ognizant Communication Corporation



Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 5-15
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Polish Migrant Labor in the Hospitality Workforce: Implications for Recruitment and Retention

Hania Janta and Adele Ladkin

School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK

This article explores the implications for recruitment and retention in the hospitality industry as a result of the increasing involvement of Polish migrants in the workforce. The research draws on primary data collected using netnography, a modern version of ethnography, from a sample of Polish migrant workers. The merits and difficulties of using this technique are explored and the rationale for the use of netnography as an appropriate research method is outlined. A number of findings are discussed relating to job choice, methods of job seeking, English language issues, and status of the sector. Initial findings indicate it is common for Poles to find their first job in the UK in the hospitality sector due to low entry barriers, ease of access, the lack of required specific skills, high staff turnover, and demand for seasonal workers. There is also a common trend in perceiving the sector as a transient one. In light of these findings the implications for the recruitment and retention of migrant workers are considered.

Key words: Polish migrants; Hospitality; Netnography, Recruitment; Retention

Address correspondence to Adele Ladkin, School of Services Management, Bournemouth University, Talbot Campus, Fern Barrow, Poole, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK. Tel: 44 0 1202 965584; Fax: 44 0 1202 965228; E-mail: aladkin@bournemouth.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 17-28
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Hotel Employer's Perceptions of Employing Eastern European Workers: A Case Study of Cheshire, UK

Andy Lyon and Dana Sulcova

Department of Marketing, Tourism and Events Management, University of Chester, Chester, UK

This article examines and reveals hotel employer's experiences of employing Eastern European workers in Cheshire, UK. Cheshire has a vibrant and significant visitor economy, with its main tourist destination, Chester, receiving over 8 million visitors a year and has over 30% of its income generated from the tourism, retail, and hospitality sectors. There is almost full employment in many parts of the region and many employers struggle to fill vacant positions, particularly at the lower skill levels. Many visitor economy employers are now reliant on migrant labor from Eastern Europe. The objectives of this study are to examine the experiences of employers of Eastern European employees and to compare and contrast the contribution of Easter European employees and local employees using six key themes. This article analyzes the outcome of in-depth, one-to-one interviews with accommodation employers from Cheshire in northwest UK. The findings suggest that some employers can put forward a number of clear, positive reasons for employing Eastern European workers. These reasons are mainly driven by the migrant workers having certain abilities that British employees lack. On the other hand, however, some employers also suggest that Eastern European workers have certain limitations, which could have implications for the quality of service delivery.

Key words: Migrant workers; Quality; Employer perceptions

Address correspondence to Andy Lyon, Department of Marketing, Tourism and Events Management, University of Chester, Parkgate Road, Chester, UK, CH1 4BJ; Tel: 01244 511808; E-mail: a.lyon@chester.ac.uk

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 29-48
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Not So Little Italy? Tourist and Resident Perceptions of Authenticity in Leichhardt, Sydney

Paolo Mura and Brent Lovelock

Department of Tourism, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

This article reports upon an empirical study that compares and contrasts the perceptions of authenticity of visitors and residents within a migrant urban ethnic district-Leichhardt, or the Little Italy of Sydney, Australia. The research comprised a quantitative personally administered questionnaire, administered on site to domestic and international visitors and local residents. The rationale of this research was to identify what the critical components of "authenticity" are that make an urban ethnic district "authentic" for visitors and residents. In this respect, participants were asked to consider a number of elements including building and street architecture, sounds (language, music), cultural performances, food, service, smells, and retail offerings. The findings of this study show that international visitors perceive a higher level of authenticity in the case study area than domestic visitors, supporting previous research indicating that the place of origin affects visitors' perceptions of authenticity. The research also shows that residents perceived a lower level of authenticity across a range of experiences/products than international and domestic visitors. Authenticity involves a number of elements, such as food, architecture, or cultural performances. This research reveals that food, architecture, and music are the three elements most commonly associated with Italian culture in general. In this ethnic district, food is perceived to be the most authentic element by visitors, with other elements less representative of the "real" Italian culture in Leichhardt. The findings of this study raise several issues in terms of management and promotion of urban ethnic districts, given that the single elements may be perceived differently by different segments.

