490166; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
To Protect and Attract: Firms Cooperating in Nature-Based Tourism Destinations
Ossi Pesämaa,1 Joseph Hair, Jr.,2 and Per Erik Eriksson3
1Centre for Innovation Systems Entrepreneurship and Growth, Jönköping
International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden
2Department of Marketing & Professional Sales, Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA
3Division of Business Administration and Management, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden
This article explores solutions to potential communication problems that arise from cooperation in nature-based tourism (NBT) destinations. The questions posed in this article are: "When is a local firm in an NBT destination likely to cooperate with other firms?" and "How can cooperation be facilitated among NBT firms?" The primary focus of our research, therefore, is how to facilitate cooperation in NBT destinations. To do so, we first review different risk elements by describing a simulated scenario in which two participants (NBT firms) confront a prisoner's dilemma with different options--cooperation and competition. The outcome of that scenario demonstrates that cooperation is only rational when the benefits of cooperation are greater than those for competition. Such situations do not occur in single games involving the prisoner's dilemma, but only in infinitely repeated games. Because cooperation may not be rational from a game theoretic perspective, policy makers and the firms involved should work actively to increase the benefits of cooperation. We conclude that cooperation is best achieved by having activities coordinated either by a strong, aggressive company or a strategic hierarchical network. Our logic is that coordinating activities from one point will increase the likelihood that partners have the same information and thus minimize conflicts.
Key words: Cooperation; Nature-based tourism destinations; Interfirm relationships; Prisoner's dilemma
Address correspondence to Ossi Pesämaa, Centre for Innovation Systems Entrepreneurship and Growth, Jönköping International Business School, PO Box 1026, SE-551 11, Jönköping, Sweden. Tel: 46-0-36-101933; E-mail: email@example.com
A Royal Tour in 1897: An Indicative Example of Tourism's Impacts in the Generating Regions of Whole Tourism Systems
Southern Cross University, Australia
Naresuan Unversity, Phitsanulok, Thailand
Lodtunduh Research Institute, Bali
King Chulalongkorn of Siam visited Europe in 1897. While the trip had political purposes, in several ways it reflected a model of Grand Tourism and, like virtually all tourism, had impacts on the economic and social environments of the places visited. In this case the more interesting, substantial, and long-lasting impacts occurred in Siam, after the King's return. All tourism has impacts on environments in places where tours end, the same places where they begin, in the generating regions of whole tourism systems. The research literature on tourism's impacts has focused almost entirely on destination regions, so the present study can draw attention to the need for more research on generating regions.
Key words: Chulalongkorn; Thailand; Grand tourism; Tourism's impacts; Core products; Tourist-generating regions
Address correspondence to Neil Leiper, PO Box 186, Ballina, NSW 2478, Australia. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
"To Be Japanese for a Day": The Influence of Colonial Nostalgia in Taiwanese Seniors' Travel Decision-Making Behavior
Ranjan Bandyopadhyay,1 Chung-Hsien Lin,2, and Jin-Ling Lin3
1Department of Hospitality, Recreation & Tourism Management, San
Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA
2Department of Land Management, Feng-Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
3Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN, USA
Tourism scholars have studied the phenomenon of senior travelers' decision-making behavior. However, few studies have paid attention to the role of colonial nostalgia in senior travelers' decision-making behavior. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore the importance of colonial nostalgia in senior travelers' decision-making behavior in hot springs tourism in Taiwan. The findings revealed that colonial nostalgia is indeed one of the major reasons for Taiwanese senior travelers to visit Japanese-style hot springs. Taiwanese senior travelers' fascination for Japanese-style hot springs suggested their nostalgia for the Japanese colonial period. Interestingly, the study partially implied that generally reported antipathy of Mainland Chinese towards Japan does not apply to Taiwanese, or the feeling is even opposite. The study highlighted the unique characteristics of Taiwanese holidaying in Japanese-style hot springs as cultural practices and as a total experience of the foreign culture without actually visiting the destination. Hence, future efforts to understand senior travelers' decision-making behavior should consider the importance of colonial nostalgia.
Key words: Colonial nostalgia; Senior travelers; Motivation; Taiwan
Address correspondence to Ranjan Bandyopadhyay, Department of Hospitality, Recreation & Tourism Management, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192-0211, USA. Tel: 408-924-3002; E-mail: email@example.com
Tourism and Globalization of Cultural Heritage in Africa: Mind the Difference?
Tourism Studies, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Cultural tourism is a growing component of the international tourism phenomenon. It involves movements of people motivated by culture such as study tours, performing arts, festivals, cultural events, visits to sites and monuments, and travel to pilgrimage sites. The cultural impact of tourism on many parts in Africa may be less obvious because these places are already economically, socially, and culturally diverse, and globally connected through well-established electronic and social networks. In the context of globalization, what place exists for an African identity and what is the importance of such identity within and outside Africa? Do ethnocultural identities become less relevant as we become members of the "global village" within the global economy? What is the role and place of the people of African descent? It is not easy for an African to talk about Africa without referring to the age-old issues of poverty, slavery, and illiteracy. But there is also a danger of drifting into apologetics and rationalizations about current events and blaming some historical development or some common experience. The relationship between culture, globalization, and tourism is important because tourism development can create confusion about cultural dissections. This article addresses such issues and their contribution to regional integration.
Key Words: Africa; Culture; Globalization; Heritage; Tourism
Address correspondence to Dr. Roselyne Okech, Assistant Professor,
Tourism Studies, Sir Wilfred Grenfell College, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Corner Brook, NL A2H 6P9, Canada. E-mail: Rnokech@yahoo.com