Key words: Authenticity; Leichhardt; Ethnic district; Tourist perceptions; Resident perceptions

Address correspondence to Brent Lovelock, Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Tel: 64 3 4798520; Fax: 64 3 479 9034; E-mail: blovelock@business.otago.ac.nz

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 49-64
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Immigrants' Perception of Ethnic Restaurants: The Case of Asian Immigrants' Perception of Chinese Restaurants in Switzerland

Michael Vieregge,1 Jing "Jackie" Lin,2 Rotios Drakopoulos,3 and Charles Bruggmann1

1University Centre "Cesar Ritz," Le Bouveret, Switzerland
2The Langham Hotel, Boston, MA, USA
3Park Hyatt, Chicago, IL, USA

Food plays an important part of the process of aculturation through which immigrant communities progress, both in terms of maintaining links to homeland culture and in allowing immigrants to share this culture with the host community. The role of ethnic restaurants in helping immigrant communities find acceptance and a place within the host community is increasingly well documented. Food and its service are moderated in order to permit widespread access by the host community in terms of taste and cultural traditions. What is less widely considered is how these moderations are perceived by those from the immigrant community itself. This article considers the context of Switzerland, with a high overall immigrant population and an increasing presence of ethnic Asian, particularly Chinese, restaurants. The article reports the perceptions of Asian consumers of their food and service experience in Chinese restaurants in Switzerland. The study reports mixed reactions to the experience of Chinese restaurant patronage, with greater satisfaction with the overall meal experience than with the specific quality and authenticity of the food.

Key words: Ethnic restaurants; Immigrants' perception; Authenticity; Switzerland

Address correspondence to Michael Vieregge, University Center "Cesar Ritz," Cesar Ritz Colleges, 1897 Le Bouveret, Switzerland. Tel: 41 0 244828282; Fax: 41 0 244818899; E-mail: Michael.vieregge@ritz.edu

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 65-77
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Embedded Identity: Pacific Islanders, Cultural Economies, and Migrant Tourism Product

Jenny Cave

University of Waikato Management School, Hamilton, New Zealand

Few researchers look behind engagement in the formal tourism industry to the conscious choices that some cultural communities make not to take part in tourism. An assumption made by migrant participants in this research is that community-initiated cultural tourism, successful as an enterprise strategy in homeland nations (where tourism is central to GDP), should transfer readily to a market economy model as a contributor to improved social and economic well-being. Is this the case? An in-depth study of the lived experience of five communities of migrant Pacific Island nations reveals flaws in that assumption. This article articulates the viewpoint of potential host communities. First it theorizes a model of interactions in cultural tourism from the literature. Next, it describes the cultural context and research protocols for 19 extended discussion groups; first with Pacific entrepreneurs and then their extended cultural communities. These explored the lived experience of supply of cultural products and factors that hinder or encourage engagement in formal businesses such as tourism. Findings highlight the importance of diasporan identity, demographic change, concepts of future rather than immediate earnings, and a mismatch between leadership aspirations and community capacity to engage in tourism in a Western market economy. Implications are drawn from the findings for the Pacific cultural communities and for tourism. This research contributes a new understanding of some conditions that discourage entry into the formal tourism industry and introduces the notion of migrant "cultural economies" (ceremonial, informal, and formal), which redistribute wealth and people, affecting future employees, markets, and supply.

Key words: Community-initiated tourism; Migrants; Pacific Islanders; Ceremonial and informal economies; Cultural product

Address correspondence to Jenny Cave, University of Waikota Management School, Provate Bag 3105 Hamilton 3240, New Zealand. Tel: 64 7856 2889; Fax: 64 7 838 4045; E-mail: cavej@mngt.waikato.ac.nz

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 79-92
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Ethnic Precincts as Ethnic Tourism Destinations in Urban Australia

Jock Collins and Kirrily Jordan

School of Finance and Economics, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Australia has received one of the relatively largest and most diverse intakes of immigrants of any of the Western nations, with more than half of the population of Australia's largest cities first- or second-generation immigrants. The tourism literature places great importance on the cultural industries and the growth of cultural tourism in countries like Australia. But the link between immigration, ethnic diversity, and tourism, which we call ethnic tourism, in Australia and elsewhere has received little attention by scholars. By ethnic tourism we mean not only the tourism by ethnic minorities to countries like Australia but also the way that nonminority tourists-in Australia, this means British, New Zealand, and North American tourists-are attracted to ethnic tourist sites such as ethnic precincts. The cosmopolitan character of Australia's largest cities, a result of the great ethnic diversity of Australia's immigration intake over the past 60 years, has lead to the development of ethnic tourism, a subset of cultural tourism. Ethnic tourism thus includes tourism to destinations that are labeled, marketed, and identified with the cultural diversity of a particular minority ethnic group. Ethnic precincts such as Chinatown, Little Italy, Thaitown, and Koreatown attract customers who are locals, national tourists, or international tourists to experience the "ethnic neighborhoods" of the city. These customers are often attracted by the presence of ethnic businesses-restaurants, shops, services-set up by ethnic entrepreneurs. Some tourists may be seeking an "authentic" ethnic experience in the precinct. This may involve the quality and style of food, the smells and sounds arising from restaurants, the presence of locals and "co-ethnic" customers and staff, and the de´cor and iconography of the streetscape, buildings, and landmarks. Ethnic communities and local governments may also hold ethnic festivals and events which attract both tourists and locals. Focusing on the links between immigration, ethnic diversity, and tourism, this article concentrates on the supply side of one site of the ethnic tourism industry in Australia: that of ethnic precincts in Australian cities. Drawing on recent fieldwork with tourists, entrepreneurs, ethnic community leaders, and local and state government officials in two metropolitan ethnic precincts (Sydney's Chinatown and Perth's Northbridge), this article explores some critical dimensions of the interface between immigration, ethnic diversity, and tourism. The positioning of ethnic precincts as tourism products includes contradictory and complex issues of authenticity, employment, the representation of ethnicity, consultation with migrant communities, negotiations with local government authorities, and marketing and promotion activities. The article concludes that while historical patterns of immigration and immigrant settlement have changed over time, ethnic precincts are important, though changing, sites of urban ethnic tourism in Australia and thus fertile sites to begin to understand the complex and changing links between immigration, ethnic diversity, and tourism in contemporary cosmopolitan cities.

Key words: Ethnic tourism; Ethnic precincts; Ethnic entrepreneurs; Tourism

Address correspondence to Jock Collins, School of Finance and Economics, University of Technology, Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway NSW 2007, Australia. Tel: 61 02 9514 7720; Fax: 61 02 9615 2476; E-mail: Jock.collins@uts.edu.ua

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 93-105
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

A Contested Ethnic Tourism Asset: The Case of Matonge in Brussels

Anya Diekmann and Geraldine Maulet

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Brussels, often referred to as the Capital of Europe, has a flourishing "African" quarter called Matonge (named after a quarter of Kinshasa, Congo) that is becoming an important tourist destination within Brussels. On the up since the 1960s, Matonge can boast African food stores, clothes boutiques, and hairstylists as well as African bars and restaurants. Yet the district is a multicultural one, with the sub-Saharan community being only one user group among many. For about a decade the area has attracted tourists and features in private guided tour programs and guide books as an ethnic tourism destination with an African flavor. Tourism authorities have ignored this development for a long time. However, due to the various changes in urban tourism demand, they have recently included Matonge in their tourism promotion initiatives by creating an itinerary in the quarter. This article looks at certain underlying issues that may either boost or hinder tourism development. Through an integrated approach based on in-depth interviews with stakeholders and surveys with shop owners and passers-by, it tackles decision- making processes and public policies related to the tourism development of the area. Furthermore, the article identifies the different user groups and analyzes the role of the community under scrutiny and their perception of the development.

Key words: Ethnic tourism; Multicultural quarter; Community; Users

Address correspondence to Anya Diekmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles, IGEAT, Avenue Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP 130/02 B-1050 Brussels. Tel: +32 2 6504310; Fax: +32 2 6504324; E-mail: adiekman@ulb.ac.be

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 107-114
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

Villages, Vineyards, and Chinese Dragons: Constructing the Heritage of Ethnic Diasporas

Warwick Frost, Keir Reeves,1 Jennifer Laing, and Fiona Wheeler

Monash University, Australia

This article examines three Australian case studies of heritage tourism based on ethnic diasporas. These are: the German village of Hahndorf, the cluster of Italian-themed vineyards in the King Valley, and the Golden Dragon Chinese Precinct in Bendigo. It is argued that while the heritage tourism experiences constructed at these places are firmly based on ethnic diasporas, the primary market for them is the general (or incidental) heritage visitor who often has no ethnic connection. Accordingly, these are highly mediated places representing ethnic culture as part of a shared heritage.

Key words: Heritage; Ethnicity; Diasporas; Villages; Vineyards; Cuisine; Cultural tourism

Address correspondence to Warwick Frost, Department of Management, Monash University, PO Box 1071, Narre Warren, Victoria 3805, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9904 7042; Fax: 61 3 9904 7130; E-mail: warwick.frost@buseco.monash.edu.au

Tourism, Culture & Communication, Vol. 9, pp. 115-123
1098-304X/09 $60.00 + .00
Copyright © 2009 Cognizant Comm. Corp.
Printed in the USA. All rights reserved.

The Popularity of Irish Theme Pubs in Contemporary Australia: A Legacy of Irish Migration

Barry O'Mahony

School of Hospitality Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, Australia

With increasing flows of economic, social, and cultural migration an understanding of the contribution of migrants to host societies is central to social stability. This study uses a series of qualitative research techniques to uncover a connection between the popularity of contemporary Irish theme pubs in Melbourne and early Irish migration to Australia. The history of Irish migrants within the hospitality industry in Melbourne and Victoria during the mid- to late 1800s is reported upon and the study concludes that the recent popularity of Irish theme pubs within the Australian community is supported by a cultural resonance based on familiar themes and deeply ingrained notions of Irishness and the Irish Australian colonial experience.

Key words: Migration; Irish; Irish theme pubs; Australia

Address correspondence to Barry O'Mahony, School of Hospitality Tourism and Marketing, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Vic 8001, Australia. Tel: 61 3 9919 4779; Fax: 61 3 9919 4931; E-mail: barry.omahony@vu.edu.au